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1882 — 1883. 




















Prefatory Note v 


Proceedings at the Meeting 1 

Report of the Council. Egbert C. Smyth 3 

Appendix to Report of the Council 28 

Report on the Library , 31 

Donors and Donations 40 

Report of the Treasurer 49 

Robert Boyle. Charles 0. Thompson 54 

Note upon the perforated Indian Humerus found at Concord, 

Mass. Henry W. Haynes 80 

Note by the Committee of Publication 82 

Notes on Mitla. Louis H. Ay me 82 


Proceedings at the Meeting 101 

Report of the Council. George F. Hoar 108 

Report on the Library 136 

Donors and Donations 146 

A Visit to Palos and Rabid a. Edward E. Hale 159 

Notes on the History of Witchcraft in Massachusetts. George 

H. Moore 162 

Appendix to Notes on the History of Witchcraft in Massa- 
chusetts. George II. Moore,' ' . . . 182 

The Olmecas and the Tultecas. Philipp J. J. Valentini . . . 193 
An Ancient Document of the House of Washington. Edward 

G. Porter 231 

Notes on Copper Implements from Mexico. Frederick W. Putnam.2&5 

viii. Contents. 


Proceedings at the Meeting 247 

Report of the Council. John D. Washburn 251 

Report on the Library 270 

Donors and Donations 288 

Report of the Treasurer 294 

Action of the Council on the Death of Isaac Davis. LL.D. . 299 
Gleanings from the Sources of the History of the Second 

Parish, Worcester, Massachusetts. Samuel 8. Green. . . . 301 
The Journey of Moncacht Ape. Andrew McFarland Davis . . .321 
Iron from the Ohio Mounds; A Review of the Statements and 

Misconceptions of two Writers of over sixty years ago. 

Frederick W. Putnam 349 

Notes upon Ancient Soap-stone Quarries, worked for the 

manufacture of Cooking Utensils. Henry W. Haynes . . . 364 
Index to Vol. II 367 


• The current number of the Proceedings of the American Antiquarian 
Society completes the second volume of the New Series, embracing 
the three meetings from April, 1882, to April, 1883, inclusive. The 
reports of the Council contain much valuable matter, in addition to the 
biographical notices of those members who have been taken away by 
death and to other information laid before the Society. The reports of 
the Treasurer and Librarian show the state of the funds and the gratify- 
ing increase in the usefulness of the library, both from its accessions 
and its increased availability. Among the communications furnished by 
members, are Rev. Mr. Hale's "Visit to Palos and llabida," Dr. Moore's 
" Notes on the History of Witchcraft in Massachusetts," Dr. Valentini's 
"The Olmecas and the Tultecas," Prof. Putnam's "Notes on Copper 
Implements from Mexico" and his article on "Iron from the Ohio 
Mounds," Prof. Thompson's "Robert Boyle," and "Notes on Mitla," by 
Louis II. Ayme. There are also interesting papers by Prof. Henry W. 
Haynes, Rev. Edward G. Porter, Andrew McF. Davis, Esq., and Samuel 
S. Green, Esq. 

The Index, which will be recognized as a valuable feature, is the work 
of the Librarian, Mr. Barton, and his Assistant, Mr. Reuben Colton. 

The supervision of this volume has been in charge of the Worcester 
members of the Committee on Publication. 



Page 3, 7th line from bottom, for E. D. Salisbury read E. E. Salis- 

Page 8, in note, for Eleazer read Eleazar. 

Page 9, 8th line from bottom, for Milos read Melos. 

Pages 15 and 10. For Ostian read Ostrian. 

Page 23, 6th line from bottom, for Valentine read Palatine; for Mas- 
somo read Massimo. 

Page 28, in key, for P. read Pr. 

Page 32, bottom line, for George A. Preble read George H. Preble. 

Page 58, line 17, Phalaris, not Phalari's. 

Page 00, line 7, for Kanalagh read Ranelayh. 

Page 65, line 4, Pocock, not Pocoeke. f 

Page (JO, lines 20, 35, Neal, not Neale. 

Page 08, 8th line from bottom and foot-note, Boyle's Works, not 
Birch's Life, VI. 

Page 09, 17th line from bottom, Gookin, not Gookins. 

Page 71, line 9, Moulin, not Monlin. 

Page 74, line 10, for Watts read Watt. 

Page 75, line 17, for keep read help ; for o read or. 

Page 80, line 13, for Gilnnin read Gillman, and same in line 1, page 81. 

Page 107, line 11, for Frederic read Frederick. 

Page 125, 4th line from bottom, for Fountains Abbey read Fountain 

Page 127, line 20, for Echevarria read Echeverria. 

Page 129, line 17, for Bignore read Biymore. 

Page 130, 8th line from bottom, for Keemlin's read Beemelin. 

Page 172, line 9, for Cruely read Cruelty. 

Vol. II. 

JSTrcw Series. 

Part 1. 



jjpKraifn ^ntiijfarau pwwty, 

ku^mifkn tar i a 



APRIL 26, 1882. 


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3 11 Main Street. 

18 82. 

1882.] Proceed lays at Semi- Annual Meeting. 



The President, Hon. Stephen Salisbury, LL.D., in the 


'Flic record of the lust meeting was read and approved. 

Rev. Egijert C. Smyth, D.D., read the report of the 
Council. * 

Edmund M. Barton, Esq., Assistant-Librarian, and 
Nathaniel Paine, Esq., Treasurer, read their semi-annual 

On motion of Charles Deane, LL.D., the reports 
were severally accepted and referred to the Committee of 

Hev, George E. Ellis, D.D., called the attention of 
the Society to the fact that the report of the Council 
omitted any reference to the use of the Catacombs as places 
of religious worship, and inquired whether this was an 
intent ioi^il omission for the reason that the writer of the 
report did not believe they had been so used, or an 
accidental one. 

Dr. Smyth, in reply to the query, gave some further 
explanation of his theory, which by vote of the Society, he 
was requested^ to embody in a note to the report. 

The following gentlemen, having been recommended by 
the Council, were chosen to membership in the Society, a 
separate ballot being had on each name : 

lion. Israel Washburn, Jr., LL.D., of Portland, Me. 
Gen. Horatio Rogers, of Providence, R. I. 


American Antiquarian Society, 


Rev. Stephen D. Peet, of Clinton, Wis. 
J. Fletcher Williams, Esq., of St. Paul, Minn. 
Prof. Henry Hitchcock, LL.D., of St. Louis, Mo. 
Bishop Wm. Stevens Perry, of Davenport, Iowa. 
Frederick W, Putnam, Esq., of Cambridge, Mass. 
Col. Solomon Lincoln, of Boston, Mass. 
Andrew McF. Davis, Esq., of San Francisco, Oil. 
Louis H. Ayme, Esq., of Merida, Yucatan. 
Prof. James Bryce, of Oxford, Eng, 
Commendatore Giovanni Battista de Rossi, of Koine, 

On motion of Stephen Salisbury, Jr., Esq., Charles 
A. Chase, A.M., was unanimously elected a member of 
the Committee of Publication. "* 

Prof. Charles O. Thompson, Ph.D., read a biographi- 
cal sketch of Robert Boyle, which on motion of lion. 
DwioiiT Foster, was referred to the Committee of Publi- 
cation, with the thanks of the Society. 

Prof. Henry W. Haynes read a brief memorandum in 
reference to the perforated humerus which was a subject of 
discussion at the October meeting, showing that it had 
been erroneously assumed that this was the distinctive 
peculiarity of the skeletons of American mound-builders. 
The Recording Secretary moved that the thanks of the 
Society be presented to Prof. Haynes for his critical com- 
ments on the subject, and that he be requested to furnish 
the same to the Committee of Publication, which motion 
was adopted. 

The meeting was then dissolved. 

1882.] Report of the Council 


In presenting its semi-annual Report, the Council gratefully 
recognizes that, with the completion of the year, this Society 
will have reached the good old age of three-score years 
and ten, and that its promise of continued strength and 
augmented usefulness never was brighter. 

The report of Mr. Nathaniel Paine, our Treasurer, will 
give a satisfactory exhibit of our funds. The Society will 
notice with peculiar interest that Mrs. Haven, in her sym- 
pathy with her husband's kindness to the association, has 
paid, earlier than was required, his legacy of one thousand 
dollars ; and has added her personal gifts of a tasteful Brus- 
sels carpet, and Mr. Haven's closed desk. 

The Assistant-Librarian, Mr. Edmund M. Barton, reports 
an active use of the Library, and sin unusual increase in the 
last six months. The receipts were, — of books, one thousand 
and forty-seven volumes ; of pamphlets, four thousand eight 
hundred and ninety-six ; of bound newspapers, twenty 
volumes ; of unbound newspapers, one hundred and twenty- 
two volumes. The gifts were from two hundred and sixteen 
sources, viz. : — from forty-eight members, from one hundred 
and seven friends, and from sixty-one Societies and Institu- 
tions. Valuable additions have been made to the Isaac 
Davis alcove of Spanish-American books. 

The Society will hear with especial pleasure that our 
associate, Professor E. D. Salisbury, of New Haven, has 
presented to it one of the few bronze copies of the beautiful 
gold medal presented last February by the Yale professors 
to Ex-President Woolsey, in commemoration of the fiftieth 
anniversary of his connection with the College. 

Professor Dwight, of New Haven, has characterised Presi- 
dent Woolsey's administration as carrying "the scholarly life 

4 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

of the College * * * to a tar higher development than ever 
before. * * * The love of learning for learning's sake, and the 
glory and beauty of its adornments to a cultivated mind 
became in a higher sense than ever the inspiring power of 
all within the circle of the institution. A noble example 
stood in full vision before all eyes, of a Christian scholar, 
hating all deception and pretence, holding up the standard 
of thorough truthfulness of feeling and purpose in every 
kind of intellectual and moral effort." By his published 
writings on International Law, Political Science, Commu- 
nism, Divorce ; by his presidency of one of the largest and 
most useful of our benevolent societies ; and by his active 
participation in the labors of the Revisers of King James's 
version of our New Testament, Dr. Woolsey has exerted 
a pure and powerful influence on ^lie discussion of the 
greatest themes, and in the development of the social and 
religious life of nations. The medal so appropriately pre- 
sented to him, "was struck," it is said, "in France, is 
massive gold, and over six inches in circumference, having 
a weight * * * of six ounces Troy. On the face it carries 
the inscription : f jSuo Preceptor i, Precep tores Collegii 
Yalensis, 1831-1881,' and on the obverse the head of Presi- 
dent Woolsey in profile, with his name in the border. A 
number of bronze copies were struck, whose value will be 
enhanced by the accident which befel the die after the one 
hundredth was struck." 1 

On Friday, March 31 , a party of Zuni Indians, accompanied 
by the Rev. Dr. E. F. Hale, and Mr. Frank II. dishing, of 
the ethnological department of the Smithsonian Institution, 
visited Worcester chietly for the purpose of seeing the pre- 
historic relics from Central America gathered in the hall of 
this Society, " there being a hope that they might find among 
them something analogous to their own legendary history." 
A very interesting account of this visit, and of their reeep- 

The Independent, Feb. 2:5, 1882. 

1882.] Report of the Council. 5 

tion at the Hull by the President and other members of 
the Society, as well as of their sojourn in Worcester, was 
published in the Evening Gazette of that city, for March 
31 and April 1. This Society has already printed a 
learned Essay from Prof. Henry W. llaynes, 2 who favors 
the claim of the Zufii pueblos to he regarded as the true site 
of " The Seven Cities of Cibola ;" and there is reason to hope 
that through Mr. Cushing facts respecting the ancient history 
of this people, and customs of great interest in themselves 
and in their connections with other researches, will be made 

It is our painful duty to record the removal from us 
by death during the past six months of four of our associates. 
On December 1, 1881, Hon. Solomon Lincoln died, aged 
seventy-seven years and tour months. He was elected to 
this Society in October, 1861, and -was a cordial and 
respected member. He was a native of Hingham, and a 
resident there at the time of his death. Graduating at 
Brown University in 1822, having as classmates Rev, 
Alexis Caswell, LL.I)., and Hon. Isaac Davis, he taught 
a grammar school for a few months and then pursued the 
study of law, receiving admission to the bar November 
21, 1826. He represented the town of Hingham at the 
General Court in 1821) and 1840, and was a member of 
the Senate in 1830 and 1831. Beside these and other 
offices, he held various important local trusts, and was 
a very frequent contributor to various public? journals. 
He had a taste for local history, for genealogical studies, 
for relics of antiquity, and found time from his profes- 
sional and public duties to write the history of Hingham, 
"a lasting' monument to his memory." Several historical 
orations delivered by him were published, and also "An 
Historical sketch of Nantasket," "Notes on the Lincoln 
Families of Massachusetts, with some account of the Family 

Proceedings, Oct. 21, 1881, p. 421, sq. 

() American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

of Abraham Lincoln," and a " Memoir of the Rev. Charles 
Brooks.'? ' 

December 17, 1881, lion. Lewis H. Morgan, LL.I)., 
died at his ho s mc in Rochester, N. Y., aged seventy-three 
years and twenty-six days. lie became a member of this 
Society in 18(15. lie was one of the foremost ethnological 
scholars and authors of this country, and most abundant in 
labors for the promotion of historical learning. This Society 
gloried in its association with him, and deeply mourns its 
loss in his death. 

January 10, 1882, one of the most gentle, true, brave 
and beloved of men, Delano A. (ioddard, Esq., was taken 
away. Elected a member October, 1880, he actively 
exhibited his taste and ability for the special duties which 
he thus assumed. From a rapid sketch that has been pub- 
lished of his life, a few facts may he t^ken for this occasion. u 
He was born in Worcester, August 27, 1831, and inherited 
from his parents strong convictions, a love of truth and 
justice, and line literary tastes. He graduated at Yale in 
1853, and began his career as a journalist in Paincsville, 
Ohio. After a service of about a year he came to Boston, 
and was connected with the Chronicle, which was not long 
afterwards merged with the Telegraph, and subsequently 
with the Traveller. In 1857, he returned to Worcester, 
was associated for awhile with Mr. Hooper on the Evening 
Transcript (afterwards the Gazette), and then was connected 
with the j$]>i/, becoming associate Editor. In 18(>8, he 
joined the editorial corps of the Daily Advertiser, in this 
city, and in a few months succeeded Mr. Charles E. Runbar, 
as Editor-in-chief. His character and career as a journalist 
arc worthy of being kept in perpetual remembrance. From 
the manifold duties and cares of his responsible position, 
he found leisure to make several contributions of permanent 

'An obituary notice, and partial list of his publications, was given in 
the Ilingham Journal, December ( J, 1881. 
a Boston Daily Advertiser, January 11, 1882. 

1882.] Report of the Council. 7 

value to our historical literature — particularly in the chap- 
ters he wrote for the "Memorial History of Boston." 

Among the tributes to his useful life, none arc more 
pathetic than the speeches made at a council of the Omaha' 
Indians, summoned on receipt of the news of his death ; and 
next to the evidence of their gratitude, the most touching 
fact in all that was said or done was this : they never 
mentioned his name. Like his Master — it has been fittingly 
remarked— he " made himself of no reputation.." 

Time would fail us to speak as we would of our eminent 
associate, Hon. Alexander II. Bullock, LL.I)., who de- 
parted this life suddenly, January 17, 1882, aged sixty- 
five years, ten months and fifteen days, lie was elected a 
member of this Society in April, 1855, served as Recording 
Secretary from 1858 to 181U, and frequently took part in 
its proceedings. Very vivid in our recollections is his 
admirable address, published in the proceedings of the 
Society, on the Centennial of the Massachusetts Constitu- 
tion — a paper of permanent value. 

From a review of his life published in one of the journals 
of the city of which he was the pride, we learn of his strong 
New England ancestry, of his admission to Amherst College 
at the early age of sixteen (he was born March 2, 181*5), 
of his graduating with the salutatory oration, of his study of 
the law at Harvard, under Judge Story, and in the office 
of Hon. Emory Washburn, of Worcester, of his admission 
to the bar in 1841, of his services in both branches of the 
Legislature of Massachusetts, of his engaging in journalism, 
of his returning to public life — first, as Mayor of Worcester, 
then, in the Legislature where he became Speaker of the 
House, and the warm and influential supporter of Governor 
Andrew, whom he succeeded in the Gubernatorial chair. 

He was made a Doctor of Laws both by Harvard and 
Amherst, in 1865. Beside his official papers, as a leading 
member of the Legislature, and as Governor, his orations 
and addresses on many important public occasions secure 

8 American Antiquarian Society, [April, 

for him a place among the eminent citizens and orators of 
this Commonwealth, and of our nation. 

It should he added that the Council met on announcement 
of Gov. Bullock's decease and passed Resolutions in his 
honor, and with other members of the Society attended his 
funeral. ' 

Although the main object of this Society is to promote 
the study of American antiquities, it has not been unusual 
at its meetings to consider archieo logical investigations in 
other lands. Our memories are still as fresh as delightful 
of the account which our honored President gave of the 
discoveries at Ilissarlik, and of their significance in respect 
to the Homeric story of the fall of ancient Troy. On the 
present occasion, the writer of the remainder of this report 
— for which he alone is responsible — is permitted to turn 
your thoughts to recent excavations in ancient Christian 
cemeteries, particularly those in the vicinity of Rome — the 
novum Ilium — whose buried treasures, through their con- 
nection with the early story of the Christian faith and its 
martyr heroes, have for us a yet deeper interest than any 
remains of classic antiquity. 

Neander's " General History of tl^ Christian Church," 
contains, it has been said, no allusion to the Catacombs, 
and it makes but little account of Christian Inscriptions. 

1 Notice was taken in the report, of the death of another member of 
the Society, Rev. Sidney Harper Marsh, D.D., President of Pacific 
University, Forest Grove, Oregon. It appears from a memorial written 
by Kev. Mr. Eells, that he was born August 21), 1825, and died Febru- 
ary 2, 187'J. His father's family were distinguished for learning and 
influence, and ids mother was a grand-daughter, or (more probably) a 
great grand-daughter of Hev. Dr. Kleazer Wheelock, the founder and 
first President of Dartmouth College. His life-work was similar to 
that of his respeeted aneestor, and he is highly commended for similar 
qualifications and satisfactory results. He was elected a member of the 
American Antiquarian Society in October, IHCO, but his devoted service 
to his College, under special difficulties, left him no power for the 
antiquarian and historical work that was expected from his talents and 

1882.] Report of the Council 

It would be impossible for this most eminent historian, 
were he living to-day, to avoid an abundant use of the new 
materials which recent discoveries in these cemeteries have 
brought to light. It is no -exaggeration to say, that new 
chapters in the history of the Christian Church are now 
unfolding, new traces of its progress, new and multiplied 
and important facts for the interpretation of its constitution, 
its doctrine, its ritual, its life. The work indeed is only 
begun, and it proceeds with a deplorable slowness. Of 
eighty or more Christian burial-places, known to be of very 
great antiquity, scarcely one-half have been suitably studied. 
Only about ten have been excavated with any approach to 
thoroughness. 1 In the immediate vicinity of Rome, some 
forty important Catacombs still remain either to be properly 
identified, or to be completely excavated. Remarkable and 
abundant as have been the results of De Rossi's labors, his 
magnum QJMS, in three large quarto volumes, treats, with an 
unimportant exception, of but one group of,. Catacombs. 
Only (wo other cemeteries, of the whole large number, have 
I mm) n excavated during the last twenty years, although the 
attention of scholars has been generally and earnestly turned 
1 to the progress of t^is work. Meanwhile there are many 
1 amicterio* and private burial-places beside the Roman, of 
which enough is known greatly to stimulate curiosity, but 
1 which aro almost wholly neglected — ancient tombs in Syria 
ami Asia Minor, in Alexandria and Cyrene, in Milos and 
Syracuse, in Naples and other places in Italy. "The Cata- 
combs of tho loading churches of the East," says a cautious 
Gut'iuau archaeologist, to whom we are greatly indebted, 
**aro not yet discovered. That they exist, cannot be 
doilbtcd." i 

While we thus regret that more is not accomplished, we 
would not fail to recognize how much has been achieved. 

» Victor Schulze: Zeitschrift fur Kirch. Wissensch. XII., 1881, p. 048. 
• Schulze, 1. c, p. 048. 

10 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Sonic fifteen thousand Inscriptions have already been 
obtained from Catacombs, of which twelve thousand at 
least are from the Roman. Innumerable objects illustra- 
tive of primitive Christian customs and life have been 
collected and studied. Above all, a scientific method of 
investigation has been substituted for the zeal of dogmatists 
and relic hunters. Exploration of the Catacombs, it has 
well been said, is becoming equivalent to a scientific 
knowledge of the monumental sources of early Christian 
history. Especially has an exact topographical method 
been applied to the study of the Roman Catacombs. The 
utmost pains have been taken to trace their develop- 
ment. Their chronology has been investigated with gratify- 
ing results. The growth, for example, of St. Callistus, 
with its adjuncts, has been traced so that a distinct and 
accurate record of its successive stages can be traced from 
about the close of the second centuiy, through the period 
of persecutions, and down to the fifth century. Great 
progress, also, has been made in the chronology and the 
interpretation of the pictures of the Catacombs — a branch 
of the subject more fruitful than any other for the student 
of the thoughts and spirit d£ the early Christians. The 
rapidly growing literature of the subject is an indication of 
the value of the results obtained. Since the Rev. Dr. James 
Freeman Clarke delivered his valuable Lowell lectures on 
the Roman Catacombs, in which he alludes to the principal 
writers on this subject, Monsieur Theophile Roller has 
published an accurate and copious illustrated folio of seven 
hundred and thirty-one pages ; and the German scholar to 
whom allusion has just been made, has informed us, while 
this report is preparing, of an elaborate work in press from 
his own pen. Numerous essays Tire also beginning to appear 
from writers who are popularizing the materials collected 
by various investigators. 

Good Bishop Burnet, who visited Rome in 1685, about 
half a century after the publication of Bosio's Roma Sot- 

1882.] Report of the Council, 11 

teranea, contended that the Catacombs were not the work 
of the primitive Christians, but were the common burying- 
places of the ancient heathen; "that the mountains of 
rubbish thrown out would betray the -Christians to their 
enemies ; " that assemblies for worship there would have 
been impossible on account of the decay of so many bodies; 
that " the number of Christians at Rome was insufficient for 
such a gigantic work." He adds: " I am as little subject 
to vapors as most men, yet I had all the day long after I 
was in them, which was not near an hour, a confusion, and 
as it were, a boiling in my head, that disordered me 
extremely;" and "this inexhaustible "magazine of bones, 
which, by all appearance, are no other than the bones of 
the Pagan Romans, supplies the Papacy with relics which 
are now sent over the world to feed a superstition that is 
as blind as it proves expensive." Dr. Lankly, from whose 
ingenious work on " Monumental Christianity," we take 
these extracts, adds: "Perhaps it was the Papacy itself 
that made his head boil." 

However this may be* the Bishop's comments show 
bow |KK)r a guide to archaeological investigations is ir or ecclesiastical prejudice, for the results of 
ncientUic investigations evince that the Bishop was wrong 
ill every particular, unless we except the expensivencss 
of relics ami the confusion or boiling sensation in his 

Tho Roman Catacombs are now proved to be, for the 
most IMirt, tho work of tho early Christians. That they did 
not originate the idea of rock-hewn sepulchres, or of sub- 
terranean chambers and galleries, the tombs of Etruria, and 
similar Pagan monuments on the Appian Way, at once 
suggest. , Probably tho Jewish Catacomb near the same 
street and still others are older than the introduction of 
Christianity to Rome. Yet the numerous and vast ceme- 
teries of which we arc speaking, it is now acknowledged, 
are neither of Pagan nor Jewish creation, but were originally 

12 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

excavated for members of the Christian Church at Rome or 
their fellow-disciples from other similar communions. 1 

Another assured result of recent studies is, that down at 
least to the year 257, the date of an edict by Valerian, 
forbidding Dionysius, bishop of Rome, and "any others," 
" either to hold conventions or to enter what you call your 
cemeteries," the Christians of that city, except in rare and 
brief seasons, could prosecute undisturbed the work of 
excavation, and could bury and commemorate their dead 
with appropriate solemnities. 

The Roman laws were exceedingly protective of all burial 
places and burial rites. At first, Christianity was sheltered 
under the toleration extended to Judjeism. Then, private 
persons having landed property in the vicinity of the city, 
could set apart areas for burial purposes, and open them to 
whomsoever they pleased. Then, as the Christian commu- 
nity increased, cemeteries owned by the church and com- 
pletely under its control could be legally held under the 
laws for burial associations. As the Roman State grew 
more and more conscious of the deadly antagonism be- 
tween itself, in its religious theory and practice, and the 
new religion — still called new by a writer of the second 

1 In response to a question from Rev. Dr. Ellis the following reasons 
were given for the general abandonment by recent authorities of the 
theory onee universally held, viz., that the early Christians simply used, 
for burial purposes, exhausted arenarun, : (1) The Christian Catacombs 
are almost entirely excavated in the tufa gvanolare, and carefully avoid 
the tufafriabile from which chiefly sancl was obtained for mortar and 
cement; (2) The Christian cemeteries are characterized by numerous 
narrow galleries, crossing each other at right angles, and evidently 
planned so as to secure the greatest amount of wall for loculi, whereas 
the sand-pits exhibit broad, curved cart tracks, constructed so as to 
obtain with greatest facility the largest quantity of pozzolana. Some- 
times everything is removed save the requisite support for the roof. 
The visitor in passing, as at the Catacomb of Priscilla, from an arcuaria 
to a Catacomb is struck at once with the change in construction. See 
Northcote & Brownlow ; Roma Sott.eranea I., p. 375 sq. ; Diet, of Chr. 
Antiq. I., p. 21)5 sq. ; Iierzog & Tlitt, Real-Encyclopddie, VII., p. 550 • 
Holler, Les Catacombes dc Rome, I., p. xin. sq. 


Report of the Council. 


and third centuries — it was naturally less and less toler- 
ant of what before had been winked at, viz., that the 
cemeteries were powerful allies of the church, that the 
sainted dead were inspirers of living Christians, that the 
burial club was a Christian Church which it was a necessity 
of the State to suppress and even exterminate. But this 
was not realized for long, and so for generations, save in 
times of special excitement, the Christians were able peace- 
fully to lay away their dead, and duly to honor the places 
of sacred rest. The query may arise why, if there was this 
tranquillity, subterranean vaults should have been con- 
structed at so great cost of labor. There are allusions in 
early writers to cemeteries in certain localities in the open 
air. If any such existed at Koine before the fourth century 
no traces of them have been discovered. The habit of burial 
at Home as generally in the East was in faulty tombs. The 
church was a larger family. Nothing is more fully brought 
to evidence than this intense feeling of fraternity. It broke 
down all social distinctions, all limitations of rank, tribe, 
nation. The Christian tie was stronger than that of blood. 
Tins rich opened their burial areas to the poor. The men 
mid women in whose veins may have llowed the blqpd of 
ihu Flavian dynasty, or of the (jornelii, or the Cn&ilii, or 
the l'rt:lextati. or the senatorial house of Pudens, enlarged 
their aojmlchres not only for their relatives and dependents, 
but for their fellow-disciples. The church grew beyond what 
hUtory lias recorded or believed. Men came into it from 
overy nation. Brethren from distant churches were received 
with Christian hospitality, and if death overtook them at 
koine, their bodies were tenderly laid away in the Christian 
cemeteries. Large cemeteries in the open air, sufficiently 
near the city to be accessible, would have required extensive 
purchasos of land. The tufa of the hills, soft enough to be 
easily worked, firm enough to admit of galleries with com- 
paratively thin walls, and of successive stories, one beneath 
another, as deep as could be excavated without reaching 

14 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

water, admitted of compact burial places, for immense 
numbers. Then too, from the beginning, or at least from 
the time of Trajan, the services which Christians would 
naturally use in connection with interments, or in com- 
memoration of the departed, would often be impracticable 
in the open air, in the midst of a hostile and easily excited 
population. At last even these subterranean retreats were no 
protection. ISut with rare and late exceptions their privacy 
would enable Christian friends to follow the customs of their 
faith in comparative seclusion and without provocation to 
the votaries of other and hostile religions. 

Whatever the explanation, the fact is assured that from at 
least the second century — perhaps from an earlier date — 
Christian burial at Rome was in these under-ground ceme- 
teries. And there are no indications to suggest a doubt 
that this was the exclusive practice throughout the period 
of persecutions. 

Interments in the Catacombs seem to have substantially 
ceased after the first decade of the fifth century. Recent 
discoveries have revealed extensive cemeteries above ground, 
one immediately over the . catacomb of St. Callistus, with 
dated inscriptions going back to the year 358, possibly 337, 
and continuing to about the middle of the sixth century. 
After 3(54, and for the remainder of the century, two out of 
three burials, apparently, were above ground. Supposing 
that Christianity was introduced to Rome soon after the day 
of Pentecost we should have, at the most, about ten genera- 
tions, in full, and about the equivalent of another, occupy- 
ing these subterranean cemeteries. Some margin, how 
large cannot be definitely stated, yet not sufficient seriously 
to disturb our calculation, must be admitted for later burials. 
Assuming. then that these Catacombs are the work of about 
eleven generations their extent is surprising. Michel de 
Rossi, brother of the distinguished explorer and author, a 
tk practical mathematician," has estimated that the galleries 
of the cemeteries within a radius of three miles from Rome 

1882.] Report of the Council. 15 

amount in length to at least 559 miles. Others give a much 
higher estimate. It is calculated that one four-hundredth of a 
square mile would allow space for galleries three-fifths of a 
mile in length, on a single level. Constructing with an aver- 
age of two Tories in depth, thi> small sujHTlicial sjvuv would 
admit of galleries a mile and one ridh in extent. In the 
single crypt of Lucina, whose entire area is 100 by -J'oO feet, 
and only very partially used, so far as known by excavation, 
De Rossi counted over 700 loculi, and estimated that nearly 
twice this number had been destroyed, giving a total of 
2000. The most careful statement so far made allows for 
nearly 4,000,000 separate graves. Others give numbers as 
high as six or even seven millions. The discrepancy shows 
that the calculation is still largely conjectural. It must be 
admitted that without further excavation no precise numbers 
can be given. But at the lowest probable estimate, that of 
De Rossi, the extent of line is enormous; and the number 
of graves indicates, after all reasonable deductions are made 
for the burial of strangers, a much larger Christian popula- 
tion at Koine than history has made account of. 1 Tacitus's 
expression, iuyeus multititdo, must early have become a 
literal fact. 

The interpreters of De Rossi to English readers, Messrs. 
Northcote and Brownlow, claim with confidence that the 
chronology of several catacombs can be carried back to the 
Apostolic Age. Those for which such high antiquity is 
claimed are the crypts of the Vatican ; the catacomb of St. 
Paul on the Ostian way; of Priscilla (supposed by some to 
be the mother of Pudens, a Roman Senator), on the Via 
Salaria Nova; the Ostian cemetery, where the Apostle Peter 
is said to have baptized; and the cemetery of Domitilla on 
the Via Ardeatina, where, according to tradition, were buried 

1 Rawiinson assumes 7,000,000 of graves; then says that such a num- 
ber iu, say, 40o years time, give an average population of from 50o,uuu 
to 700,000. Total population of Koine, 1,500,000 to 2,000,000 at begin- 
ning of Empire. 

16 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

her two chamberlains, Nereus and Aehilleus, and also Pctro- 
nilla, whom legend transformed into a daughter of St. Peter. 
Two or three others are sometimes added ; but those just 
mentioned are the most important, and the claim preferred 
for them rs gaining credence. 1 

Let us examine Cor a moment the state of the evidence. 

The claim for the crypts of the Vatican rests chiefly on 
the supposed discovery of an epitaph hearing the name 
Linus, one of the earliest overseers or bishops of the 
Church of Kome. But the accounts of this inscription are 
contradictory, and the whole matter does not as yet amount 
to plausible conjecture. 

Something more can be said for the existence, in the first 
century, of a cemetery on the Ostian Way where the Apostle 
Paul is said to have been buried. Yet the evidence is not 
decisive, and the cutting away of the hill in which inter- 
ments seem to have been made has probably destroyed the 
possibility of arriving at any certainty. The graves of 
Peter and Paul Providence has probably made as uncertain 
as that of Moses. 

In the year 1873, a crypt was discovered near St. Agnes 
for which De Rossi had long been in search — the cemetery 
named in medieval writings as the Ostian, as the ccemelerium 
/otitis bcati Petri, as ad nympltas ubi Petrus uiyrfizaverat, 
as ad Einerentianam and as possessing a cathedra, the first 
seat from which Peter preached. A place so intimately asso- 
ciated with Peter, it is obvious, has peculiar attractions for 
Roman Catholics so devout as De Rossi and his English 
interpreters, and we may not wonder if the discoveries actu- 
ally made have seemed to them of greater significance than 
a cooler criticism can allow. The newly discovered crypt 
contains a chair cut in the tufa. An inscription also has 
been found which reads SANCPE . . . CEMERENTIANE— 
which is restored so as to read SANCtus PEtuus. Sancta 
EMERENTIANE. The inscriptions and chair show us per- 

1 Sue Appendix, Note A. 

1882.] Report of the Council. 17 

Imps traditions or legends of the sixth, possibly of the fourth 
arid fifth centuries, hut cannot claim for themselves a higher 
antiquity. Yet it is quite possible, and indeed not improb- 
able, that this discovery reveals one of the earliest Chris- 
tian cemeteries. A number of marbles with* inscriptions 
which might well have been written within the fust century 
had long been known and been believed to be from this lost 
Christian cemetery. The new discovery confirms this be- 
lief, presenting others still in situ, some few of them " mark- 
ed with a Christian symbol." Yet here again wo cannot be 
sure of our dates. They may have been cut any time in the 
first third of the second century, as well as in the last third 
of the first. It is, in any event, a fact of deep interest that 
we are carried back so far, 

The cemetery of Priscilla has very recently been more 
thoroughly excavated in the hope and expectation of discover- 
ing evidences of its origin in the apostolic ag<** — but without 
success. The Greek chapel, as it is called, which has been 
supposed to be the nucleus of the cemetery, cannot be proved 
to be earlier than the second century, and no epitaph, or 
other indication, has been found confirmatory of the tradi- 
tion that the cemetery was "dug in the property of the 
family of Pudens converted by the Apostles." This may be 
so, but at present we must be content to stop where the evi- 
dence does, at some point, perhaps a very early one, in the 
second century, however strongly we may hope that the 
possibilities of further information are not exhausted. 

One other of the more important cemeteries for which an 
origin in apostolic times is claimed is that of Domitilla, or 
of Nereus and Achilleus, or of Petronilla — as sometimes 
designated. The discoveries here are very remarkable, 
and prove a very high antiquity. 

Historians of every school from Gibbon to the present 
time have ' inferred from statements made by early non- 
Christian writers, and by Eusebius, that Titus Flavins 
Clemens, nephew of Vespasian, cousin to Domitian, and 



18 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

consul in the year 95, became a Christian and suffered 
martyrdom. His wife, Flavia Domitilla, grand-daughter or 
great grand-daughter of Vespasian, also appears to have 
espoused the same faith, and to have been banished there-, 
for. According to tradition as preserved in the apocryphal 
Acts of Nercus and Achilleus, two of her chamberlains, just 
named, were put to death and buried in a crypt, in land 
belonging to their mistress, a mile and a half from the city, 
on the Ardeatine way, " near a sepulchre where had been 
interred Petronilla, daughter of the Apostle Peter." 

In a list of the Roman cemeteries found in a manuscript 
of the ninth century, the name of Domitilla is associated 
with those of Nereus and Achilleus, and with that of Petron- 
illa — Domitilla^ JVerei et Achillei, ad s. Petronillam, via 
Ardeatina. 1 

Some excavations made by the Duchess dello Sciablese, in 
the year 1817, brought to light the following inscription : 




GAL visi AE • EIVS 






Showing that an area large enough for the beginning of a 
Catacomb, viz., 35 feet in front and 40 deep — was granted 
by permission of Flavia Domitilla. Another inscription 
had been found in 1772, containing the words, FLA VIAE • 
FICING. There is nothing to indicate whether these inscrip- 

1 Cf. Mommsen in ConC. Rev., 1871, p. 169; De Kossi, Bullctiuo di 
Archeologia Cristiana, 1874, p. G; Horn. Sutt., I. p. 266; Parker, Arch, 
of Home, pt. xii. p. 161. 

1882.] • Beport of the Council. 19 

tions arc Christian or pagan. They simply prove — taken by 
themselves — that Flavia Domitilla, grand-daughter of Ves- 
pasian, owned and granted land where is now a catacomb. 

I)c Rossi had supposed this Catacomb to be that of Callistus, 
a cemetery known to have been under the control of the 
church of Rome toward the close of the second century. 
Dc Rossi discovered the true Callistan burial-place else- 
where, and suspected the one we are considering to be the 
cemetery described in the MS. as coemeterhmi Domitilla}, 
Nevei et Achillei, ad Sanctum Petronillam, via Ardeatina. 
Petronilla, he saw, cannot be a derivative from Petrus. lie 
proposed another origin. The father of Flavius Clemens, 
and brother of Vespasian, was Titus Flavius Sabinus, and 
his grand-father, Titus Flavius Petro. Petronilla is a name 
naturally borne by a female descendant of Petro. 

In 18G5, excavations brought to light an entrance to this 
Catacomb, and a vault whose architectural^ structure, in 
the judgment of Mr. Parker, a good authority upon such a 
point, may be as early as the time of Nero. All the indica- 
tions are that it was at first a "private burial-place for the 
founder and his nearest relations. The entrance to the later 
Catacombs," says Theodor Monnnsen, the historian, "though 
not exactly concealed, is shown as little as possible ; a 
modest opening generally leads by a step into the proper 
burial-place, and inscriptions are never found except in the 
inner chambers. Here, on the contrary, the grave is closed 
on the outside with doors, over which the epitaph was at 
one time legible. The passages are wide, the vaulted roofs 
and walls covered with stucco, essentially different from 
the narrow galleries — generally rough-lie wn — of the ordinary 
Catacombs. Blit what is peculiarly noteworthy is this, 
that in the original part of this vault the stone beds, which 
peculiarly belong to the later Catacombs, do not appear at 
all. On the other hand, great niches are excavated in the 
walls for the reception of sarcophagi. At a later time 
narrower passages were certainly broken through the walls, 

20 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

and stone beds in their side walls ; but, as if clearly to 
mark the transition, these stone beds are here surrounded 
with a cornice, which gives them the form of sarcophagi. 
The remains of the frescoes, which clearly are of the same 
time as the original building, are the sole proof that this 
grave did not belong to any of those heathens who abstained 
from burning, but that it was really from the beginning a 
Christian foundation. They are, especially in the mere 
ornaments, of rare beauty, and no decorative artist of the 
Augustan age need be ashamed of the vaulted roof, particu- 
larly with its exquisite garlands of grapes and the birds 
pecking at them, and the winged boys gathering and press- 
ing out the fruit. There arc also small landscapes, which 
are never found in the later Christian graves. The groups 
drawn on the side walls are less perfect. Among those 
still preserved, the most remarkable are Daniel standing 
between two lions, the Good Shepherd, NoahV Ark, with 
the dove, and the representation of a supper, which differs, 
on the whole, but little from the usual antique treatment of 
the subject. Two men are represented sitting on the dinner 
sofa, before them the round table covered with meats, and 
by it the serving slave, yet clearly showing the Christian 
influence in the bread placed round the fish on the dish." 2 

In the winter and spring of 1873-4, came new discoveries. 
Near the ancient entrance of which we have been speaking, 
the excavations uncovered a Basilica which all Rome, and 
the strangers therein, went out to see. It was about 
100 x 60 feet in dimensions, and so far as can be inferred 
from the present state of the walls, about twenty-three feet 
high. Its pavement was on a level with the second story 
of the cemetery. It seems to have been built in the fourth 
or fifth century, and was the place where Gregory the Great 
preached a Homily which has come down to our time. 4 It 
was called the Basilica of Petronilla, and not only explained 

Contemp. Rev., 1871, pp. 170-1. Sec; Appendix, Note B. 
I loin., 28. 

1882.] Report of the Council 21 

tho old designations, Ooemeterium Domitillm, Nerei et 
Achillci, ad Petnmillam, but confirmee] the theory as to the 
names of the Catacombs around and beneath it. More specific 
indications soon came to light. Fragments were found of 
a Damasjne inscription commemorative of Nereus and 
Achilleus, of which Mr. Northcote gives a translation ; first 
recalling, by way of explanation of the allusion in the first 
lines, that " it was one of Nero's crimes that he employed 
some of his soldiers, his own body-guard, to be the execu- 
tioners of his unjust sentences." ' The translation reads as fol- 
lows : " They had given their names to the army, and were at 
the same time fulfilling a erucl ofHce, heeding the commands 
of the tyrant, and prepared to obey his commands, under the 
influence of fear. Suddenly — wonderful to believe are these 
things — they lay aside their madness, arc converted and 
fly ; they desert the wicked camp of their leader, throw 
away their shields, military ornaments and blood-stained 
weapons. Confessing [the faith] they glory in bearing the 
triumphs of Christ [by martyrdom]. Believe [all ye who 
read] by [these verses of] Damasus what [marvels] the 
glory of Christ can ellect." 

Besides this inscription, there was found a marble column 
of the church, which had fallen into a lower gallery, and 
exhibited beneath the name ACILLKVS, a crown and a 
representation of his martyrdom. The base was also found 
of a similar column on which we may presume was a similar 
commemoration of Nereus. 

In addition there was discovered, behind the apse of the 
church, a cabiculum evidently once held in high honor, and 
having on its walls a painting of Petronella Mart. — the place 
doubtless from which had been removed a sarcophagus 
bearing the inscription AureltCB PetiWiilhti Filice Dulcissi- 
mce. The painting shows the tradition of the locality. The 
name Aurelidi Petroiiilhv may also prove to be of signifi- 

Rom. Sott. I., p. 179. 

22 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

cancc ; and with other inscriptions — particularly one to Fla- 
vins Sabinus, another, Aureliai Ct/nacce Conjuffi, and another, 
Aureliai Bonifatim Conju'gi, etc, — may be further indica- 
tion of the early entrance of Christianity into some of the 
nobler families in rank. More important still, as indicating 
a connection of the cemetery with Domitilla, are such 
epitaphs as these : Nutrix septem Liberorum Divi Vespa- 
siani et Flavian DomitillcB Vespasian i neptis [Princeton 
Rev., July, p. 209, year '54] ; Filia Flaviw Domitillm 
Vespasiani neptist Fecit Gluceroi, etc. [Hull, di Arch. Crist. 
18G5, p. 23]* It is possible also that the fragment 

on a stone with an anchor, should be restored to 


though other restorations are possible. ' > 

In a Bulletin published a year ago last March, and in 
another received but a few weeks since, De Uossi describes 
further discoveries in the neighborhood of the church of 
Domitilla, and in the oldest portion of the cemetery. " As 
I send these pages to the press," remarks De Rossi, " there 
is opening in the great necropolis of Domitilla, a chamber 
adorned with paintings of classic type •and very high anti- 
quity. They represent fantastic architectural designs, such 
as one often sees at Pompeii, and little pastoral scenes. 
There is no figure of the cycle peculiar to Christian art. 
This chamber opens at the foot of a large staircase ; it is one 
of the ancient and primitive nuclei of the cemetery of Domi- 
tilla. Subsequently a vast subterranean region developed 
starting from the staircase and having its centre in this 
ancient chamber. Thanks to a happy hit we are able to 
assign to it its true name. Among the ruins was found the 
primitive title originally set in the middle of the wall oppo- 
site the entrance ; the letters are of extraordinary size, of 
remarkable beauty and of a classic type, which reminds 

1882.] BepoH of the Council. 23 

perhaps of the ago of the Flavii, or of times hut little poste- 
rior : 

ki In the lunette of a deep areosoliuin excavated below 
this inscription and apparently subsequent to it, we read, in 
very beautiful letters of about the' second century : 




QVAE • YIXIT • ANN • XXV • M • II • 



tk The Aurelius Anipliatus who dedicated this monument to 
his wife, is probably different from the Anipliatus founder 
of the funeral chamber : perhaps his son. This chamber of 
an Anipliatus and his posterity, the first and very ancient 
nucleus of a vast region of the necropolis of Domitilla, 
whose beginnings are contemporary with the apostolic age, 
can it be a family monument of that Anipliatus to >vhoin 
St. Paul, in the Epistle to the Romans, addresses an affec- 
tionate salutation? [Salute Aiiqrtiu.tus, my beloved in the 
Lord. Rom. xvi : 8]. The answer to a question so grave 
naturally requires mature reflection as well as an exact 
explanation, and complete examination of the entire 

In a later number of the Bulletin this question is taken 
up anew, but is not brought to a conclusion. 

The style of the decorations is again noticed and compared 
with the frescoes of the house of Nero, of the house of Ger- 
manicus on the Valentine, and of the villa Mas so mo, near 
the baths of Diocletian. The fact is also developed that 
Anipliatus was a cognomen of servants or of freedmen and 
their descendants, and was never used of men of rank, 
either pagan or Christian. It is all the more noticeable, 
therefore, that a man of such origin or condition should 

24 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

have so distinguished a monument, that in later times a 
staircase should be cut to open it way to his tomb, and that 
there should be many other indications of a place deemed 
worthy of special honor. There are marks in the chamber 
itself, not only of restorations, but of inscriptions subsequent 
to the first century. The cognomen Bonifatia was in use 
in the last half of the second century. De lvossi intimates 
a further discussion of the question in the forthcoming 
volume of his Roma sotterranea. For the present he 
declines to express an opinion as to the identification of this 
Ampliatus with the friend of the Apostle.' 

Reviewing the evidence that has come to light, there can 
be no question that the cemetery of Domitilla is built in 
land which belonged to a branch of the Flavian family ; 
that it began to assume a distinctively Christian character 
at least as early as the first half of the second century ; that 
though possibly it began as the private burial-place of 
a family not yet converted to Christianity, there is no 
evidence of this ; that the probability of the Christian 
character of Titus Flavius Clemens, and Flavia Domitilla 
his wife, gives plausibility to the supposition that from their 
time, and thus from the beginning, there were Christian 
interments in the cemetery which tradition names Coeme- 
tcriuiu Domitilla} ; and iinally, that from the second, if not 
from the first century, it followed the general law of the 
Catacombs — the growth of private into public Christian 
cemeteries under the new, transforming and overmastering 
principle of Christian fraternity. 

We have noticed thus far, only those cemeteries which 
learned men claim originated in the first century — finding but 
one that carries us back so far by any evidence as yet discov- 
ered, though there are several that in all probability were fully 
established and in use before Polycarp, the disciple of John, 

1 See Bullet, di Arch, crist. 1880, No. IV., p. 107, sq. ; 1881, No. 2, p. 
57, sq. ; The Athenaeum, Mareh i, 1882, p. 28 ( J. 

1H82.] lleport of the Courwil. 25 

visited Rome mid administered to the Church there the Sae- 
l'iimeiit of the Lord's Supper. 

Were there lime we would speak of several other cemeteries 
— especially of those of Luciiia, Praetextatus, and Callistus, 
which were doubtless all begun before the close of the 
second century. 

The opening of these long-lost places where the early 
church administered its rites, sought refuge in persecution, 
cherished its hope of a purer and immortal life, has naturally 
turned a curious and eager attention to whatever their 
pictured walls, or their epitaphs, can teach of the primitive 
Christian faith. 

It marks the progress of our age that Protestant scholars 
gratefully acknowledge the learning and the integrity of the 
Papal official, the ltoman Catholic archaeologist, who pre- 
sides over the later fruitful investigations, and that he in 
turn treats with respectful consideration the inquiries and 
the criticisms of men of other communions. It 7s yet more 
significant how many are interested in these inquiries, of all 
schools of faith, who evidently are seeking, by the most 
approved methods of historical and archaeological study, to 
find the truth. Certain canons of criticism seem to be com- 
ing into light and acceptance, the results of patient and 
thorough investigations, among which these are most promi- 
nent : — (1) An art is not improvised. (2) The decoration of 
the Christian tombs needs to be carefully studied in con- 
nection with that of the pagan, as well as with contemporary, 
literature. There is a realistic element common to both. 
Much more was carried over from pagan to Christian life 
than is sometimes appreciated. (3) The art of the Cata- 
combs is not to be interpreted as a dogmatic hieroglyph, 
designed to set forth in pictures the entire faith of the 
Church, but is to be studied as a sepulchral art, limited by the 
conditions and the motives which created it. A confessional 
interpretation is sure to lead astray. The early Christian 
art is manifestly not a perfect transcript of the creed of the 

2(5 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

ago which produced it. You cannot verify on its walls all 
the articles of so simple a creed as the old Roman form of 
the Apostles' Creed, which the later investigations show 
was probably in use at least as early as A. D. 140. 

But if no one of us can find there all the articles of his 
creed, we may each obtain from it assurances and supports 
that none can afford to be without. There, in that realm of 
death, where symbols of sorrow and desolation might be 
expected on every hand, we see only the signs of a great* 
deliverance, and the varied emblems of the power of a great 

In the Catacombs of Callistus — which at the close of the 
second century came definitely under the control of the 
Church, and were superintended by one of its officers, — there 
is a series of six cabicala, which have received the name of 
Chambers, or Chapels, of the Sacraments. Three of them be- 
long to the earlier period of the cemetery. From one the 
pictures are entirely gone. The other two preserve tlfenl, — 
retouched, doubtless — yet so that there is no good reason to 
question their early origin. Their interpretation has given rise 
to much discussion ; one sees in them this meaning, another 
that. But if we remember their location, if we go to them 
as men went who carried their dead thither, they all speak 
one language, the rescue of men from sin and death, the 
resurrectio mortuorum which a writer contemporary with 
their origin declares to be the Jiducla Christ ianorum. 
Moses striking the rock, Baptism, a Fisherman, the para- 


lytic carrying joyfully" his bed, the deliverance of Is 
the rescued mariners — Paul's fellow- voyagers, the parable 
of Jonah, the resurrection of Lazarus, the communion of 
disciples with the Risen One, the feast of the blessed, — this 
cycle of subjects, inexplicably meagre, if you are seeking 
for a system of faith, a summct of dogmas, is nevertheless 
full of rich suggestion and consolation to every mourner, 
as is that figure of the Good Shepherd which meets one 
everywhere as he wanders through these well-nigh intermin- 

1882.] Report of the Council. 27 

able galleries, now in forms of almost elassie grace and beaut y 
in some decorated chamber, now in rudest scratches or 
black lines on some humblest grave, — the Shepherd who 
lays down his life, and leads through the shadows to green 
pastures and still waters. 

Somehow in that old decaying Roman world men had 
learned that life may he rescued from all that would corrupt 
and destroy it, and be made forever free, joyful, victorious. 
I low they learned the lesson, and the peace they found in it, 
is the burthen of the art of the Catacombs. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

For the Council, 



Note A., p. 16. 

PhA"N styovnncjr % locator] cR.tyz njore injporWl BalaconjbsJ. 


iXftj^es; Cy. tfyriaca; T*M "Peta HavceTlimitf; 1a. liattty( closed );X"Maximvj£; 
F./prdexte'tW; ^.^Tanuarixj&i'B.Balbma; cfCa'ilixlu^; ^.e^babhoi^/D.'NA. Domi 
liVla.Tta'eus'. Ari}ill«J5; O. OsiiaTj; Po.Po^iaTju^; T^a.T^cruliub 7 ; V.Vahcay 

1882.] Appendix to Report of the Council. 


Notk B., p. 20. 

Figure 1 represents the original entrance to the catacomb of Domitilla 

described by Professor Mominsen. It was on a street, visible to any 
passer by. Figure 2 gives a plan of this vestibule with the adjoining 
ambulacra. The letters A A mark the Portico, where were found frag- 
ments of numerous sarcophagi of the second century, .some perhaps as 
early as Trajan (A. 1). ( J8) ; tiles dated A. 1). 154, 142, 137, 123,— none 
later than A. 1). 179; inscriptions in characters of the second century; 
the Christian symbol, an anchor; names of Flaoil, Claudii, Aurelii, etc. 
B Ji mark the broad ambulacrum whose vaulted roof " is covered with the 
most exquisitely graceful designs, of the branches of a vine (with 
birds and winged genii among them) trailing with all the freedom of 
nature over the whole walls." The letters a a 1) b indicate recesses for 
sarcophagi; some of the figures mark the place of "the groups drawn 


American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

on the side walls," referred to by Prof. Mommsen, viz., Daniel between 
two lions, 2; the Good Shepherd, 1 ; Noah's Ark, with the dove, 0; the 
Supper, 7. C. I)., etc., mark constructions added probably in the third 
century. They indicate all the arrangements proper for a pagan tomb; 
the custodia, 0; the triclinium, I); the podia, 12, 13, 1(! — thought to be 
for a bench or seat. C and 1) form an atrium, a schola sodalium, or 
place of reunion. 11 marks a well; a cistern. For other details sec 
Northeote & IJrownlow, Roma sott., 1. p. 123 sq. ; Roller, Les Catacombs, 
I. p. 58 sq. ; and especially De Rossi, Bullet, di arch, crist. 18G5, p. 33 
sq., 11 sq. 

1882.] Report on the Library. 31 


Fou six months ending the 15th instant, the, library has 
received gifts from two hundred and sixteen different sources, 
representing forty-eight members, one hundred and seven 
donors not members, and sixty-one societies and institutions. 
The material received is of average quality and above the 
average in quantity. The accessions are as follows: Gifts, 
five hundred and forty-eight books, forty-six hundred and 
sixty-nine pamphlets, one hundred and twenty-two tiles of 
unbound newspapers, thirteen coins, fifteen maps, twenty 
photographs, six engravings, four manuscripts, a carpet, 
medal and cane. Exchanges, three hundred and ninety- 
nine books, and two hundred and twenty-seven pamphlets ; 
and from the binder, one hundred volumes of magazines, 
and twenty volumes of newspapers. Total, ten hundred 
and forty-seven books, forty-eight hundred and ninety-six 
pamphlets, twenty volumes of bound, and one hundred and 
twenty-two of unbound newspapers. Among the more 
important contributions from members, the following may 
be alphabetically mentioned. lion. John I). Baldwin has 
completed and supplied us with his promised record of the 
descendants of George Denison. Governor Charles II. Bell 
has added to our large collection, a Cotton Mather tract of 
l()i>8, entitled 4 - A Good Man Making a Good End." Robert 
Clarke, Esq., whose name is seldom absent from the list of 
donors, has presented his line edition of William II. Smith's 
Life, Public Services and Papers of Arthur St. Clair, in 
accordance with Col. Davis's expressed desire, we, have 
added by purchase in Paris, seventeen important Humboldt 
titles, hoping in time to obtain everything by him which 


32 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

directly or indirectly relates to the Spanish-American de- 
partment. The latter result cannot easily he attained, as 
no uniform edition is known to exist, and many of the hooks 
are rare and expensive. In addition to the above, live other 
select volumes have been purchased for the collection. 

lion. Edward L. Davis has sent a second instalment of 
miscellanea, and Rev. Dr. Henry M. Dexter has added to 
his works on our shelves, the True Story of John Smyth the 
Se-Baptist, as told by himself and his Contemporaries. Mayor 
Green, of Boston, has not only contributed his two chapters 
in the early history of Groton, his native town, and his inaugu- 
ral address, but has also materially aided in completing our 
sets of Boston municipal reports. But few cities and towns 
remember us in the distribution of their annual reports, so 
they must be picked up, if at all, at the printers', the binders', 
or by careful searching in by-places. A complete set of 
Dorchester town and city documents, wisely sent to the 
library from year to year, may be found on the shelves ; 
— a standing suggestion of what could so easily be done by 
other municipalities. From Rev. Edward II. Hall, who 
has recently removed from Worcester, Ave have received a 
large donation, chiefly historical, biographical and educa- 
tional, and from our Vice-President, Senator Hoar, three of 
the edition of fifty copies of his account of the Garfield 
Ancestry, with his speeches on the Chinese question, and 
the very elaborate Centennial Map of the United States, 
procured through his intervention. Mr. Henry Cabot 
Lodge has forwarded his Life and Letters of George Cabot, 
and Selections from the Letters of Hon. E. II. Mills, with 
his introduction thereto. The semi-annual gift of our 
Treasurer, Mr. Paine, is large, as usual, and includes an 
English Patent Right on large sheets of parchment, to which 
is attached the great seal, carefully boxed. We are indebted 
to Sefior A. A. Perez for a continuation of tiles of Yucatan 
newspapers contributed by him for some years past. Admiral 
George A. Preble has placed in the library the remainder of 


1882.] Report on the Library. 33 

his manuscript and other notes on longevity, together with 
Thorn's and Gardner's works on the same subject ; and his tri- 
bute to Rear Admiral Thatcher. Prof. Charles Rail's reprint 
of his numerous anthropological papers, prepared for the 
Smithsonian Institution, has been received from the author. 
Dr. James II. Salisbury has made an interesting collection 
of Ohio newspapers bearing upon President Garfield's death 
and burial, and kindly forwarded them for preservation. 
President Salisbury has remembered the periodical depart- 
ment with two hundred and four English and American 
magazines, and various files of newspapers. Mr. Stephen 
Salisbury, Jr., has supplied his privately printed papers, 
as needed for sale or exchange, and a continuation of the 
Revue des Deux Mondes. lie has also made valuable 
additions to his cases of Yucatecan remains. Prof. E. E. 
Salisbury has presented the rare and beautiful medal issued 
in honor of President Woolsey. Hon. II. B. Staples and 
Prof. II. B. Adams have sent extra copies of their papers 
read at the October meeting; and Prof. C. O. Thompson 
has contributed largely of educational matter. Of the 
more than one hundred persons not members, who have 
favored us with additions, especial attention is called to 
the following : Rev. Augustine Caldwell, who has pre- 
sented his "Antiquarian Papers" as issued, is preserving 
in this illustrated periodical, much material of value relating 
especially to the town of Ipswich, Mass. Mrs. Caroline II. 
Dall has placed in the Davis Spanish-American alcove the 
Waldeck folio volume of colored lithographs of Mexican 
Antiquities, published in Mexico in 1827. It bears the 
endorsement "Given to American Antiquarian Soeiet}', 
Worcester, Mass. ; survivors will sec it delivered ; Novem- 
ber, 1878." Dr. Pliny Earle, Superintendent of the State 
Lunatic Hospital at Northampton, continues to collect, 
arrange, bind and send to us American and European 
Insane Asylum reports. The collection now numbers 

eighty-two volumes, which, with our own unbound files, 


34 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

differently arranged, htive furnished abundant material for 

the study of the statistics of insanity. Many duplicates, 
including the early reports of Drs. Woodward and Chandler 
of the Worcester Asylum, have by exchange, been widely 
scattered, but the supply is far from being exhausted. In 
Dr. James A. Emmcrton's material towards a Genealogy of 
the Emmerton family, # which comes to us from the author, 
a complete list of the authorities used is appended — a rather 
new and helpful departure. An alcove in the main hall, to 
be known as the Samuel F. Haven alcove, has been selected, 
and the legacy for its benefit is in the hands of the treasurer. 
It may be proper here to call attention to the valuable office 
desk which was bought by Dr. Haven, with the expressed 
intention of leaving it for the use of the society. In addition 
to the new carpet, Mrs. Haven has given the remaining 
copies of the Haven Memorial, with numerous books, coins 
and autographs. Messrs, Hubbard Brothers, of Boston, 
have again favored us with a gift of financial documents, 
and Scfior Desiderio Ancona, tiles of Yucatan newspapers. 
Bov. Joseph F. Levering has gathered for us a set of his 
own productions which are chiefly historical. The benefit 
of such gifts was recently tested upon the decease of one of 
our distinguished citizens. A list of his works was furnished 
for the morning paper, to which thus far no additions have 
been made. It may interest some of the members and lead 
them to make such deposit as is above suggested, to know 
that the English newspaper custom of " pigeon-holing" bio- 
graphical memoranda, prevails to some extent in our own 

Master Stuart Dickinson continues to add to the numer- 
ous files of American amateur newspapers and other 
literature of a like order ; Mr. Caleb B. Metcalf to the 
educational, and Gen. William S. Lincoln to the agricul- 
tural departments. Mrs. James S. Rogers has deposited 
the records of one branch of the People's Club, Worcester, 
hoping that in time all will reach the same destination. 




1882.] Report on the Library. 35 

Mr. Ezra II. Snow has supplied the duplicate room with 
twenty-one copies of his Illustrated Guide of Worcester, in 
recognition of historical material furnished. Mr. E. II. 
Spalding, of Nashua, has interested himself in the perfect- 
ing of our set of the New Hampshire Register, and it is 
now one of the best in the country. The Washburn and 
Mocn Manufacturing Company have sent us more of their 
wire-fencing literature, in the preparation of which the 
society's collections have been freely consulted. Hon. John 
AYentworth, of Chicago, finding that the library was without 
his Wentworth Genealogy, English and American, has pre- 
sented a copy of the last edition, in three volumes, royal 
octavo. Our binders, the Messrs. AVesby, have made a 
generous donation of pamphlets, and Mr. James AVhite has 
placed in the library a large number of both books and 
pamphlets of a general character. At the request of 
the proprietors of the Memorial of Henry Wolcott and 
some of his Descendants, the compiler, Rev. Samuel 
AVolcott, D.D., of Cleveland, Ohio, has deposited a copy 
in the library. It is one of an edition of only three 
hundred copies, upon which neither time nor expense has 
been spared. 

It will be observed that we acknowledge nearly one hun- 
dred and fifty files of newspapers, of which not more than 
fifteen or twenty are duplicates. They conic from the Wor- 
ccster Free Public Library Reading-room, the Worcester 
County Mechanics Association, publishers, banks, members 
and others, and so may safely be called representative papers. 
The problem as to their disposition is somewhat difficult of 
solution. A rough list of our newspapers has been supplied 
Mr. S. N. D. North, for his special report on newspapers 
for the census report of 1880. AYIicn it is printed in con- 
nection with the other large collections of the country, it is 
very desirable that the list entire be separately issued for the 
use of libraries and kindred institutions interested in this 
form of history. A more minute li.-t of some of the curlier 



3=6 American Antiquanian* Society. [April, 

newspapers — the Boston News-Lctter for instance — might Ik; 

Aside from the exchanges on a money basis which have 
been uncommonly satisfactory, cash sales of both the soci- 
ety's publications and duplicate Americana have booh (juite 
frequent. A still further demand may be expected when our 
members, corresponding societies and dealers become better 
acquainted with the extent and value of the material at our 
command; a collection of Spanish-American duplicates 
is especially worthy of mention.. ft may safely be stated 
that some of the best books added to our collection within 
the past twenty years are the the result of exchanges, and 
that they largely outnumber the purchases made within the 
same period. Cotton Mather's "Ornaments of Zion, or 
the Character and Happiness of a Virtuous Woman," third 
edition, 1741, his "Everlasting Gospel," 1700, slightly 
imperfect, and Michael Wiggles worth's "Day of Doom," 
fifth edition, enlarged, 1701, have been secured in this 
way within a few weeks. Of the latter, Dr. Trumbull, 
in the Urinley Catalogue, first part, says, "neither Mi'. J. 
W. Dean nor Mr. Haven could find a copy of any Ameri- 
can edition earlier than the sixth, of 1715." They are all 
from Principal A. S. Roe, of the Worcester High School. 
Imperfections in such early pamphlets are not easily 
remedied. If some dealer would make a specialty of col- 
lecting and keeping on sale fragments of rarities, it might / 
prove a profitable investment for all concerned. A few 
volumes of Minnesota State Documents have recently been 
sent to the Minnesota Historical Society without charge. 
For some years past we have failed to send our publications 
in exchange for those received from foreign societies. Our 
obligations in this direction should be cancelled at an early 
day, through the Smithsonian Institution. Rev. Frederick 
M. Bird, of Lehigh University, whose collection of three 
thousand hymn books has no rival in America and but 
one abroad, has, by an exchange, helped the department 

1882.] Report on the Library. 37 

of hymnolqgy. ' Under the head of exchanges may be 
classed Salmi's Dictionary of Hooks relating to America, 

it having been forwarded as issued, for services rendered. 
This great undertaking merits all the assistance we can 
possibly give, and its completion will be awaited with 
interest. It is of especial value in a library like our own. 
Good progress is being made in the alcove list and card 
catalogue. In connection with this work Mr. Salisbury, fir., 
has charged himself with the preparation of an index to the 
first seventy-live numbers of the society's Proceedings, 
known as its first series. While it is not intended that this 
index shall be an elaborate one, its appearance will be wel- 
comed by members and corresponding societies. Under 
the rules and regulations lately adoptee] by the council and 
the library committee, rules at once liberal and stringent, 
the possibility of losses will be much reduced and the 
sense of security greatly heightened. There have been 
some changes made in the details of daily administration, 
with a view to the more prompt entry, examination, 
preparation and distribution of our accessions. The account 
of receipts and expenditures at the hall is now examined and 
approved by the auditors, and a semi-annual return made 
to the treasurer. While one of the principal objects of the 
society is to make and assist scholars in making new books, 
we have at the same time been glad to encourage the mem- 
bers of the several literary institutions of Worcester and 
others, in the free use of its library, under the rules. It 
should be more generally known that the society is Ameri- 
can in name, and international in membership; that the 
library is open every day, and that the duplicate room con- 
tains not only our own publications, but much literature 
which the market cannot readily supply. 

Permission has been granted Mr. II. G. O. Blake, literary 
executor of Henry D. Thoreau, to deposit in the hall during 
his absence, abroad, all of Thoreau's manuscripts. A fitting 
case for our valuable collection of coins and medals has been 

3# American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

placed in the main hall, where it can 'be conveniently 
examined by those interested in numismatics. Since Octo- 
ber, i860, when Mr. Nathaniel Paine read a paper 14)011 the 
coins and. tokens in the society's cabinet, many additions 
have been made. Perhaps our busy treasurer will find time 
to prepare a supplementary report upon them. 

More shelf-room is needed in the duplicate room to 
receive the classified material now accumulating upon the 
floor. It might be well to shelve the north lobby on the first 
floor for the United States Public Documents, now crowded 
into an alcove on the floor above. 

The cellar under the Salisbury extension will hardly 
become available for any purpose until better drained and 
possibly cemented, but we have no immediate use for it. 
Among the desired minor internal improvements arc the 
repairing of some of the early portraits, and the careful 
cleaning of the busts and other statuary. 

The foundations of the present library building proper 
were begun June 7, 1852 — nearly thirty years ago — 
under the direction of a building committee consisting of 
Levi Lincoln, Isaac Davis and Samuel F. Haven. Thomas 
A. Tclft, of Providence, was the architect, and Horatio 
N. Tower and Daniel S. Burgess, builders. In April fol- 
lowing, the removal of the library from the old to the new 
treasure-house was effected. 

Our present hall is at the north end of "Court Hill," on 
the corner of Main and Highland streets, fronting easterly 
on Lincoln square. It is protected on all sides from fire by 
open streets or space-ways, and in place of our automatically 
regulated furnace, which for twenty -five years gave partial 
security and comfort, we now have steam heat supplied to 
all parts of the building by the boiler connected with the 
new Court-house, nearly two hundred feet away. It is to 
be hoped that there may never be occasion for placing a 
boiler under the Salisbury Annex, although provision has 
been made therefor if needed. 

1882.] Beport on the Library. 39 

Mrs. Samuel F. Haven's gift of a new Brussels carpet 
for the oiliee, meets a real want. In connection with this 
gift, it may be proper to add, that under the direction of 
the library committee the room has been painted and fres- 
coed, at the charge of the Salisbury Building fund. The 
tin roof is now in excellent condition, having been repaired 
and repainted ; and the introduction of the telephone has 
proved to be a great convenience. 

In conclusion, thanks are extended to Messrs. Salisbury, 
Jr., and Paine, the committee on the library, for their con- 
stant and willing service. They have long been familiar 
with the inner workings* of the institution, and have given 
much time and thought to the furtherance of its objects. 

Respectfully submitted, 


Assistant- Librarian. 


American Antiquarian Society. [April 

Donors anfj Donations, 


Adams, Prof. Herbert li., Baltimore, Mil, — His " Tithiuginen," lour 
copies; unci one pamphlet. 

AmmidoWN, llOLMES, Esq., Southbridge.— His letter on the History of Tariff 

Baldwin, lion. John 1)., Worcester. — His " Record of the Descendants of 
George Donison." 

Barton, Mr. Edmund M., Worcester. — Thirty-live pamphlets; and one 
copper coin. 

Barton, William S., Esq., Worcester. — Three books; forty-two pamphlets; 
and a collection of miscellaneous newspapers. • 

Bell, Governor Charles H., Exeter, N. H. — Cotton Mather's "A Good 
Man making a Good End." 

BrintoN, DANIEL G., M.D., Philadelphia, Pa. —His " Names of the Gods in 
the Kiehe Myths, Central America." 

Brock, Robert A., Esq., Richmond, Va. — Two pamphlets; and the Rich- 
mond Standard, as issued. 

Campbell, Hon. James V., Detroit, Mich. — His Memorial Discourse on the 
Life and Services of Rev. George Palmer Williams, LL.D. 

Chandler, George, M.D., Worcester. — Pedigree of the Eager-Davis Fami- 
lies; eleven pamphlets; and two engravings. 

Clarke, Robert, Esq., Cincinnati, O. — " The Life, Public Services, and 
Papers of Arthur St. Clair." 

Davis, Hon. Edward L., Worcester. — Fifteen books; one hundred ami 
seventy pamphlets; two files of newspapers; and two maps. 

Davis, Hon. Isaac, Worcester. — Twenty-two volumes, chiefly works of 
Baron Von Humboldt, for his Spanish-American Alcove. 

Dexter, George, Esq., Cambridge. — His paper on the First Voyage under 
Sir Humphrey Gilbert's Patents of 1578; the Suffolk County Par Book, 1770- 
1805, with introduction and notes by Mr. Dexter; one book; and four 

Dexter, Rev. Henry M., D.D., Boston. — His "'True Story of John Smyth, 
the Se-Baptist, as told by himself and his contemporaries." 

Ellis, Rev. GEORGE E., D.D., Boston. — His Introduction to the History of 
the First Church in Boston. 

Fischer, Prof. Heinrich, Freiburg, Baden. — Thirteen of his own publica- 


ltt(S2.] Donors and Donations. II 

Guekn, lluu. Samuel A., Boston, —His " Two Chapters in the Early History 
of Groton, Mass.;" Ills Inaugural Address as Mayor of Boston, bss2; rhirty- 
seven books; riihety-two pamphlets ; one portrait; and one map. 

Hall, itev. Edward II., Worcester. — Two hundred hooks; four hundred 
and sixty-two pamphlets; one hundred and three numbers of the Kevin- des 
Deux Mondcs; The Nation, 1S71-1SN1 ; two photographs; and one miip. 

HOAR, Hon. GEORGE F., Worcester. — His "New England Ancestry of Presi- 
dent Garlield," three copies'; the First Annual Report of the Hunan of 
Ethnology; three pamphlets; and eight maps. 

HOMES, HENRY A., L'L.l)., Albany, N. Y. — His account of the manuscripts 
of General Dearborn. 

IIoyt, Albert II., Esq., Cincinnati, 0. — Biographical sketch of Madame 

Adelina Patti. 
Ica/halceta, Sr. J. G., Mexico.— Zuinarraga's " Destruecion de Antiqucdades 


JONES, Joseph 1 , M.D., Chairman, New Orleans, La. —Annual Report of the 
Louisiana Hoard of Health. 

Keller, Prof. Otto, Stuttgart, Germany. — Various German scientilic 
papers by himself and others. 

LODGE, Henky Caijot, Esq., Nah ant. — His " Life and Letters of George 
Cabot;" and selections from the letters of the Hon. E. II. Mills, with an 
introduction by Mr. Lodge. 

NASON, Lev. ELJAS, Hillerica. — His "Originality, or the Law of Progress 
under the Light of History;" and his discourse on the Death of President 
Gar lie Id. 

Paine, Nathaniel, Esq., Worcester. —One book; one hundred and sixty-one 
pamphlets; the Paine Family Records, Vol. II., No. 5; four files of news- 
papers; an English " Letters Patent" with the Great Seal attached; fifteen 
photographs; and one map. 

Perez, Sr. Andres A.-, New York.— Four tiles of Yucatan newspapers. 

PORTER, Rev. Edwaud G., Lexington. — His monograph concerning Presi- 
dent Garfield's Ancestry. 

PllEULE, Rear-Admiral George II., Hrookline. — His "Tribute to lfear- 
Adniiral Henry Knox Thatcher, U. S. N. ; " his notes for a History of Steam 
Navigation, No. 3; Thorn's Human Longevity, its Facts and Figures; 
Gardner's Means of prolonging life after Middle Age; a collection of manu- 
script and printed notes upon longevity; and a Japanese,- map of Yeddo, 
traced by Admiral Preble. 

llAU, Prof. CHARLES, Washington^, D. C. — His articles on Anthropological 
subjects, contributed to the Annual Reports of the Smithsonian Institution; 
and his "Observations on Cup-shaped and other Lapidarian Sculpture-." 

SxLlUliL'HY, EthliWCt: K., LL.D., New Haven, Conn. — A bronzu cop> ot 
the President Woolsey Medal. 

SALISBURY, James II., M.D., Cleveland, O. — A collection of nevvsi)apers 
relating to the death and burial of President Garfield, 

SALISBURY, Hon. STEPHEN, Worcester. — Two hundred and four numbers of 
English and American magazines; live files of newspapers; and one pam- 

42 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Salisbury, Stephen, Jr., lCsq., Worcester. — Le Plongeou's Mayapan and 

Maya [ascriptions, twenty-one copies; Revue des Deux Mondos; nineteen 

numbers; sixty-four pamphlets; and one tile of newspapers. 
Short, Prof. John T., Columbus, O. — Journal of the Cincinnati Society of 

Natural History, V r ol. 111., Nos. 1-4. 
Smucker, Hon. Isaac, Newark, O. — Ilis " Sketch of" Old Ohio Men;" three 

books; and six pamphlets. 
Staples, lion. Hamilton B., Worcester. — Ilis "Origin of the Names of the 

States of the Union," twenty-eight copies. 
Stoddard, Hon. Elijah 15., Worcester. — His Inaugural Address as Mayor 

of Worcester, January, 18S2 ; and "The Worcester Sewage and Blaekstone 

River Hearings, Legislature of 1882. ? ' 
Thomas, Edward 1., Es<j., Brookliue. — Two Garfield Memorial Discourses. 
Thompson, Prof. Charles 0., Worcester.— Three books; one hundred and 

eighty-three pamphlets; and various newspapers. 

Washburn, Col. John 1)., Worcester*— Five Hies of Insurance periodicals, 

in continuation. • 

WifiTTLESLY, Col. Charles, Cleveland, O. — Ilis Tracts, Nos.. 53, 54 and 55. 

of the Western Reserve and Northern Ohio Historical Scries. 
WtNSOR, Prof. JuSTlN, Cambridge. — His paper on Governor Bradford's 

Manuscript History of Plymouth Plantation and its Transmission to our 

WiNTilROP, lion. ROBERT C, Boston. — Ilis Centennial Oration at Vorktown, 

October 19, 1881; and bis address at the twentieth meeting of the Trustees 

of the Peabody Education Fund. 

Allls, Mr. Gardner S., Worcester. — Four pamphlets. 
Bailey, Isaac II., Esq., Boston. — The Shoe and Leather Dealer, as issued. 
Baker, Mrs. Frances M., Worcester. — One Mexican almanac. 
BALDWIN and Co., Messrs. John D., Worcester. —Their Daily and Weekly 

Spy, as issued. 
BARNES, lion. W. D., Tallahassee, Flu. — The lievenue Laws of Florida. 
Barton, Miss Clara 11., Dansville, N. Y. — Her " Red Cross of the Geneva 

Convention, Wbal it is, its Origin and History." 
Bird, Rev. Frederick M., South Bethlehem, Pa. — Five Lehigh University 

Boardman, Hon. Samuel L., Augusta, Me. — His " Home Farm," as issued. 
Boocjher, Mr. William F., Baltimore,* Md. — Fac-simile of a drawing of 

Baltimore Town in 1752. 
Bradlee, Rev. Caleb D., Boston.— Ilis "Lines in Memory of Longfellow." 
Briggs, Daniel B.,Esq., Dep. See'y, Lansing, Mich. — Liquor Laws of the 

State of Michigan, August, 1881. 
BRINLEY, Hon. Francis, Newport, R. I. — His report of 1881, as President 

of the Redwood Library and Athomeum Company. 
Bullock, Col. A. George, Worcester. — Six pamphlets; and two engraved 

portraits of the late Governor Bullock. 




Donors and Donat 



Caldwell, Rev. Augustine, Worcester. — Five books and eleven pam- 
' phlets, chiefly historical; ami his " Antiquarian Papers," as issued. 
Campbell, John, Esq." Des Moines, Iowa. — His proposed Heading of the 
Davenport. Tablet. 

Canfield, Miss P. W. S., Worcester. — Clarence Cook's "What shall we do 

with our Walls?" ; three pamphlets; and two photographs. 
Carpenter, Itev. Charles C, Mount Vernon, N. II. — One pamphlet. 
Carr, Mr. LupiEN, Cambridge. —His observations on the Crania from the 

Santa Barbara Islands, California. 
CLEMENCE, Mr. HENRY M., Worcester. — Eighty-nine pamphlets. 
COLTON, Mr. REUBEN, Worcester. — Twenty-two pamphlets. 
Colton, Mrs. Samuel II., Worcester. — The Jubilee Sabbath Proceedings at 

Piedmont Church, Worcester. 
Cook, Mr. IlENUY II., Barre. — His Gazette, as issued. 
Dall, Mrs. Caroline II., Georgetown, D. C— Waldcck's " Colcecion de las 

Antiqucdadcs Mcxicanas on el Museo Naeional," fol., Mexico, 1827. 
Davis, Andrew McF., Esq., San Francisco, Cal, -— The Califoriiian, as 

Dean, John Ward, Esq., Boston. — The New England llibliopolist, Vol. I., 

Nos. 1-8. 
Dickinson, Master G. Stuart, Worcester. — A collection of Amateur news- 
Dodge, Mr. Benjamin J., Worcester. — One pamphlet. 
Dodge, Thomas II., Esq., Worcester. ~r The Jubilee Sabbath Proceedings at 

Piedmont Church, Worcester. 
Doe, Messrs. Charles II. and Co., Worcester. -~ Their Daily ami Weekly 

Gazette, as issued. 
EaRLE, PLINY, M.D., Northampton. — Nino volumes of Insane Asylum 

reports; two books; and eighty-six pamphlets. 
Eastman, Samuel C, Esq*, Concord, N. II. — His Memorial of George 

Gil man Fogg. 
Edks, Henry IE, Esq., Charlestown. — Two hooks; two pamphlets; and two 

tiles of newspapers. 
Emmerton, James A., M.D., Salem. — His materials towards a Genealogy of 

the Emmerton Family. 
Foote, Itev. Henry L., Holyoke. — Eight pamphlets. 
FOOTE and Horton, Messrs., Salem. — Their Gazette, as issued. 
Geeould, ltev. Samuel L., Gortstown, N. II. — Time historical pamphlets. 
Goodwin, C. Otis, M.D., Worcester; *r One pamphlet. 
Hall, Mr. J. Brainerd, Worcester. —Two files of newspapers; and six 

Hall, Hon. James M. W., Mayor, Cambridge. — Proceedings at the Two 

Hundred and Fiftieth Anniversary of the Settlement of Cambridge. 
Hamilton, Mr. Charles, Worcester. — One pamphlet. 
Harlan, Mr. Caleh, Philadelphia, Pa. — His " lOlllora of the Susquehanna." 


imertcan Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Hart, Charles II., Esq., Philadelphia, Pa. — His Sketches of Mcml>ers of 
the Numismatic and Antiquarian Society of Philadelphia, who died in IS.S1* 
and Haldeman's " Chiekis Pock Retreat." 

Haven, Mrs. Samuel F., Worcester. — a new Brussels carpel for the cilice ; 
seventy-live copies of the Haven Memorial; fifty hooks; fifty-one pam- 
phlets; twelve copper coins; one autograph; and a heliotype poi'trail of 
Dr. Haven. 

IIensiiaw, Miss HARRIET E., Leicester. —A Tribute to President Garfield. 
HOLCOMUE, W. Fred., M.p., New York. — Code of Law in the Russian ami 

Polish Languages. 

HUBBARD Bros., Messrs., Boston. — Thirty hooks and thirty-four pamphlets, 

eh icily financial. 
Hubbard, Luther P., Esq., Secretary, New York. — An account of the 

Seventy-sixth Anniversary of the New England Society of the City of New 


Huntoon, Daniel T. V., Esq., Canton. — His "Philip Hunton and his 

Descendants ;" and two pamphlets. 
Husk, Goodwin and Co., Messrs., Lowell. — Two historical pamphlets. 
Jillson, Hon. Clark, Worcester. — A Tribute to Charles Hudson, by Henry 

M. Smith, Esq. 

KELLOGG and Stratton, Messrs., Fitchburg. — Their Sentinel, as issued. 
KlKKKBKiDE, TlIOMAS S., M.D., Philadelphia, Pa. — His Report of the 

Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane, for the year 1881. 
LABAKEE, Rev. J. C., Randolph. — Proceedings at the Oik; Hundred and 

Fiftieth Anniversary of the First Congregational Church of Randolph, Mass. 
Lamson, Rev. Darius F., Worcester. — Thirteen books; and one hundred 

and thirty-nine pamphlets. 
Lancaster, Mr. George Y., Worcester. — Seven pamphlets. 
Lane, Mr. II. F., Templeton. — His Address at the Celebration of the 

Twenty-fifth Anniversary of the Teinpleton High School. 
Lee, Mr. Pardon A., Worcester. — Cane made from wood taken from l he 

old Foster-street Railroad Station, Worcester. 
Lincoln, Edward W., Esq., Secretary, Worcester.— Transactions of the 

Worcester County Horticultural Society, 1882. 
Lincoln, Gen. William S., Worcester.— Four books; and one hundred and 

sixty-four pamphlets. 
Love king, Rev. Joseph F., Worcester. — Six of his own publications. 
Marble, Albert P., Esq., Superintendent, Worcester.— Two of his addresses 

to the Teachers of the Worcester Public Schools; ami his annual report for 

188 1. 
Martiiens, John F., Esq.. Pittsburg, Pa. — His Sketch of Jonathan Hoge 

MaSON, Prof. Otis T., Washington, D. C. — His "Lecture on What is 

Anthropology;" and three pamphlets. 
McAfee, Hon. J. R., Harrisburg, Pa. — The Laws of Pennsylvania for 1875, 

1878 aud 1881. 


1882.] Donors and Donations. 4,5 

Merriman, Rev. Daniel, D.D., Worcester. — His "Sober View of Absti- 
nence;" and his Sermon on the death of President Garfield. 

M etc ale, Caler B., Esq., Worcester. —Nineteen pamphlets; and the Nation 
and Christian Union, in continuation. 

North, Mr. S. N. I)., Washington, D. C. - His article on the Newspaper 

Press of tin! United States. 

Park, John G., M.D., Worcester. —Four of his reports of the Slate Lunatic 
Hospital at Worcester. 

FEET, Rev. STEPHEN I)., Clinton, Wis. — The Antiquarian, as issued. 

PENDLETON, Hon. George H., Washington, 1). C.— His speech on Civil 
Service Reform. 

PERRY, Right Rev. Wm. STEVENS, D.J)., Davenport, Iowa. — His "Ober- 
Aininorgaii in lS7o and 1881;" and the Iowa Churchman, as issued. 

Phillips, Rev. George W., Worcester. —His Decennial Sermon, January 1, 
18S2, before the Plymouth Congregational Society, Worcester, Mass. 

Phillips, Henry, Jr., Esq., Philadelphia, Pa. —Ilia "Old Time Supersti- 
tions;" his Remarks upon a Coin of Sicyon ; and his "Head Dresses 
exhibited on Ancient Coins." 4 

Rice, Mr. Georcje II., Worcester. — Two pamphlets. 

Roiuuns, Hon. GEORGE, Fitchburg. — His Address as Mayor, with the 
Annual Reports of 1881. 1 

Roe, Mr. Alpred S., Worcester. — One book; fifteen pamphlets; and 
Harper's Bazar, 1878-81. 

Rogers, Mrs. James S., Worcester. -The Records of the Educational 
Department of the People's Club of Worcester. ^ 

Salisijury, D. Waldo, Esq., Boston. — One book; and thirty-one pamphlets. 

SHERIDAN, Gen. Philip II., U. S. A. — "The Battles of Gravelly Run, Din- 
widdie Court House and EiVe Forks, Va., ltttia." 

SLATER, Alpiieus B., Jr., Providence, R. I. — The Antenna, Vol. I., No. 3. 

Smith, Henuy M., Esq., Worcester. — His "Memorial of Charles Hudson." 

Smith, Hon. James, Richmond, Va. — The Revenue Laws of Virginia. 

Smith, William A., Esq., Worcester. — Twenty-live Insurance pamphlets. 

Snow, Ezra U., Esq., "Worcester. — Twenty-one copies of the Worcester 
Illustrated Business Guide. 

Souther, William T., M.D., Secretary, Worcester.— The " Constitution of 
the Association of the Natives of Maine of Worcester Comity, Mass." 

Spalding, Mr. E. II., Nashua, N. II. — New Hampshire Registers, 1877-1882. 

STAPLES, Rev. Carlton A., Mention. —His Address at the Inauguration of 
the Taft Public Library, Mendon, Mass. 

Stevens, Charles E., Esq., Worcester. — His " Henry Chapin as Judge of 

THAYER, Hon. Adin, Worcester. — His monograph on the Caucus. 

THayer, Charles P., M.D., Burlington, Vt. — Ilia Vermont Medical Regis- 
ter for 1.S77. 

Tisun, Mr. Alexander, Librarian, Olivia, Mich. — Catalogue of Olivet 
College for 1SS1-18S2. 


American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Titos, Rev. Anson, Jr., Weymouth. — His "Siibin Family of America." 
Townk, Enoch IT;, Esq., city Clerk, Worcester. -- Senator Hoar's Eulogy on 

President Gartfeld ; and the Garfield Memorial. 
Turner, Mr. John II., Aycr. — His Public Spirit, as issued. 
Walker, Joseph II., Es<p, Worcester.— His "Few Pacts iind Suggestions 

on Money, Trade and Banking." 

Wanmihjr.v and Moen Manufacturing Company, Worcester. — Six 
pamphlets on wire fencing. 

Wentwortii, Hon. John, Chicago, 111. — His " Wentwortli Genealogy, 

English and American," in three! volumes. 
Wesry, Messrs. Joski'H S. and Son, Worcester. —Two books; and four 

hundred and nineteen pamphlets. 

WHITE, Mr. James, Worcester. —Thirty-eight books; and four hundred and 
lifty-ilve pamphlets. 

Wim TAKER, Mr. Thomas, New York.— His Churchman's Almanac for ISS2. 

Wilder, Hon. Marshall P., Boston. — His "Horticulture of Boston and 

Vicinity;" and his annual Address as President of the New England 

Historic Genealogical Society, .January, 1883. 
Wolcott, Rev. Samuel, D.D., Cleveland, O., for the Proprietors. — His 

" Memorial of Samuel Wolcott and souk; of his Descendants." 


American Academy of Arts and Sciences. — Their Memoirs, Vol. XT., 

Part 1. 
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. —The Proceedings 

for June-December, 1881. 
American Baptist Missionary Union. — Their Magazine, as issued. 
American Geographical Society. —Their Bulletin for 1881, Nos. 1 and 

2; and Journal, Vols. XI. and X J I . 
American Numismatic and Archaeological Society. -r- Proceedings of 

the Twenty-third Annual Meeting. 
American oriental Society. — Their Proceedings, October '2<>, 1881. 
American Philosophical Society. —Their Proceedings, No. 10!). 
Andover Theological Sfminary. — The Catalogue of 1881-82. 
ASTOli LllJRARY, New York. —The Thirty-third Annual lie port, 
Boston ATHEN.EUM. — The Catalogue of the Library, Part 5. 
Boston, City ok. — The ltecord Commissioners' Report, No. 7. 
Boston Public Library. — The Bulletin, sis issued. 
Bunker Hill Monument Association. — Their Proceedings of June 17, 

Bowdoin College. —The Triennial Catalogue of 1881; and the Annual 

Catalogue for 1881-82. 
Canadian Institute. —The Journal, New Series, Vol. I., Part '2. 
Chicago Historical Society. — Washfourne's Sketch of Edward Coles, 

second Governor of Illinois. 


1882.] Donors and DontUiom. 47 

Coijden ClOu. — - Mougrcdien's " Pleas for Protection Examined;" the 
Financial Reform Almanac for 1882; and k ' England Under Five Trade." 

Commonwealth CLUli, Wunrsh r. — Their Charter, OHieors, Uy-Laww, 
House Rules and List of Oilicers. 

Connecticut State Library. — Nine volumes of Connecticut .State Docu- 

Essex Institute. — -The Historical Collections for April and September, 

1881 j and the Bulletin, Nos. 10-12. 
Harvard UNIVERSITY. — The Bulletin, as issued. 
llAVERKORD Col. LUCE. —The Catalogue Of 1881-82. 
IJlXdiiAM FIRST Parish. — Commemorative Services on its Two Hundredth 


Iowa State Library. — The Report for 1880-81. 

Johns Hopkins University. —The Sixth Annual Report. 

Lancaster Town Liurary. — The Nineteenth Annual Report. 

Long Island Historical Society. — List of the Reeenl Additions to the 


Maine Historical Society.— Their Collections, Vol. VII 1.; and an account 

of the Society's Longfellow Meeting. 
Maryland Historical Society. — Spoiibrd's " Founding of Washington 

Massachusetts, Commonwealth ok. — Two volumes of Massachusetts 

Stat*- Documents. 
Massachusetts General Hospital. — The Sixty-Eighth Annual Report. 
Massachusetts Grand Lodge ok Free and Accepted Masons.— 

Their Proceedings, October to December, 1881. 
Massachusetts Horticultural Society. — Their Transactions, lssi, 

Part 1; and the Schedule of Prizes for 1882. 
MuSEO Nacional de Mexico. — Anales, Tomo JL, Entrega f> u , 0". 
New Bedford Free Public Liu raey. — One pamphlet. 
New England Historic Genealogical Society, — Proceedings at the 

Annual Meeting, January 4, 1882; and the Register, as issued. 
New York Genealogical and Biographical Society'. ->- Their Record, 

as issued. 
New York Historical Society. — Their Collections for the year 1877. 
New Hampshire, the State ok. — Five volumes of the State Documents 

of 1881. 
New Jersey Historical Society. — The New Jersey Archives, First 

Series, Vols. II. and III. 
Old Residents' Association, Lowell. — Their Contributions, Vol. 11., 

No. 2. 
Pennsylvania Historical Society. — Their Magazine of History and 

Biography, as issued. 
Perkins Institution and Massachusetts School kor the Blind.— 

The Fiftieth Annual Report. 

48 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

i 1*11 ILA DELPHI A LIBRARY COMl'AN v. -- Their Bulletin for January , 1882. 


Annual Report. 
Providence AtheN/EUM. — The Forty-sixth Annual Report. 
Rhode Island Historical Society. — Nineteen Rhode Island Public 
Documents; and the " Genealogy of One Line of the Hopkins Family." 

for 1875 and 1878. 

Societk D'ETiiNOGRAPiiiE.— Their Doings for 1871 and 1875. 

Society of Antiquaries of London. — Their Arelneologiii, Vol. XLVL, 

Tail, 2. 
Theological Institute of Connecticut. — The Catalogue for 1881-82. 
United States Department of the Interior. — Thirteen volumes of 

United Slates Public Documents. 

Untied States General Land Office. — The Centennial Map of the 
United Stales. 

United States Museum, Washington. — The Proceedings; and Bulletin of 
the United States Fish Commission, as issued. 

Untied States War. Department. — Four reports of the department. 

WISCONSIN Historical Society. — Catalogue of the Library, Volumes 

Worcester County Mechanics Association. — Nineteen tiles of news- 

WORCESTER Fire SOCIETY. —Their Rules and Regulations, 1871. 

WORCESTER FREE INSTITUTE. — Three hundred and ninety of the Catalogues 
of 1881 and 1882. 

Worcester Free Public Library. — Seven hundred and one pamphlets; 
and lifty-seveu tiles of newspapers. 

Worcester National Rank.— The New York Evening Post, in continua- 

Worcester Society of Antiquity. '<— The Worcester Town Records from 
170;") to 1774; and their Proceedings for the year 1881. 

Yale COLLEGE. —The Annual Catalogue for 1881-82. 

Young Men's Christian Association of New York. —-Their Twenty- 
ninth Annual Report. 

Young Men's Christian Association of Worcester. — The Scientific. 
American, in continuation, 

188^.] llvporl of the Treasurer. 49 


Tjie Treasurer of t ho American Antiquarian Society here- 
with submits his semi-annual report, showing the receipts 
and expenditures from October 15, 1881, to April 15, 

In the last report of the Council, it was announced, that 
our late esteemed Librarian, Samuel F. Haven, LL.D., had 
bequeathed to the Society the sum of one thousand dollars 
to be paid after the death of his wife, " or sooner if she .shall 
think best." Since the last meeting- of the Society, Mrs. 
Haven has paid over to the Treasurer this legacy, and in 
accordance with the terms of the will the ''Haven Fund" 
has been established, the income of which is to be appropri- 
ated to the purchase ,of books for the Haven Alcove. The 
valuable library of Dr. Haven will eventually become a 
part of this alcove. 

By vote of the Council, the income of the Tenney Fund 
has been carried to the Publishing Fund which does not 
alford sufficient income to meet the expense of printing our 
Semi-Annual Proceedings. 

Most of the available income of the Davis Fund has been 
used in the purchase of valuable works relating to Spanish 

The general condition of the various Funds is shown by 
the following detailed statement giving the receipts and 
disbursements for the past six months. 


50 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Statement ok the Condition of the Several Funds, 
Ai'itiL 15, 1882. 

The Librarian's and General Fund. 

1881, October 15. Balance of the Fund, $31,502.98 

1882, April 15. Received for interest and divi- 

dends to elate, 831.50 

" " " Received for one Life Assess- 
ment, 50.00 

" " " " " Thirteen Annual 

Assessments, 05.00 

1882, April 15. Paid salaries and incidental ex- 
penses to date, • . 1,045.58 

" " " Present amount of the Fund, . $31,108.90 

Invested in— 

Bank Stock, $9,400.00 

Railroad Stock, 1,800.00 

Railroad Bonds, 10,200.00 

Mortgage Notes, 10,000.00 

Cash, 3.90 

» $31,403.90 

The Collection and Research Fund. 

1881, October 15. Balance of the Fund, #17,490.03 

1882, April 15. Received for interest ami divi- 

dends to date, 447.00 

" " " Received for books sold, . . . 08.32 

1882, April 15. Paid part of Assistant- 
Librarian's salary, . . #375.00 
" " Paid incidental ex- 
penses, 01.00 439.00 

" " 15. Present amount of the Fund, . #17,571.75 

Invested in — 

Bank Stock, $0,400.00 

Railroad Stoek, 5,300.00 

Railroad Bonds, 3,100.00 

Worcester Gas Co. Stock, 500.00 

Mortgage Note, 2, 150.00 

Cash, 121.75 


1882.] Report of the Treasurer. 51 

The Bookbinding Fund. 

1881, October 15. Balance of the Fund, $G,183.74 

1882, April 15. Received 'dividends to % date, . . 181.50 


1882, April 15. Paid for binding, . . .$113.40 
" " " " Asst. -Librarian on 

acct. of this Fund, . (12.50 17.5.90 

" " " Present amount of the 

Fund, |6,189.34 

Invested in— 

Bank Stock, $2,500.00 

Railroad Slock, 1,000.00 

Railroad Bonds 2,000.00 

Cash, 89.34 

$ 6,189.34 
The Publishing Fund. 

1881, October 15. Balance of the Fund, $8,941.15 

1882, April 15. Received for income on the in- 

vestments, 288.50 

" " "- Received from the Tenney Fund, 125.00 

" " " " for publications sold, 21.80 

1882, April 15. Paid for printing semi-annual 

report, 466.56 

Present amount of the Fund, . $8, 904. 98 

Invested in — 

Bank Stock, $1, 600.00 

Railroad Bonds, 5,500.00 

City Bond, 1,000.00 

Mortgage Note, 370.00 

Cash, 434.98 

$ 8,904.98 

The Salisbury Building Fund. 

1881, October 15. Balance of the Fund, #1 ,51 1.61 

1882, April 15. Paid for repairs and Improve- 

ments, 90.10 

" " Present amount of the. Fund, . #1,121.21 

52 American Antiqiiarian Society. [April, 

Invested in- 

Railroad Bond, #1,000.00 

Cash, 421.21 


The Isaac Daois Book Fund. 

1881, October 15. Balance of the Fund, $1,573.85 

1882, April 15. Received for dividends ,to date,. 2:5.00 


Paid for books, etc., 111.13 

1882, April 15. Present ainount: of the Fund, . . $1,485.72 

Invested in — 

IJank Stock, $500.00 

Railroad Stock, 800.00 

Cask, . 185.72 

The Lincoln Legacy Fund. 

1881, October 15. Balance of the Fund, , .... $1,708.82 

1882, April 15. Received dividends to date, . . 4(1.00 

" " " Present amount of the Fund, . $1,814.82 

Invested in— 

Bank Stock, $1,000.00 

Cash, 214.82 

The Benj. F. Thomas Local History Fund. 

1881, October 15. Balance of the Fund, $1,017.07 

1882, April 15. Received interest to date, . . . 35.00 

Paid for book, 1.25 

" " " Present amount of the Fund, . $1,050.82 

Invested in — 

Railroad Bond, $1,000.00 

Cash, 50.82 


1882.] flepovt of the Treasurer. 53 

The Tenney Fund. 

1881, October 15. Balance of the Fund, $5,000.00 

1882, April la. Received interest to date, . . . 125.00 

1882, April 15. Transferred to Publishing Fund, 125.00 

" " " Present amount of the Fund, . $5,000.00 

Invested in— 
Mortgage Notes, $5,000.00 

The A/den Fund. 

1881, October 15. Balance of the Fund, $1,000.00 

1882, April 15. Interest to date, .'55. 00 

" " " Present amount of the Fund, . $1,035.00 

Invested in— v 

Railroad Bond, $1,000.00 

Cash, 85.00 

The Haven Fund. * 

1882, April 15. Present amount of the Fund (in 

Savings Bank), $1,000.00 

Total of the eleven Funds, . . $7(5,877.57 

Cash on hand, included in the foregoing statement, $1,557.57 

Respectfully submitted. 

Worcester, April 15, 1882. 


The undersigned, Auditors of the American Antiquarian Society, 
hereby certify that they have examined the report of the Treasurer, 
made up to April 15, 1882, and And the same to be correct and properly 
vouched, and that the securities held by him for the several Funds arc 
as stated, and that the balance of cash on hand is accounted for. 

Worcester, April 21, 1882. 

54 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

R B E R T B Y L E 


All modern thought, so far as it is scientific, is largely dependent upon 
the labors of three men — Isaac Newton, Robert Boyle and John Locke. 
Newton was born in 1042 (December 25), Locke 1G32 (August 2 ( J), and 
Boyle 1020 (January 25), the same year that Francis Bacon died. It is 
true that Bacon preceded them all, and is justly referred to as the father 
of inductive philosophy; but in order to understand the relation of 
Bacon's labors to modern science it is necessary to recall Whewell's 
observation, 1 That to the formation of science two things are requisite, 
Facts and Ideas; or, in other Words, Seuse and Reason. The impres- 
sions of sense, unconnected by some rational and speculative principle, 
can only end in a practical acquaintance with individual objects; the 
operations of the rational faculties, on the other hand, if allowed to go 
on without a constant reference to external things, can lead only to 
empty abstraction and barren ingenuity. Real speculative knowledge 
demands the combination of two ingredients : — right reason, and facts 
to reason upon. 

Aristotle's immense accumulation of facts lay, as loose stones in a 
quarry, more than two thousand years; though philosophy gained from 
his labor the idea of a final cause. The fundamental facts of astronomy 
were as well known to the Chaldaeans as to Newton; but, though 
logic, metaphysics and geometry were highly developed, no science of 
astronomy arose before him. 

In the fact of the lack of trained perception, reason instructed to deal 
with the results of observation and conscience, obedient to the teaching 
of nature, united in one man, must be sought the explanation of the 
slow progress of the knowledge of the external world during the period 
which preceded the seventeenth century. 

The era of progress in science begins with Lord Bacon; but the 
Instauratio Magna was a method; and had not Locke and Boyle worked 
it out and given it, practical efiiciency — one in the science of mind, 
the other in the sciences of matter — it might have lain neglected; there 
would have been great admiration of it as an intellectual achievement, 
but no seience of chemistry. To borrow and extend a Scripture image, 
Bacon ploughed, Boyle tilled, Locke watered, Newton harvested. 

Of the tlu'ee founders of modern science, Newton and Locke have 
received their full meed of praise; but a certain obscurity has settled 

Hist. Indue. Sci., 1, 43. 

1882.] Robert Boyle. 55 

over the merits of Boyle. There are two reasons ibr this undeserved 

I. It is certain that every great discoverer reflects the brilliancy of* 
his discovery and that his personal worthiness must he estimated by a 
knowledge of his actual contribution to the wealth of the world through 
achievement of courage, knowledge and faith. Columbus is great 
because he got over, ami his greatness would be secure had San Salva- 
dor been an isolated island with no America beyond; but his greatness 
is the opaque planet upon which a new world casts a great light. It is 
no disparagement of the " incomparable Newton " to admit thai the 
ell'ect upon the imagination of the unique splendor of his discovery of 
the law of gravitation has produced a certain exaggeration in the popu- 
lar estimate of the man. Boyle's discoveries were not of the kind that 
appeal to the imagination or strike the eye of the ordinary observer; 
his work was of the fundamental sort upon which subsequent genera- 
tions of scholars have built imposing structures of learning. Newton 
worked mathematically, Boyle experimentally; hence one did not, in 
any sense, furnish tools for the other. Newton established a body of 
philosophy, Boyle a method of research; Newton wrenched one reluc- 
tant but momentous secret from the hand of nature which undoubtedly 
has in it the solution of the whole economy of forces, but he did not 
see its scope; Boyle ascertained by independent experiment a great 
number of laws of less magnitude; Newton studied force — Boyle 
matter. In brief any attempts to form comparative estimates of 
Newton and Boyle are rendered abortive by the fact that their charac- 
teristic merits and achievements are incommensurable. One thing is 
certain, that the two were intimates, and that Newton's estimate of 
Boyle is shown by his submitting to him for criticism a manuscript of 
his speculations on the nature of gravity which he carefully concealed 
from every one else. 

Hume says, without sufficient reason : — Boyle was apparently a great 
partisan of the mechanical philosophy, which led him to the discovery 
of so many secrets of nature and led others to imagine the rest. New- 
ton showed the imperfections of this philosophy, and relegated the 
intricate secrets of nature to the obscurity where they have ever since 
remained. 1 

There is another view of this : Boyle never disputed the imperfec- 
tions of the mechanical philosophy; no one saw them more clearly or 
admitted them more frankly; but he did not choose to abandon this 
philosophy till he had exhausted its possibilities of good. A study of 
Boyle's face aud of the whole of his work in Ethics as well as in Natural 
Science, shows that lie had that deep spiritual insight into things 
unseen, which led him at once to great contidence in the methods and 
results of experimental demonstration, when it laid hold of a determi- 
nate problem, and not less to hesitation and scrupulous care when he 

1 Hume, Hist. Eug., 1, 374. 

56 American Antiquarian Society. April, 

attempted the solution of a problem whose elements included ideas 
outside the realm of matter. 

II. Another reason for Boyle's obscurity, is his misfortune in being 
called an Alchemist, though, as we shall see he was no more entitled to 
this epithet than either one of his great contemporaries. 

In Notes and Queries, 3d series, 10, 103, General Index of Subjects, 
Boyle's name appears under Alchemists, on the ground of his paper, 
An Historical Account of a Degradation of Gold made by an Anti- 
Elixir; a strange chemical narrative. No greater act of injustice has 
been committed against the fame of a great man. 

liobert Boyle was not an alchemist, though he was deeply interested 
in alchemy. The Historical Account is an accurate description of the 
behavior of gold in the presence of mercury. The story of the man 
who called on Boyle with a magic powder which he projected into a 
crucible, in Boyle's presence, with the eil'ect of leaving in it a button of 
gold is told by Mangetus, and obscurely referred to by Boyle. There is 
an impression that Boyle gave to Locke the first part of a recipe for 
the transmutation of base metals into gold, and to Newton the second 
and third parts; and Newton wished Locke as one of Boyle's executors, 
to insert these recipes in his memoirs. Boyle is responsible in all this 
for nothing more than speculations upon possible explanations of the 
fact which he discovered, but which is familiarly known to metallur- 
gists now, that mercury grows hot when mixed with gold. This 
discovery drew out a long letter from Newton to Oldenberg. 1 In 
urging his view of the origin of the differences in bodies lie adduces 
in evidence the fact that by a certain treatment silver can be educed 
from gold; of course this was the resolution of an alloy, and obtaining 
silver from gold is very bad alchemy. 

These are all the fact* that go to show the truth of the allegation. 

On the other hand, in a letter to Glanville,* Boyle alluding to a state- 
ment then current, that Friar Wencel had transmuted base metals into 

gold, hopes " to get one positive instance which will prove more than 

all the cheats and lictions." 

And in The Sceptical Chemist, Sect. III., he says, "I would fain see 
that fixed and noble metal, gold, separated into salt, sulphur and 
mercury; and, if any man will submit to a competent forfeiture, in case 
of failing, I shall willingly, if he succeeds, pay for the materials and 
bear the charges of such an experiment. After what 1 have myself 
tried, I peremptorily deny, that there may out of gold be extracted a 
certain substance, which chymists call tincture or sulphur, and which 
deprives the remaining body of its usual color. (Nor am I sure that 
there cannot be drawn out of the same metal a real, quick and mining 
mercury), but for this salt of gold, I never could either see it, or be 
satisfied by the relation of any credible eye-witness that there was such 

1 Birch's Life of Boyle, p. 221. 

2 Boyle's Works, Birch, London, 1772, VI., 58. 

1882.] Robert Boyle. 57 

a thing separated. That which most deters me from such trials is not 
that they are chargeable, but unsatisfactory, though they should suc- 
ceed. For the extraction of this golden salt, being in chymieal pro- 
cesses prescribed to be obtained only by corrosive menstrua, or the 
intervention of other saline bodies., it will remain doubtful whether the 
salt produced be that of the gold itself, or of the saline bodies or 
spirits employed to prepare it; for that such disguises of metals impose 
upon artists is no new thing in chymistry." ' 

It is a very hard fate that Boyle alone should have borne whatever 
stigma attaches to meddling with alchemy, for it is certain that Locke 
shared his curiosity in this matter, that Nevvtou was quick to take up 
every new suggestion in regard to it, even writing to Locke about 
Boyle's " red powder," and that Leibnitz was Secretary to the Society 
of Kosicrucians at Nuremberg. 8 Newton, Boyle, Locke and Leibnitz 
were all alchemists, if either was. Sir David Brewster, Memoirs of 
Newton, II., chap. 25, speaks of Newton as an alchemist, but adds that 
Boyle, Locke and Newton studied alchemy as a science — all others, for 
fraudulent purposes. There is a letter from Newton to Ashton, given 
in Brewster's Memoir [1, 388], which shows that his mind was 
impressed with some belief in alchemy; he urges Ashton to inquire 
about the alleged transmutation of metals, and says, " such transmuta- 
tions are above all others worth noting, being the most luciferous and 
many times lucriferous experiments in philosophy." 3 

But that such men should ever meddle with such a subject is very 
strange, and Sir David justly remarks: 4 There is no problem of more 
dillicult solution, than that which relates to the belief in alchemy and 
to the practice of its arts by men of high character and lofty attain- 
ments. In so far as Newton's inquiries were limited to the transmuta- 
tion and multiplication of metals, and even to the discovery of the 
universal tincture, we may find some apology for his researches, but we 
cannot understand how a mind of such power * * could stoop to be 
even the copyist of the most contemptible alchemical poetry and the 
annotator of a work, the obvious production of a fool and a knave. 
Such, however, was the taste of the century in which Newton lived, 
and when we denounce the mental epidemics of a past age we may lind 
some palliation of them in those of our own time. 

In order to form a just critical estimate of Boyle, it is necessary to 
glance at the circumstances of his birth, education and friendships. 

Robert Boyle, seventh son of Richard, Earl of Cork, was born at 
Lismore, County of Cork, Ireland, January 25, 1G2G. Ilis mother was 
daughter of Sir Geoffrey Feuton, a lady of great beauty and strength of 

It appears from Birch's Life of Robert Boyle that his ancestors were 
persons of importance among the titled landholders of Ireland. The 

1 Brewster, Mem. Newton, 2, 375. u lb., 2, 375. 
J Brewster, 1, 35. 4 Ibid., 2, 372. 


58 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

name was originally Biuvile, and Humphrey do Biuvile was a lord in 
the times of Edward the Confessor. Lodoviek Boyle, who lived in the 
reign of Henry III., was father of John Boyle and he of James and he 
of Lodoviek whose son, probably of same name, was sueeeeded by his 
son James the father of Lodoviek Boyle of Rodney and of the Friars in 
Hereford in the reign of Henry VI. His, Lodovick's, second son Roger 
was grandfather 'of Richard Boyle, Bishop of Cork and Ross, and 
afterwards Archbishop of Tuam, who died March 1(J, 1G44. His second 
sou Richard, Lord Boyle, Baron of Yonghall, Viscount Dungarvan, 
Earl of Cork, Lord High Treasurer of Ireland, one of his majesty's 
honorable privy council, and one of the two lords justices for the gov- 
ernment of Ireland, was the father of Robert,— by far the greatest man 
who has borne the name, and with whom it becomes practically extinct. 
The only persons of the name mentioned in the Biographie Universelle, 
are Robert, his brother Roger, his nephew Charles, and John, Charles's 
son. Charles Boyle was one of the defenders of the genuineness of 
the epistles of Phalari's against Richard Bentley. In the Biographie 
Geucrale, Richard is mentioned only as the father of his sons; of these, 
Roger, Count d'Orrery, Baron of Broghill, an older brother, Charles 
a younger son of Roger aud Charles's son John, are all that are men- 
tioned. Charles became a peer, and to him George Graham dedicated 
his planetarium ; John died in 1762, so that in seventy-one years from 
the death of Robert the name disappears from literature and from 

The Earl of Cork conducted the education of his sons on principles 
radically unlike those that prevailed among the noble families of Eng- 
land in the seventeeth century. Truth, purity and a proper ambition 
for excellence, as well as a charitable regard for others, were inculcated 
and exemplitied in the family, and it is recorded of Robert that an 
almost fanatical truthfulness was a marked trait of his boyhood. He 
says, in the Life of Philaretus, his own autobiography, "that he was 
born in a condition that was neither high enough to favor a temptation 
to laziness, nor low enough to discourage him from aspiring." These 
natural advantages were improved by assiduous study under the best 
tutors, supported by the fiue physical training which is such a boon to 
English boys. From the age of ten, for four years he was at Eton 
under the care of Sir Henry Wotton, and to this admirable master 
Boyle was fond of acknowledging his indebtedness ; for Wotton was to 
his age what Arnold is to ours, a teacher in whom the man was always 
superior to the pedagogue, and who without relaxing the strictness of 
discipline thought it a teacher's main duty to awaken in boys an 
unquenchable thirst for knowledge, with enthusiasm for righteousness, 
and "to fix the awful must of duty below the tides of feeling." R. Acker- 
man enters Boyle in his list of Etonians as an oppidan. Locke was 
at Westminster at the same time. After Eton, Philaretus travelled, 
lived awhile in Florence and learned Italian. He became familiar with 
the writings of Galileo, and records an exquisite anecdote of the great 


Robert Boyle. 


astronomer: Before his death, being long grown blind, to certain friars 
(a tribe whom for their vices and impostures he long had hated), that 
reproached him with his blindness, as a just punishment of heaven 
incensed for being so narrowly pried into by him, he answered that he 
had " the satisfaction of not being blind till he had seen in heaven what 
never mortal eyes beheld before." ' 

And his fine susceptibility to the charms of natural scenery comes 
out in a bit of description, which has done valiant service in letters of 
travel since. Looking down from one of the peaks of the Alps, he 
says, ''The hill was eight miles in ascent, and double that number 
downward. It was there free from snow; but all the neighboring hills 
where store of crystal is digged, like perpetual penitents do all the 
year wear white. 2 

In Italy he gave attention to philosophy and especially affected that 
of the Stoics. 

Five years of travel kept him away from the excitements of politics. 
lie returned to England in 1G44, and only after waiting four months, 
such was the confusion consequent upon the battle of Marston Moor, 
reached the manor of Stalbridge, which had become his own by inheri- 
tance, where he resided for some time. He removed to Oxford in 1644, 
and to London in 1GG8, where he spent the remainder of his life. 

The condition of England during Boyle's life was unfavorable to the 
quiet and repose of scholarship. Born under Charles I., he went 
through the Commonwealth and the reigns of. Charles II. and James II., 
and died soon after the accession of William. In the turmoil of the 
Restoration, those who were by nature adverse to strife withdrew 
from politics and gave themselves to their chosen studies : and this age 
of agitation produced Newton, Boyle, Locke, Ilalley, Hooke, Dr. 
Burnet and others. These llowers of learning sprung from the filthy 
ooze of the last days of the Stuarts. 

All his life long, in spite of the utmost care in infancy and youth, — 
his father having committed him to the care of a country nurse to bring 
him up as hardy as her own son, — he was a sulferer from acute pain. 
He had ague at Eton and endured the tortures of an organic disease 
most of his life. In 1GG9, he was partially paralyzed and was constantly 
apprehensive of the loss of his sight. But by simplicity in diet and 
regularity of life he maintained his powers tp the end; "his sight 
began not to grow dim above four hours before he died," says his 
biographer; "and when death came upon him, he had not been above 
three hours in bed, before it made an end of him, with so little pain, 
that it was plain the light went out merely for want of oil to maintain 
the flame." a 

He died in London, December 31, 1691, at the age of Go. 4 A week 
later his remains were laid in the Chancel of St. Martin's in the Fields, 

1 Birch, 44. 2 lb., 43. 3 Ib., 2» C J. 4 He expired at 12.45 midnight, so 
that the date is often erroneously given as December 30. 

GO American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Westminster, without pomp or ceremony, according to his request: 
unci, to an audience that included nearly all the people of station, 
influence or learning in the kingdom, Bishop Burnet preached his 
remarkable sermon from the text, For God giveth to a man that is good 
in His sight, wisdom, and knowledge, and joy. 1 

Boyle was never married, but he found great delight in the society of 
his beautiful and accomplished sister the Lady lianalagh, upon whom 
he poured the wealth of his generous and affectionate nature. lie 
survived her death but a single week, and was laid to rest by her side. 

John Locke, Dr. Cox and Dr. Dickson were named by Boyle as his 
literary executors, but the coveted labor fell mainly to Locke, who 
formed an elaborate scheme for gathering up and securing to posterity 
the fruits of his friend's life-work, but his own death in 1701, frustrated 
the scheme; Locke did, however, edit an edition of Boyle's History of 
the Air in 1691. The work was done in 174 L by Dr. Thomas Birch, but 
the list of Boyle's works given by Birch is incomplete, and, indeed, no 
complete list of them has ever been published. It is an instance of the 
adverse fate that has attended Boyle, that in Johnson's Cyclopaedia, this 
life of Boyle, which is by far the most considerable and the best per- 
formed of all Birch's biographies, is not mentioned at all in the list of 
his writings. 

In person, Boyle was tall and slender, of a wan visage and serious 
aspect. His face showed a certain dignity and sweetness of expression 
that were very winning. He spoke slowly and hesitatingly, a habit 
resulting from his effort to overcome stammering. 

He was plain in dress and unostentatious in all affairs. Aware of his 
physical weakness, and determined to apply to himself the dicta of 
physiology, he cultivated the most scrupulous abstemiousness in diet 
and regulated his dress by the thermometer. 

He had himself perfectly in hand, disputed little; constantly employed 
the phrases "perhaps," " it seems," "it is not improbable" (for which 
indeed he apologizes in the Proemial Essay); but, not losing sight 
of the truth to which he was devoted, persistently threw into the 
empirical debates of his time .inevitable doubts ami unanswerable diili- 
culties. He compares the fate of all erroneous views to the disappear- 
ance of the camera-pictures upon the admission of full light; urging 
that the only way to banish darkness is to pour in light. 

He urges as an illustration " that the bare making of trials with the 
loadstone and irons touched by it, hath produced inventions of greater 
use to mankind than were ever made by Leucippus or Epicurus or 
Aristotle," He was shy of theories, and, incredible as it seems, worked 
out with his own hands the results given in his voluminous papers. 

His temper was open, generous and communicative; he held back 
nothing but those secrets of chemistry in the shape of medical recipes 
which he hoped to exchange with the chance visitors from the continent 

' Eccl. II., 20. 


1882.] Robert Boyle. 61 

who brought him valuable information in return. But lie refused even 
to transmit to the Royal Society his information concerning the possi- 
bility of counterfeiting gold and erasing ink, lest they might be put 
to unlawful uses. 

Boyle knew men as well as things. The only instance in which 
he was deceived in his man, was that of Great .rakes, and that was 
because he suspected that this fellow might open a door to some new 
knowledge. In his total freedom from credulity, he had the advantage 
of Lord Bacon, whose weakness it was to put faith in stories and 

Sir Edward Creasy says of Boyle : l 

"lie was happily as unlike Lord Bacon in moral principle as he was 
like him in intellectual grandeur, and Eton can point to Robert Boyle as 
one of the purest and the best as well as one of the most renowned of 
her sons." 

His modesty was almost fanatical. lie was fond of saying that he 
saw nothing but the lirst dawnings of science, so far beyond what 
he could prove, did his line piciVing instinct go. The Royal Society 
at lirst yielded to his urgent request not to be chosen president, but 
as time went on. his preeminent fitness for the ollice, as shown by his 
personal qualities, vast attainments in learning and great celebrity, led 
them on St. Andrew's Day, November 30, 1GS0, to choose him president 
and add reasons for the act. This unique testimonial Boyle declined 
in a letter, as remarkable for its delicacy of feeling, as for its well- 
reasoned judgments. u The letter is addressed to Mr. Robert Hooke. 

His habit of close and careful analysis, and study of his own mind is 
interesting. lie regrets the ill-considered zeal of his sister, who, lest 
an illness should overmuch depress his spirits, procured for him the 
reading of some light stories, which set his thoughts to "go a gadding 
to objects then unseasonable and unpertinent ; " and says, " Philaretus 
did in a considerable measure fix his volatile fancy and reclaim his 
thoughts, by the use of all those expedients he thought likeliest to 
fetter or at least to curb the roving wildness of his wandering thoughts. 
Amongst all which, the most effectual way he found to be, the extrac- 
tion of the square and cube roots." ■* 

It must be admitted that Boyle sutlered from immaculateness. It is 
not so surprising that his total want of humor, his habitual seriousness 
and solemnity of manner drew upon him the ridicule of Swift, who 
perpetrated an act of cruelty and injustice in his Pious meditation upon 
a Broomstick in the style of the Hon. Mr. Boyle. This was a carica- 
ture upon Boyle's Reflections upon Several Subjects; and the wanton- 
ness of the act appear from the point made by an anonymous critic of 
Swift's that the complete idea and outline of Gulliver's Travels appear 
as a conceit of Boyle's in the paper which Swift ridiculed. 

Bovle's knowledge was vast and accurate. He knew the whole corn- 

Mem. Em. Etonians, 123. 8 Birch, 251. ' J lb., 28. 


C>2 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

pass of the mathematical sciences, geography, history, medicine and 
the sciences of nature, especially chemistry; he knew all contemporary 
literature, especially theological, and was not unfamiliar with the 
ancient. lie mastered Latin, Greek, French, German and especially 
Hebrew. The latter language he learned late in life, and made a gram- 
mar of it, anil he gives the reason for this in a passage found in an 
unfinished essay on the Scriptures :' 

" Methinks those that learn other languages should not grudge 
those that God hath honored with speaking to us, and employed to 
bless us with that heavenly doctrine that eOrnes from Him and leads to 
Him. When I have come into the Jewish schools and seen those 
children that were never bred up for more than tradesmen, bred up to 
speak what hath been peculiarly called God's tongue, as soon as their 
mother's, I have blushed to think how many grown men, that boast 
themselves to be the true Israelites, are perfect strangers to the lan- 
guage of Canaan, which I should learn were it but to be able to pay 
God the respect usual from civil inferiors to princes with whom they 
are wont to converse in their own languages." 

In order to master Hebrew he learned a grammar by rote, at the age 
of sixty, and took " not a few" private lessons of one of "their (Jewish) 
skillfullest doctors, that cost him," he says, " twenty miles riding at a 
time," though he was under medical treatment and his health " very 

His supreme love of the truth and his habit of submitting all proposi- 
tions in science to the test of rigid experimental demonstration, begot 
in him great prudence in judgment ami devout charity and toleration 
towards the opinions of others. In a letter to John Dury, who was 
famous for his efforts to reconcile Lutherans and Calvinists, 3 May, 
1647, he says : 2 

" It has been long as well my wonder as my grief to see such compar- 
atively petty differences in judgment make such wide breaches and vast 
divisions in affection. It is strange that men should rather be quarrel- 
ing for a few trifling opinions wherein they dissent, than to embrace 
one another for those fundamental truths wherein they agree. For my 
own part, in some two or three and forty months that I spent in the 
very town of Geneva, as I never found that people discontented with 
their own church government, the gallinguess of whose yoke is the 
grand scare-crow that frights us here, so could I never observe in it 
any such transcendent excellency as could oblige me either to bolt 
heaven against or open Newgate for all those that believe that they 
may be saved under another." 

And, in the Proemial Essay, he says : 

•' And, though for a man to change his opinions without seeing more 
reason to forsake them than he had to assent to them, be a considerable 

1 Birch, 96. 2 lb., 77 and 297. 

1882.] Robert Boyle. 63 

levity and inconstancy of mind; yet to adhere to whatever he once 
took for truth, though by occasion of more light, he discover it to be 
erroneous, is but a proud obstinacy, very injurious to truth, and very 
ill-becoming the sense we ought to have of human frailties." 

In his will he bequeathed an annual salary to be paid to some clergy- 
man, for preaching eight sermons in a year, in order " to prove the 
truth of the Christian religion against Atheists, Deists, Pagans, Jews 
and Mohammedans, not descending to any controversies that are 
among Christians themselves." This is the Boyle Foundation, and in 
furthering Boyle's design more than sixty volumes have been published, 
beginning with Bentley's in 1091. 

Buckle l calls attention to Boyle as illustrating in the finest way the 
transitory state of the seventeenth century mind, particularly upon the 
theological theory of the causes of disease, and cites two examples 
from Boyle's discourse on the air, wherein after observing " that it is 
the less likely that contagious maladies should always be sent for the 
punishment of impious men, because some plagues destroy beasts as 
well as men," he goes on to say: " Upon these and the like reasons I 
have sometimes suspected that in the controversy about the plague, 
namely, whether it be natural or supernatural, neither of the contend- 
ing parties is altogether iu the right." This was a great awakening 
from the credulity of the sixteenth century, and contrasts sharply with 
Lord Bacon's comments on the plague. 

lie had a habit of maintaining friendly relations with all sorts of 
people, even travelling jugglers, alchemists aiid adventurers, because he 
got from such people bits of information — the grains of gold-leaf — 
which he found useful. In this way he got hold of the uses ol phos- 
phorus long before Brande had published his experiments, and found 
out the secret of Peruvian Bark. 

lie was kind and delicate in his treatment of all. His house was 
open as freely to the destitute as to inquirers for knowledge. While 
the master received Newton, Ilalley and Bishop Burnet at one door, the 
butler was dispensing charity to crowds of the poor of London at 

No man ever had a greater number of learned and accomplished 
friends. His life was never disturbed or embittered by personal con- 
troversy, so perfect was his subjugation of a naturally violent and 
choleric temper. Charles II., James II., and William III. were so 
charmed with his conversation that they often sought his society, 
admitted him to the palace with the slightest possible formality and 
discoursed with him with familiarity. 

The new philosophy of Descartes set men to reading the older work 
of Bacon, and thus John Locke and Boyle were brought together in a 
friendship that ended only with Boyle's death, a friendship whose 
character and value is attested by a voluminous correspondence. New- 

1 Hist. Ci\%, 1, 128 n. 


American Autiouariau Society. 


ton's regard for Boyle 1ms been mentioned. Dr. Thomas Sydenham 
was so enamored of him and found such profit in his society that he 
got him, when he could, for a companion in his ordinary visits to his 
patients; this gave Boyle in his turn a rare chance to study patholo- 
gy. Robert Hooke, Professor in Gresham College, seems to be sitting 
constantly at his feet. One of his most intimate friends was Dr. 
Thomas Harlow, keeper of the Bodleian Library and afterwards Bishop 
of Lincoln. Mr. Thomas Hyde of Queen's College, eminent for his 
skill in the languages of the East, was often consulted. John Evelyn of 
Wotton, says of his friend, " he is alone, a society of all that were desira- 
ble to a consummate felicity." Dr. John Wallis, Bishop Sanderson 
and Dr. Burnet also appear among his intimates, the former having 
addressed to Boyle an Hypothesis about the Flux and Reflux of the 
Sea. Dr. John Cudworth, 1G84, urges him, in vain, to issue all his 
works in Latin. Halley, Dr. Stillinglleet, Dr. John Beale, Bishop 
Berkeley gather into the same brilliant company. I do not find why 
Prince Rupert never found his way to the inner circle of Boyle's friends, 
for he was active in the foundation of the Royal Society. Boyle main- 
tained an active correspondence with all the prominent scholars on the 
continent, and was received by them with the same enthusiasm as was 
shown in England. * 

Boyle's profound reverence, and sense of satisfaction in the idea of 
God as the Creator, combined with his truthfulness and candor, made 
him always ardently philanthropic. Actively engaged in promoting the 
interests of the East India Company, which owed its new charter to his 
skilful intervention at court and its prosperity largely to his manage- 
ment, 1 he writes to Robert Thompson, 5 March, 1G7G, urging that the 
Company undertake the " propagation of the Gospel in those countries 
where their commerce gave them an opportunity." He says that Lord 
Berkeley and the Bishop of Oxford have called on him to urge this 
matter, and supports the reasonableness of his suggestion by referring 
to the wise behavior of the Dutch in Batavia, and the methods of the 
work in New England. "These methods are three: First, we have 
caused the holy scripture and some few choice practical books to be 
translated into the chiefest (language," to which this most courteous 
and reasonable Christian adds : To which you may add the publishing of 
a solid but civilly penned confutation of the authentic books wherein 
the Brahmin's religion is contained. 2 ) Next, we have caused men of 
ours to learn their tongue. And then we breed some of their hopeful 
forward youths to that knowledge of the English tongue and European 
learning, that they may afterwards be able to confute idolatrous priests 
and convert and instruct their own countrymen. 3 In the year following 
he was at the expense of printing live hundred copies of the four Gospels 
and the Acts in the Malayan tongue, under the direction of Dr. Thomas 
Hyde, Keeper of the Bodleian Library. Dr. Hyde's dedication to 

Birch, 226. * lb., 221). 3 lb., 22U. 


1882.] Robert Boyle. 65 

Boyle is addressed to him as one of the Directors of the East India 
Company and Governor of the Corporation for the Propagation of' the 
Gospel and the Conversion of the American Natives in New England, 
lie gave a handsome douceur to Dr. Edward Pococke for translating 
Grotius's Truth of the Christian Religion into Arabic, paid the expense 
of printing it at Oxford in 1GG0, and then scattered it widely amongst 
Arabic-speaking people, lie wished to do the same for the Turkish 
Empire, but was restrained by his associates in the East India Company 
who preferred to undertake this labor themselves. lie paid £700 
towards printing and circulating the Bible in the Irish dialect, by Dr. 
Wm. Bodell, Bishop of Kilmore, in Ireland, and contributed largely 
toward another edition to be circulated among the Welsh and in the 
Highlands of Scotland. He contributed very largely to the expense of 
publishing Dr. Burnet's History of the Reformation, an act handsomely 
acknowledged by the author in the preface to the second edition. 

But his most important labor and the one which attracted him most 
strongly was his service as Governor of the Corporation for Propaga- 
ting the Gospel in New England and the parts adjacent in America. It 
appears that in 1G49 an ordinance was passed in Parliament for erecting 
a corporation to be called The President and Society for the Propagation 
of the Gospel in New England. This Society secured an income of 
about £G00 a year. Upon the restoration of Charles II., the corpora- 
tion being dead in law, a certain Col. Bedinglield, who had sold them 
an estate worth £322 per annum, seized the estate and refused to pay 
over the income. Boyle obtained from Clarendon an order which 
prevented this outrage; and he then obtained a fresh charter, Feb- 
ruary 7, 1601, from Charles II. substantially continuing the Puritan 
Society with enlarged powers, and an increase in the number of corpo- 
rators. Most of the old members were retained. Boyle was named as 
Governor, in the Act.' This was the Society under whose auspices 
most of the missionary work among the Indians of New England was 
done prior to the Revolution. Among its missionaries appear the two 
Eliots, the two Mayhews, Abraham Pierson, John Cotton of Plymouth, 
son of John of Boston, Richard Bourne and Simon Poponet. "By 
the sole cost and care of this corporation it was that the whole 
Bible and some other books of piety were translated into the lan- 
guage of New England by the pains of the Rev 1 Mr. Eliot, who made a 
grammar never also in print for that language, and who daily labours in 
the work of the Gospel there, he having an honorary stipend continued 
to him by the above mentioned corporation." 2 It is certain that Eliot 
recognized Boyle as the source of the life ami efficiency of the Society. 

Boyle paid a large sum of money into the treasury of the corpora- 
tion, and it is interesting to inquire into the reasons for the act. What 

1 Neal, Hist. N. E., 1, 280. Tracy, Hist. Am. Missions, says Boyle 
was most zealous and influential of all. 
8 Letter from Thomas Hyde to Boyle. Birch, 230. 

06 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

portion of* the expenses of doing missionary work among the Indians 
was borne by the corporation in England, and what portion by the in Massachusetts cannot easily be determined. The expen- 
diture of all the money, from whatever source received, was entrusted 
to the Commissioners at Boston, who seem to have received all 
their money by way of annual drafts from the corporation, 1 and 
who rendered an annual account to the corporation; and it is note- 
worthy that Mr. Usher, the treasurer at Boston, always shows an 
unexpended balance. Nearly all Mr. Usher's accounts are given in 
Hazard, and no credits are made of cash sent to England or charges of 
any expended there; and in the matter of Bibles and Testaments no 
charges are made for type, though the expense of paper and printing is 
duly entered. 2 Mr. Usher charges himself in 1660, with a draft for 
£800 from the corporation; in 1661, the same. In 1662, the lirst draft 
drawn by Robert Boyle, Governor of the Corporation, appears — 
amount £500; in 1663, Boyle sends draft for £320, and with it a letter 
to the Commissioners, urging the strictest economy, " for," he says, 
" our present revenue is not above £320 per annum." He alludes to 
home expenses for salaries and for a suit-at-law, obviously the proceed- 
ings against Bedingfleld. In 1664, the annual draft was for £500, and 
by this time the work on the Bible was done. The sudden shrinkage 
in the resources of the Society indicated by these facts, is explained 
by the cessation of the spasmodic offerings of the churches in England, 
there being no record of any considerable amount from this source 
after the Restoration, and the diminution in the contributions of the 
New England churches. The last general contribution in England, 
was in 1649, which was urged by Winthrop and others, and resulted in 
the establishment of a fund that yielded not £700 to £800 as Baxter 
says, but £500 to £600 a year, as Neale says. 3 The loss by Bedingiield's 
resistance was £322, as shown in Boyle's appeal to Clarendon for 
relief; and this added to the amount mentioned in his letter just quoted, 
shows that the entire income, after the recovery of the Bedingileld 
estate, did not exceed £G22 per annum. It is only necessary to set the 
annual reeeipts from casual gifts at from £25 to £30 per annum to 
justify Neale's statement. 

The amount of the annual draft compared with Boyle's statement 
about income and the known value of the Bedingfield estate renders it 

1 For accounts of receipts and expenditures at Boston, by the 
Commissioners for the eorporation, see Hazard, Hist. Collec, Vol. II., 

a In Hazard, II., 407, see that the old eorporation paid £80 prior 
to September, 1.650, " for letters to print the Bible," and in 16G0, £120 
for paper. May, 1661, the old corporation in London wrote (p. 438), 
that they had paid to Mr. Usher's use £800, which together with the 
£347 balance in the hands of the New England Commissioners, they 
hoped would be sufficient to defray the charge of printing the Bible, 
&e. For this note, I am indebted to a letter from Dr. Trumbull. 

3 Hist. New England, 1, chap. VI. 

1882.] Robert Boyle. (57 

certain that the amount acknowledged by Mr. Usher, included the 
contributions made in Massachusetts. The largest amount ever raised 
by the colonial churches was £500, so that a draft for £800 was as large 
as the treasury could sustain, at the time the printing was begun. The 
income from the Bedinglield estate did not become available till 1GG2, 
at the earliest, and there is no hint of any income from any other 
source but the fund. No debts were ever incurred by the Corporation 
of which we have any account, indeed, debts due from such a Corpora- 
tion would be, in Boyle's eyes, little less than flagrant iniquity. 

Boyle declares in his will, 1 " I have given and paid the sum of three 
hundred pounds towards that piety, i. e. The Corporation for Propaga- 
ting the Gospel," and then gives £100 more. 

There is no record of any unusual outlay of money by the Corpora- 
tion, except that caused by the printing of Eliot's Bible and the other 
books which were taken from the same type, and the small outlay 
required to recover the Bedinglield property; the annual drafts sent to 
Boston seem to exhaust, in each case, the available annual income. 
Dr. Tiuinbull u points out the strange indifference of the Commissioners 
to the value of Eliot's work. They withheld from him a suitable salary, 
till they were twice compelled to raise it, by vote of the Corporation. 
It is not at all strange, then, that they, and the Corporation who acted 
largely under their advice, should have failed entirely to take in the 
importance of a font of Indian type, or to provide for buying one. It 
remains probable, therefore, that Boyle's contributions, stimulated by 
his intense interest in Eliot's Bible, began before the type were paid for, 
and were largely increased upon the issue of the second edition. This 
edition, published in 1G85, was 3 dedicated to Boyle in terms whiOb 
leave no doubt that the obligation to him was considered vital. Though 
Boyle resigned the presidency of the Corporation, May 30, 1G89, his 
successor was not chosen till after his death in 1G91 ; so that practi- 
cally, his presidency was the period of the Society's effective existence. 

lie made large gifts to clergymen, lie assumed sole charge of the 
orphan children of Oldenburg, first secretary of the Boyal Society. 
Bishop Burnet, in his eulogy, says, that Boyle spent a thousand pounds 
a year in charity and benevolence; in his will he left live thousand 
four hundred pounds for the propagation of Christianity. 

His early love for the study of ethics and theology leaves its traces 
in the shape of essays on Seraphic Love, Some motives and incentives 
to the Love of God, Some considerations touching the style of the Holy 
Scriptures, Some considerations about the reconcilableness of Reason 
and Religion, A discourse of things above reasou, <&c, which appear in 
the earlier volumes of his works mixing quaintly but not unpleasantly 
with Considerations touching the spring of the air, Of the mechanical 

1 Birch's Life, 339. 2 Proc. Am. Ant. Soc, Gl, Oct., 1873. 
3 A point suggested by Dr. Charles Deane. 

GS American, Antiquarian Society. [April, 

origin and production of fixedness, On a hydrostatieal paradox, The 
sceptical chemist, A record of physical and mechanical experiments, 
and Of the intestine motions of the particles of quiescent solids. 

Iu the troubles of the colony of Massachusetts Bay about the Com- 
missioners, and in other matters, Boyle's influence at Court was always 
thrown heavily in favor of the colony. In Hutchinson's State Papers, 
450, is a letter from Boyle to some person of consequence in New Eng- 
land, whose name is missing, in which he modestly claims a large share 
in influencing the mind of the Court in favor of the colony; ami this 
view is supported by a letter from Endicott to Charles II., and Claren- 
don's reply. 1 

" We are all amazed," wrote Clarendon, who says Robert Boyle was 
no enemy to Massachusetts, "you demand a revocation of the Commis- 
sion without charging the Commissioners with the least mutter of 
crimes or exhorbitances." Boyle echoed the astonishment, "The 
commrs. are not accused of one harmful thing even in your private 
letters." 2 Boyle's eyes were holden here. He could not understand 
a principle of liberty which lay deeper than loyalty. But he felt the 
wrong without comprehending the impolicy of forcing the Commis- 
sioners upon a virtuous and law-abiding community. 

In his will Boyle directed that his personal estate should be expended 
by the trustees for charitable and pious uses. They directed that £90 
a year should go to Harvard College, and the rest to the College of 
William and Mary for the maintenance and education of Indian 
students. The latter institution received G50 pounds sterling annually 
from this source, and was until the Revolution the wealthiest college 
in the United States. The property set aside in England, by the 
trustees to support this payment, was Brafl'erton Manor, and the 
Brafierton House, built for Indians out of this fund, in the grounds of 
the College of William and Mary, to-day preserves this record of the 
indebtedness of the institution to Robert Boyle. 3 

William Penn, August 5, 1G83, 4 writes him at length concerning the 
Indians of Pennsylvania, and submits to his rare judgment ores, plants 
and flowers which may add to the wealth of the new colony and the 
good of the world. A very unique letter from President Leonard Hoar 
is given in Birch's Life, VI., 052, accompanying a collection of plants, 
models, &c, sent to Boyle for information about Massachusetts. In 
this letter the President gratefully acknowledges Boyle's invaluable 
services in the affairs of the colony and then confides to him a plan for 
the enlargement of Harvard University, to include: "A large well- 
sheltered garden ami orchard for students addicted to planting; an 
ergasterium for mechanic fancies ; and a laboratory chemical for those 
philosophers that by their senses would cultivate their understandings; 

See also Winthrop's letter of 27 October, 1G70. a Bancroft, 1., 143. 
Prest. B. S. Ewell. 4 Birch, VI., 658. 

1882.] Robert Boyle. 69 

for the students to spend their times of recreation in them ; for readings 
or notions are but husky provender." 

This is the earliest recorded conception of a technological school; 
and as the President refers to numerous prolonged and agreeable 
conferences with Boyle during his visit to England, it may be inferred 
that this idea vvas attributable to a suggestion of the philosopher. 
And that the Lawrence School was not anticipated by two centuries, is 
probably due to the want of funds and to some conservative views of 
Boyle in his letter of reply to the President, which is unfortunately 

The judgment of his contemporaries is very clearly in his favor. A 
Dublin newspaper of the day calls him " the father of chemistry and 
sou of the Earl of .Cork!" Dr. Cudworth, urging him to issue his 
complete works in Latin, says, The writers of hypotheses in Natural 
Philosophy will be confuting one another a long time before the world 
will ever agree if it ever do. But your pieces of Natural History are 
unconfutable and will afford the best grounds to build hypotheses upon. 
You have much outdone Sir Francis Bacon in your natural experi- 
ments. 1 Lord Clarendon, in his letter to Massachusetts Colony, 1664, 
alluding to their petition against the Commissioners, says, he has 
referred their letters to my Lord Chamberlain and Mr. Robert Boyle, 
and has had divers conferences with them on the subject. 

Six letters from John Eliot are preserved in Birch's appendix, 
addressed to Boyle as " Right honorable, deep learned, charitable, inde- 
fatigable nursing father*"* For his powerful intervention at Court in 
behalf of the Massachusetts, a letter of thanks was ordered by the 
General Court, and written by John Endicott, October 11), 1GG4; and a 
remarkable letter, signed by John Leverett, Governor, Samuel Symonds, 
Dep. Gov., Daniel Gookins, Asst. and five others, dated Boston, May 10, 
1G73, recognizes the value of Boyle's services and argues with him the 
case of the colony against the Commissioners. Robert Hooke's corres- 
pondence with Boyle is voluminous, and submits to him that scholar's 
own researches. (How fortunate that the lack of easy travelling forced 
all these men to record their thoughts in letters!) Boerhaave 
calls him the ornament of his age and country, and the successor 
to the genius and inquiries of the great Chancellor Verulam. 2 
Dr. Richard Bentley, in the fourth Boyle lecture, says, " The mechani- 
cal or corpuscular philosophy, though peradventure the oldest as well 
as the best in the world, had lain buried for many ages in contempt and 
oblivion, till it was happily restored and cultivated anew by some 
excellent wits of the present age. But it principally owes its reestab- 
lishment and lustre to Mr. Boyle." 3 

Mr. John Hughes, after noticing the coincidence of the death of 
Bacon and the birth of Boyle, observes: "The excellent Mr. Boyle 
was the person who seems to have been designed by nature to succeed 

Birch, 257. ' 2 lb.; 300. 3 lb., 307. 

70 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

to the labors and inquiries of the extraordinary genius I have just 
mentioned." He in great measure filled up those plans and outlines of 
science which his predecessors had sketched out. It would be impossi- 
ble to name many persons who have extended their capacities as far as 
these two, in the studies they pursued; but my learned readers, on 
this occasion, will naturally turn their thoughts to a third who is yet 
living (Sir. I. Newton), and is likewise the glory of our own nation. 1 

Francesco Redi, in the edition of Boyle's Works published at 
Florence, 1724. expresses tin? highest esteem and veneration for him, 
and asserts that he was the greatest man that ever was, and, perhaps, 
ever will be, for the discovery of natural causes. 

The justest and most appreciative judgment of him, is that of the 
learned Dr. Peter Shaw, who was born four years after the death of 
Boyle. lie says of Boyle's Works: 2 "Those works have from their 
first appearing in public, done an honor to his country, and procured 
him a general esteem in the world. The novelty, the variety, the 
dignity and the usefulness of the several subjects he treats, with the 
easy and familiar manner wherein they are handled, recommend his 
performances to the whole body of mankind. He takes up his reader 
at the elements or fundamental principles of things; and, with exqui- 
site judgment conducts him through all the regions of nature to furnish 
him with objects whereon to exercise his faculties; and being first 
solicitous to make him a general philosopher, leaves him prepared for 
any further inquiry he shall think tit to make into the works of nature 
or art. * * The men of 'wit and learning have, in all ages, busied 
themselves in explaining nature by words ; but it is Mr. Boyle alone, 
who has wholly laid himself out in showing philosophy in action." Sir 
John Evelyn, one of Boyle's associates in founding the Royal Society, 
says, that he wished to have Boyle for a fellow-member, " who is alone, 
a society of all, that were desirable to consummate felicity." 3 

Clarendon pressed him to take holy^prders, Charles II., James II. anil 
William III. successively offered him a peerage, but all these honors 
were firmly declined. This was done with such unaffected modesty 
and obvious devotion to learning as to leave in the bestower rather 
than in the recipient of the honor the sense of loss. The Provostship 
of Eton was offered to Boyle, without his solicitation or request, by 
Charles II., on the death of Dr. Meredith, in 10(35; but Boyle declined 
from a conscientious conviction that it ought to be tilled by a person in 
holy orders. 4 

His tracts were received with great interest and eagerly read. The 
Sceptical Chemist, which made such havoc with old notions, went 
through ten editions in the author's life-time — an unusual occurrence, — 

1 Spectator, No. 554, Vol. VII. 

-Shaw's Boyle, 2d ed., London, 1738, p. 1. 3 Birch, 117, 397. 

4 Creasy Memoirs of Eminent Etonians, 133. 


Robert JJof/lt 


and Buckle finds ' that as early as 1G9G, his works were becoming 
scarce and there was talk of reprinting them. 

Many books were dedicated to him, among which is : Dr. John Wallis's 
Hypothesis about Flux ami Keflux of the Sea, KiCJii. Dr. Thomas 
Sydenham (1GGG), Methodus curandi febres, begins Illustrissimo et 
Kxcellentissimo Domino Roberto-Boyle, and sets his character in a 
most amiable light. The second edition of this work, in 1GG8, was also 
so dedicated to Boyle and elicited from him a letter of thanks. Dr. 
du Moulin, 1G70, son of the celebrated Peter du Moulin, dedicated to 
him a volume of Latin poems, in which he praises Boyle's attainments 
in Latin verse: though Gunning cut out of it a stanza addressed to 
the Royal Society. In 1GG7, Dr. Walter Needhain dedicated to him his 
Anatomical Works. In 1G73, Anthony le Grand dedicated to him his 
Historia Naturae, and applies to Boyle what had been said of Aristotle, 
" that nature had formed him as an exemplar of the highest perfection 
to which mankind can. attain." a Dr. Burnet acknowledges his deep 
obligation to Boyle, in the preface to vol. 11. of his History of the 
Reformation ; and Dr. Bentley in the fourth Boyle Lecture speaks of 
him in terms of unqualified admiration. Dr. Richard Bentley says 
Boyle reestablished the corpuscular philosophy. " Which of his writ- 
ings shall I recommend," exclaims Boerhaave, 3 better qualified perhaps 
than any one to judge correctly of Boyle, " All. We owe him the 
secrets of lire, air, water, animals, vegetables, fossils; so that from 
his works may be deduced the whole system of natural knowledge." 
Dr. Nathaniel llighmore dedicated to him his book on the History of 
Generation, 1651. 

The judgment of his successors supports that of his contemporaries. 
Monk in his Life of Bentley, 1, 37, says Boyle's discoveries have placed 
his name in a rank second only to that of Newton, and Buckle quoting 
this, adds approvingly, 1, 3G7, " and this 1 believe is true, notwith- 
standing the immense superiority of Newton." Buckle further says, 
in the same place, "After the death of Bacon, one of the most distin- 
guished Englishmen was certainly Boyle; who if compared with bis 
contemporaries, may be ^uid to rank immediately below Newton, 
though of course very inferior to him as an original thinker." 

And it was Boyle who opened up those chemical inquiries, which 
went on accumulating until a century later they supplied the means by 
which Lavoisier and his contemporaries fixed the real b;\sis of chem- 
istry, and enabled it for the first time to take its proper stand among 
those sciences that deal with the external world. 4 

Cuvier 5 says "One of the creators of experimental physics, the 

1 Hist. Civ., 1, 371. * Birch, 214. 3 lb., 30G. 

4 As this gives the credit of the science to the English rather 
than the French, it is well to consult Whewell, Bridge. Treat., p. 2GG. 
Thomson's Hist. Royal Soc, p. 3D7 and his Hist, of Chem., 1, 20L 

■' Prog res des Sciences Naturelles, Vol. 1., p. 30. 

72 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

illustrious Robert Boyle, ascertained in the middle of the seventeenth, 
century a large part of the facts which serve to-day as the basis of this 
new chemistry." And some one justly says that Boyle had in his hand 
the key to the great discovery of Lavoisier. Boyle constantly insisted 
upon two fundamental principles: the importance of individual experi- 
ments, and the comparative unimportance of the facts, which on the.^e 
subjects, antiquity has handed down. He says, 1 "For 1 am wont to 
judge of opinions as of coins: I consider much less in any one that 1 
am to receive, whose inscription it bears than what metal it is made of. 
it is indilferent enough to me whether it was stamped many years or 
ages since, or came but yesterday from the mint." 

But he calls attention himself,* to the frequent occurrence in the 
Experimental Essays of the phrases "perhaps," " it seems," " it is not 
improbable." His essay on crystals, a most remarkable production, is 
entitled, " Doubts and experiments touching the curious Figures of 
Salts."- And with good reason Humboldt calls him in Cosmos, 4 1 he 
cautious and doubting Robert Boyle. First to doubt, then to inquire, 
then to discover, has been the process of all great explorers. 

Francesco Redi 5 says he was the greatest man that ever was, or 
perhaps ever will be for the discovery of natural causes. 

Dr. Monk, author of the Life of Bentley, ranks Boyle next to Newton. 
And Dr. Shaw dedicating his edition of Boyle to Lord Burlington, 
begins thus: "The original philosophical writings of the lion. Mr. 
Boyle are a treatise worthy the cabinets of the princes ; and perhaps 
the most valuable present of that kind the world ever received." 

It is well known how much of our philosophy is derived from Boyle's 
discovery of the 'qualities of the air, yet of those who now adopt or 
enlarge his theory, very few have read the details of his experiments. 
His name is indeed reverenced; but his works are neglected; we are 
contented to know that he conquered his opponents, without inquiring 
what cavils were produced against him, or by what proofs they were 
impelled. 6 

A large part of Boyle's work recorded in papers originally read 
to the Royal Society, and then published in the Philosophical transac- 
tions; but he issued a considerable number of monographs on the 
topics which occupied his thoughts. The first tracts were issued in 
1G61 and 1G03. In 1715, R. Boulton edited his complete Theological 
Works, published at London, in 3 vols., 8vo. Dr. Peter Shaw edited 
the Philosophical Works, abridged, methodized and disposed under 
general heads, published at London in 3 vols., 4to ; first edition in 1725, 
• second in 1738. 

But the standard edition, and the only one approaching completeness, 
was carefully edited by Dr. Thomas Birch, Secretary Royal Society, 
and published at London in five superb folios, in 1744. A new edition 

1 Works, Birch ed., IV., 359. -lb., I., 197. 3 Ib., II., 488. 
4 Cosmos, II., 730. 5 Birch, 30G. - Rambler, March 23. 1751. 


Robert Boyle. 


in 6 vols., 4to, was published in 1772. In this edition the only existing 
portrait of Boyle is given, and on the title-page appears a striking 
vignette, bearing the legend, " Ex rerum eausis supremam noseere 

One Samuel Smith, in 1690, issued a catalogue of the Philosophical 
books and tracts written by the lion. Robert Boyle, which was incom- 
plete. A Latin edition of his works was published ul Geneva, about 
1700, in 4to, entitled, Roberti Boyle nobillissimi Angli et Societatis 
Kegiae dignissimi socii opera varia. Oldenburg denounces this edition 
as garbled and untrustworthy. Another Latin edition was issued at 
Geneva, in 5 vols., 4to, in 1714; another at Cologne, 3 vols., 4to, 1(180; 
and still another at Venice, 4to, 1695. Selections from his papers were 
printed in French, in one vol., 8vo, 1679. 

In the chronological annals of the year 1648, given in Green's Short 
History of the English People, the only event recorded in italics is — 
Royal Society founded at Oxford. Bancroft says ! that John Wiuthrop 
was active and influential in founding the Royal Society — as he 
certainly was in the establishment of the Society for Propagating the 
Gospel. Sir John .Evelyn had written his hopes of a philosophical 
college. But Boyle gives the true history of the origin of this remark- 
able Society : " About the year 1645, while I lived in London, I had the 
opportunity to be acquainted with divers worthy persons, inquisitive 
into natural philosophy aud other parts of human learning, and partic- 
ularly of what hath been called the new or experimental philosophy. 
We did by agreement, divers of us meet weekly, on a certain day, to 
treat and discourse of such all'airs. * * About the year 1648, some 
of us being removed to Oxford, first Dr. Wilkins, then I, and soon after 
Dr. Goddard, our company divided." Those who remained in London 
kept up the meetings; those who remained at Oxford met usually at 
Boyle's lodgings. These assemblies were referred to in the letters of 
members as the Philosophical College or the invisible college, for 
obvious reasons. They were kept up with much spirit and regularity 
until the Restoration, when in 1661 Boyle obtained from Charles II. an 
act incorporating the intrepid scholars under the title of the Royal 
Society. The charter did not take eilect till 1663. But the patent was 
all that the Society obtained from Charles. Hume 2 commenting on 
the contemporary rise and growth of the French Academy, founded 
1666, under the liberal encouragement of Louis XIV., says, "But 
though the French Academy of Sciences was directed, encouraged and 
supported by the sovereign, there arose in England some men of 
superior genius, who were more than sulllcient to cast the balance, 
and who drew on themselves and on their native country the regard 
and attention of Europe. Besides others there nourished during 
this period a Boyle and a Newton, men who trod with cautious aud 

Hist. U. S., I. 

422. Mlist. Eng., VI., 373. 



74 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

therefore the more secure steps, the only road which leads to true 

That Boyle was the de facto founder of the Society appears from 
Glanville's defence of it against Crosse, wherein, answering the ques- 
tion What have they done ? he gives an account of what has been done 
by " the illustrious Mr. Boyle for the promotion of useful knowledge." 

The llrs t volume of the Philosophical Transactions (March, 1GG5 — 
February, 1GGG), consists almost wholly of Boyle's contributions, and 
every volume till his death is enriched by his labors. 

ft; Watts ' says "he was one of the founders and chief promoters. 
Contemporary biographers and writers speak of Boyle as founder of 
the Royal Society. It was, beyond all question, stimulated and 
enlivened by his presence and labor. A. Chalmers says Boyle may be 
justly reckoned as one of the founders of the Royal Society; but his 
remarks are evidently based upon a hurried reading of Birch's Life. 

The list of original members of the Invisible College, given by 
Boyle, 2 contains no name of special eminence, except, perhaps that of 
Dr. John Wilkius, afterwards Bishop of Chester, who certainly did not 
move in the matter; and Mr. Theodore Ilaak, a German, resident in 
London, who certainly could not. 

But the Royal Society was founded for a purpose which was Boyle's 
purpose, and not that of any man before him, viz. : To increase knowl- 
edge by direct experiment. The charter declares that the object is the 
extension of natural knowledge as opposed to that which is super- 
natural. 3 

Boyle was also an influential member of the East India Company, 
and framed the second and permanent charter. 

Boyle's merit in science at lirst was somewhat exaggerated, and 
afterwards, as I have before said, unfairly depreciated. There is force 
in the suggestion of a writer in Knight's Cyclopedia, that it is a fair 
method to take a foreign history of physics, and see what are the 
discoveries of the Briton of the seventeenth century which will l>e 
thought worthy of record by a Frenchman of the nineteenth. 

In Ilistoire Phil, du Progres de la Physique, Paris, 1810, M. Libres, is 
a chapter devoted to Progres de la Physique entre les mains de Boyle, in 
which it is said, " That it is impossible to follow Boyle through his labors 
without being astouished at the immensity of his resources for tearing 
out the secrets of Nature." Boyle is credited with all the great additions 
to knowledge made by means of the air-pump, including the propagation 
of sound through the air — all the more creditable to him, because 
Guericke had been led astray as to the cause of this phenomenon,— 
and the author concludes with observing: "That it is impossible to say 
to what degree of obligation chemistry is to limit its acknowledg- 
ments to Boyle, and no one can say that his works, the eldest progeny 

1 Bib. Britt. 2 Birch, 83. J Weld Hist. Roy. Soc, pass 

1882.] Robert Boyle. 75 

of the Novum Organum, were anything but a credit to the source 
from whence they sprung." 

Boyle says in the Froemial Essay, that he designed the narrative of 
what he had tried and observed as a continuation of Sir Francis 
Bacon's Natural History. It is certain that without Boyle, the 
Baconian philosophy would have remained one of the wonders of 
cloisters and libraries. Boyle east this philosophy into the waters of 
the seventeenth century, turbid with the fietions of the schoolmen and 
the reveries of the alchemists, and they grew quickly and transparently 

To enumerate his labors, is to epitomize the six ponderous quartos 
of Birch. In brief, in Origin of Forms and Qualities, and Discourse of 
Subordinate Forms, 1GGG. he insists that the meehanic motions and order 
of the parts of bodies are sufficient to yield an account of the differences 
of bodies and their affections, without recourse to the forms and 
qualities of the schools. It seems now, that no intelligent reader of 
this paper could keep moving along without interruption o hinderance 
to the fundamental conceptions of modern chemistry as involved in the 
hypothesis of Dalton. 

At the annual meeting of the International Medical Congress, in 
London, 1881, the most distinguished person was Louis Fasteur, whose 
amazing experiments in the nature of disease-germs and the effect 
of successive inoculation are exciting the deepest interest among all 
thoughtful men. Dr. W. B. Carpenter describes this meeting with 
special reference to the labors of Fasteur, 1 and says, The revival by. 
Dr. Farr of the doctrine of Zymosis (fermentation), long ago, sug- 
gested by the sagacity of Robert Boyle, &c. Ferdinand Hoefer 2 says, 
lie (Boyle) was persuaded that the study of ferments would some day 
clear up those pathological phenomena which up to this time remain 
inexplicable. A paper of Boyle's on fermentation is among the lost 
manuscripts which Birch declares he can get no trace of, except that they 
once existed; but his account of the fermentation of the blood; 3 of the 
air in reference to fermentation; 4 theory of effluvia; 5 the behaviour of 
the juice of grapes ; u the use of the knowledge of fermentation ; 7 and the 
changes in animal substances by fermentation ; 8 leave no doubt of 
his accurate solution of the problem of the changes that occur in 
vinic fermentation and made the way easy to the discovery of torula 
and the germ-theory. What Pasteur and his collaborators have done, 
is to explain and amplify the points experimentally established by 
Boyle. I quote a passage from The use of the knowledge of ferment- 
ation, to show how far his marvellous sagacity — the true philoso- 
phic instinct — outran his actual knowledge."' "I pretend not that 
vulgar chemistry will enable a physician to explicate all or most of 

1 In Nineteenth Century, October, 1881. - Hist, de la Chimie, 411. 
3 Birch V., 97. 4 Ib.,V., 716. 5 Ib.,21G. u lb., I., GOO. ' lb., II., 83, 
103. a lb., II., 119. a Ib., II., 1183. 

7() American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

the pathological phenomena; but that true chemistry may assist him 
to explicate divers of them, which can scarce be solidly explicated 
without it. And let me add, that he, that thoroughly understands the 
nature: of ferments and fermentation shall probably be much better able 
than he that ignores them, to give a fair account of divers phenomena 
of several diseases (as well fevers as others) which will perhaps be 
never thoroughly understood, without an insight into the doctrine of 
fermentation; in order to which, for that and other reasons, I designed 
my historical notes touching that subject." ' So that the work of 
Pasteur, which is healing the wound of French agriculture, strikes 
its roots into the sagacious mind of the Englishman of the seventeenth 

In the Sceptical Chemist, perhaps the most influential of all his 
works, Boyle reviews with irresistible clearness and conclusiveness 
the arguments of the school- men and points out the better way of 
induction as the only source of trustworthy knowledge of nature. 
The paper is skilfully cast into the form of doubts about the preva- 
lent reasoning concerning natural phenomena, and leads the reader to 
see that it consisted largely of assumption, and that to learn of Nature 
one must become her pupil. I believe this book of Boyle's to be the 
first effective blow ever delivered at a priori, and the first really effec- 
tive appeal to men to form their judgments of natural phenomena after 
rather than before a study of those phenomena. 

lie opposed Aristotle's system, not from any lack of recognition of 
his transcendent merit, but because he saw that the study of causes and 
the Final Cause had sublimed out of all contact with the facts of 
Nature, and that to bring men baclt to Nature, a new departure must be 
made. And with singular consistency and loyalty to his own convic- 
tions, for many years he refused to read Descartes — greatly to the aston- 
ishment of Locke — in order that he might leave his mind open and 
fresh to any truth that his own experiments might reveal to him. It. is 
of course impossible that his long intimacy with Locke could have left 
him ignorant of Descartes, or wholly unimpressed by his system. 

Boyle, in the Sceptical Chemist, was the first man to utter serious 
doubts as to the theory of the peripatetics and of the alchemists ; he 
disputed the elementary character of fire, air, earth and water; said we 
must not be limited to three or four elements — that we shall some day 
find a larger number, lie denounced the obscurity with which alche- 
mists parade their alleged discoveries, and rebukes the alchemists for 
calling combinations of metals with acids, especially aqua fortis, the 
elements of those metals themselves. He says: "It is possible, 
that one body is composed of two elements, another of three, &c, 
and that one body may not have any of the same elements that another 
has ; as we often see two words, whereof the one has not any of the let- 
ters to be met with in the other." 

The lost paper. 

1882.] Robert Boyle. 11 

He proposed trials to Dr. Lower based on experiments of his own 
concerning the transfusion of blood and the effect of new blood on the 
rceipient animal. Many other speculations in Physiology originated 
with him. Boyle overthrew the alchemists at a touch, when he su<:- 
gested in The Sceptical Chemist that in addition to visible: and palpable 
elements there may be others more subtle and invisible that escape 
through the joints of the vessels. 

Though Otto Guericke invented the air-pump, Boyle had no knowledge 
of it, and Birch says "that he, Boyle, invented that admirable engine." 
He ascertained and correctly stated all the essential properties of air; 
this he accomplished by means of an air-pump, constructed by Mr. 
Robert Hooke after original design by Boyle, including the glass-receiver 
on a metallic base,' and by this means established the science of pneu-^ 
matics. His first publication on the subject was in 1GG0, at Oxford, under 
the title New Experiments, physico-mechanical touching the spring of 
the air and its effects, made for the most part in a new pneumatical 
engine. The work recorded in this paper included an experimental 
demonstration of the nature of a vacuum. He found or proved the pres- 
sure of air to be the cause of the Torricellian vacuum, showed the im- 
possibility of a perfect vacuum, explained suction, loss of weight of 
bodies in vacuo, the necessity of air to combustion, and in short nearly 
every fact and principle in the behavior of the air. 

Torricelli had made his tube and substantially llxed the fact of the 
materiality of the air. His theory of fluids drew Pascal from geometry 
to physics, and the result of the labors of this acute scholar was the 
dissertations on the Equilibrium of Fluids and the Weight of the 
Atmosphere, in which are given the first barometric measurements. 
(This work of Pascal brought on the controversy with Father Noel, an 
Aristotelian, which was the last real struggle of the .old philosophy.) 
In these books Pascal extended the conception of tluid equilibrium to 
air as well as water, and also pointed out the compressibility of one 
and the incoinpressibility of the other. He reached the point of show- 
ing that air is compressible and there stopped. Boyle made, independ- 
ently and almost simultaneously, the same discoveries, but did not stop; 
he asked the question, that has ever opened the door to real knowledge 
and marks the dividing line between knowledge and information, how 
much is air compressed for any given pressure? lie also asked, how much 
docs it expand or contract for any given change in temperature? And are 
the properties of air predieable of other gaseous bodies? In the year 
1060, he found the law since known by his name (twenty-six years 
before Mariottc who has had the undeserved fortune to get his name 
associated with the discovery); and in the dim light of that early 
morning of science, a hundred years before Watt's steam engine, he 
worked out and established the law upon which unchanged foundation 

1 Guericke depended on water for his vacuum, and did not know the 
use of the glass receiver. 

78 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

the whole modern science of si cam-engineering securely rests. 1 This 
law has been empirically verified by the French Academy and found to 
be true to twenty-seven atmospheres. 

He found that air once exposed to an excess of burning fuel will not 
again sustain combustion or life; that air which has been breathed 
sustains lire feebly ; that distillation in a closed retort produces com- 
pounds totally unlike those of open combustion, the lack of which 
distinction vitiates nearly all the work of Van Ilelmont ; that "an air" 
obtained by heating certain metallic salts intensities combustion; 
found that fermentation and putrefaction are impossible in vacuo; 
spoke of a vital substance in air; in short he left nothing for Lavoisier 
but to pronounce the word Oxygen. 

ile discriminated carefully between air and ether, in that air refracts 
the rays of light, and comes very close to a statement of the possibility 
of Crooke's Radiant Matter. 

Probably Boyle's tract Fire and Flame, gave George Ernst Stahl his 
idea of Phlogiston, though the acute German's claim to the origination 
of the idea is not affected by this fact. 

Boyle clearly intimates his own belief in one ultimate, simple form of 
matter, precisely what Lockyer's spectroscope is now leading us to. 
Me published the first tables of specitic gravities, which are as accurate 
as his apparatus could give. 

Boyle showed - that the prevalent view of acid and alkaline parts in 
all bodies is undeinonstrable and precarious, and that there is no 
criterion to which all acids can be brought, lie noted the tastelessness 
of some undoubted acids, showed the convertibility of ternary com- 
pounds of nitrogen from an acid to an alkaline condition and vice 
versa, and having thus overturned much of the iatro-chemistry of the 
day, he paved the way to a rational theory of chemical attraction. 

Whether Boyle or Pascal had the larger share in developing the laws 
of Hydrostatics may perhaps be questioned; Buckle* says we owe to 
Boyle the first exact experiments in the relation between color and heat; 
that he laid the foundation /'or the union of optics ami thcrraics; and 
that he established hydrostatics as a science. It is doubtless true here 
as in pneumatics, that Pascal stopped with the demonstrated fact, but 
Boyle pushed on to the controlling principle. 

lie trod close to the truth under many strange disguises; for instance 
he says, air is composed of three kinds of molecules: 1st, From 
exhalations from waters (vapor), minerals, vegetables (oxygen), and 
animals (carbonic oxide), that exists on the earth's surface; 2d, much 
more subtile, consists of magnetic effluvia from the earth, and pro- 
duces by attack upon innumerable atoms emanating from the stars, 
the sensation of light (terrestrial magnetism and aurora borealis) ; 3d, 

1 Whewell, Hist., II., 557, 588. Thomson, Hist. Chem., I., 215. 
Braude's Chem., I., 363. a IV., 287. 
a Hist. Civ., L, 3G7. 

1882.] Robert Boyle. 79 

the third is no other than the substance of air compressible and dilata- 
ble like the spring of a watch. 

lie made the first true statement of the nature of change in bodies, 1 
showing the permanence of matter through all changes of form. 

It is as dillicult to analyze Boyle's influence on the best minds of his 
own and all succeeding centuries, as it is to lind the effect upon the 
crop of the quality of the seed. It is the hidden secret of excellence; 
and I think so far as chemistry is concerned, it is certain that the 
Iustauratio Magna would have shared the fate of other systems of abstract 
speculation, had not Robert Boyle given it practical elliciency through 
ex peri mental demonstration. 

The vastuess and profundity of his learning coupled with his high 
social standing secured respect; the solidity of his judgments won con- 
fidence; the unusual spectacle of a man to whom all sensual indulgence 
was possible, renouncing all for learning's sake, and spending his powers 
for humanity's sake, begot enthusiastic admiration : the sweetness of his 
temper and the sensitiveness of his respect for other men, gave easy 
currency to his views; he was a "founder" in the largest sense; but 
I think his best and noblest service was the stimulus of his great exam- 
ple in obeying Lord Bacon's exhortation : 

"If there be any man who has it at heart, not merely to Lake his 
stand on what has already been discovered, but to profit by that, and to 
go on to something beyond; — not to conquer an adversary by disputing 
but to conquer nature by working; — not to opine probably and prettily, 
but to kuow certainly and demonstrably ; — let such as being true sons 
of nature (if they will consent to do so) join themselves to us; so that 
leaving the porch of nature, which endless multitudes have so long trod, 
we may at last open a way to the inner courts."' 2 

'Works, III., 37. 

-Inst. Mag., Fart II., Proof. 


80 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 


15y Pkof. Henuy W. Haynks. 

This interesting relic was exhibited at the last meeting of this society, 
ami its peculiarity was explained and commented upon by Dr. Woodward 
and other members. 

It is important to observe that this perforation of the lower extremity 
of the humerus, which is so noticeable in the prehistoric races of 
America that it has been called a "characteristic of the Mound-build- 
ers," is found to be equally prevalent among the prehistoric peoples of 
Europe. The percentages, however, indicative of its occurrence there, 
that have thus far been observed, are in no instance so high as the fifty 
per cent, which Dr. Oilman found to prevail in a mound in Michigan. 
1 will give such of these as I have met with. 

In the quaternary gravels of Crenelle, at Paris, M. Martin found the 
proportion to be twenty-eight per cent. In the caverns of the valley of 
the Lesse, in Belgium, in the case of the so-called fossil " race of 
Furfooz," M. Dupont found thirty per cent, to be the rule. M. Leguay 
observed the proportion to be twenty-five per cent, in the Dolmen of 
Argeuteuil (near Paris) ; and Dr. Pruner-Bey found that it was twenty- 
six per cent, in the neighboring one of Vaureal. He also reports that 
it is common in the skeletons of the Guanehes, the ancient inhabitants 
of the Canary Islands, whose mummies are found in caverns there. In 
the. sepulchral cave of Orrouy, belonging to the Age of Bronze, Dr. 
Broca found the proportion to amount to twenty-Jive per cent. 1 Among 
the two thousand skeletons, of the Age of Polished Stone, discovered 
by the Baron de Baye in Champagne, in artilicial grottos excavated in 
the chalk, he reports it as very frequent. 2 

1 have brought here for comparison one ol* these perforated humeri, 
which I took from (me of the sepulchral grottos at Baye. 

It will be noticed that this humerus from Baye is broken in the middle 

1 Compte rendu du Congr6s International d'Anthropologie etd'Archeo- 
logie pre-historiques de Paris — (1807), p. 146. 

2 L'Archeologie pre-historique, p. 203. 

1882.] Humerus. 81 

like the one found at Concord, and like those discovered by Dr. Oilman 
in mounds in Michigan. So also Dr. De Hurt remarks of one which he 
figures, procured from a mound in Wisconsin: "In no case did I find 
any of the long bones of the extremities wholly perfect, but all of them 
were broken in the centre of the shaft, the other extremity not being 
found. It is hardly probable that this is due to decay in every instance, 
but may point to some superstitous rite, or custom connected witli the 
sepulture of the dead, among the ancient Mound-builders." l Dr. 
Chauvet also describes one found in the cavern of La Buisse (Isere), 
which was broken in the middle in the same manner. 2 

It is hardly probable that these instances, occurring in regions so 
widely separated, could be due to accident only, however dillicult may 
be the explanation of so strange a custom. 

1 Transactions of Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Vol. iv., p. 104. 

2 Congres de Paris, p. 140. 


#2 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 


The paper by Mr. Louis II. Aym6, U. S. A. Consul at Yucatan, which 
treats of the ruins of Mitla, was received too late to allow of its pre- 
sentation to the Society at their last meeting, but it is now published 
because it treats of the archaeology of a portion of the Continent 
where investigations are being made and public curiosity is largely 
excited, and is nearly allied to communications previously published. 
It is only by comparing the statements of different explorers that we can 
obtain satisfactory material for forming a deliberate judgment, and in 
order to furnish such matter as has come to our hands promptly for 
the consideration of those interested in archaeological research, it has 
been thought best not to delay the publication of this paper. We arc 
indebted to Mr. Stephen Salisbury, Jr., for making a translation from 
Burgoa's description of Mitla, which was sent to us in the original 



All itinerary of a journey taken by the writer in July, 1881, may not 
be uninteresting as an introduction to a notice of the famous ruins of 

The point of departure is Esperanza, on the Vera Cruz railway. You 
leave there at 10.30 A. M. in a horse-car, and ride 50 kilometres to 
Tehuacan, arriving about 3 P. M. Fare Si. 50. The fare to Esperanza 
is about $8 from either Vera Cruz or Mexico. The next morning at 3 
o'clock, you take a frightfully uncomfortable stage, and for thirteen 
wretched hours you are banged and bumped until you are ready to 
welcome the sight of Tecomavaca, at 4.30 P. M. There is a wretched 
hotel there where you become acquainted with the plague of Oaxaca — 
fleas. If you have been wise you have written to Don Constantino 
Rickets, an Englishman, and asked him to send Santos Gomez (the 
prince of guides) with the necessary horses to meet you there, or if you 
prefer you may have a litter swung between two mules, fore and aft, as 
a sailor would say. Gomez will charge you $1 per day for each horse 



1882.] Notes on Mitla. 83 

and $2 a day for himself. You set out at 5 A. M., enter the mountains, 
if you are enthusiastic turn off and half ride, half walk, a league or two, 
and visit the curious ruins of the Cerro de las Juntas. I did, and you 
have some of the results, ami I will send you later a paper on this and 
other ruins in Oaxaca. On the road it is broiling hot, but the scenery is 
simply magnificent. If it is a clear day you will probably catch a 
glimpse of the topmost peak of Orizaba, 150 miles away. At 12 M. hot 
and hungry, you stop at the sugar hacienda of Giiendulain (27 miles), 
have an excellent breakfast and sleep as well as the millions of Hies will 
let you until 3.30 P. M. /Phen 15 miles more and you are at the pic- 
turesque little town of Dominguillo at G V. M. You are in the heart of 
the mountains, and can see the road you are to travel to-morrow 
stretching up, up, up until it is lost among the peaks. You sleep well, 
or ill, according to your susceptibility to flea-bites. The next day is a 
repetition of the day before, except that you should bring your breakfast 
with you. You reach Iluitzo at about 5 P. M. (54 miles). Next morning 
you ride through the glorious valley of Oaxaca, stop aside at Etla and 
visit the mounds of the Cerro de las Penas, and at 11 A. M. you ride 
through the stony streets of Oaxaca to the hotel opposite the cathedral, 
where you rest, wash oil' the dust of travel and take a good breakfast. If 
you wish to go directly to Mitla, you either keep your horses, or, better 
still, hire a carriage extra. That costs about $10. Mitla is distant about 
30 miles to the southeast. About half way you stop at Santa Maria del 
Tule to see the wonderfully large tree; it has been looming on the 
horizon for miles. It is large. I measured it roughly; its circum- 
ference following the sinuosities in and out live feet from the ground is 
14(5 feet; outside all, 104 feet; spread (diameter) of foliage, 141 feet; 
long diameter of trunk, 40 feet; short diameter of trunk, 20 feet; 
height, about 100 feet. Then on to Mitla. You reach the little village 
about 4 1\ M., drive up to the lovely house of Don Felix Quero, are 
heartily welcomed by him, by his comely wife and pretty daughters. 
You take a dinner (the best you will get in Oaxaca) in a rose-covered 
corridor, walk out about six minutes, cross a little stream, double the 
corner of a ruined mound, and Mitla is before you. The " tourist " 
could "do it" in one hour, but we should hud days not enough. Mitla 
is not so grand, so magnificent as Uxmal, but it has a beauty of its own, 
as it nestles quietly at the foot of the mighty mountains, the ruins of the 
grim "Fortin " standing sharp against the evening sky, and as the sun 
sinks, casting soft, lingering rays athwart the cream and red mosaics, 
one might fancy he heard the weird chant of the priests, the lament of 
the mourners for the dead who rest in "Lyobaa," "The Centre of 
Rest." It is full of interest, and the careful, earnest worker could in 
one short month collect a vast amount of information about Mitla. 
The library of the Institute at Oaxaca is rich, very rich, in old books 
and papers, and there is a treasure there for some archaeologist. 
When I shall have finished my work here in Yucatan I should like to go 
there once more. The memories of the beautiful idols of stone, pot- 

84 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

tery and metal, the wonderful hollow eastings of pure gold, the undis- 
covered mines of archaeological treasures to be gathered are very 

Mr. Ad. F. Bandelier in his " Notes on the Bibliography of Yucatan and 
Central America" (Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society, 
October 21, 1880, p. 110), speaks of the work of Francisco dc Burgoa, 
which treats of Mitla, entitled Geograflca Desc.Mpcion de la Parte 
Septentrional del Polo Artico de la America, Mexico, 1074, and says of 
it : " This work is regarded (especially by such as have not seen it) as 
the leading work on Oajaca. I have never seen it— it is exceedingly 
rare." It may be well to introduce the plans and measurements sent 
herewith by this earliest description of Mitla. The portion given in 
translation is from Vol. II., Part 2, Chap. 53. 


"Two leagues beyond this (Tlacolula), stretching out towards the 
east upon level ground is the celebrated town of all Zapoteca, called 
Mictla in the Mexican, and it resembles the inferno from the depths 
which are there. The natives there call it Lyobaa, the centre of rest, 
which blind politeness so ridiculed as to call hell a rest * * * * 
and even this doctrine and the administration of this town does not 
affect this province, because it is a lay benefice, being the sepulchre of 
the kings of Zapoteca. 

"I have promised to say something of its greatness, and to be the first 
to speak also in respect to Tetycpaq, of what I have learned from the 
papers which have come to my hand, and from the traditions of aged 
Indians who heard them from their great religious leaders, ami as to 
those things in which there is much similarity still existing there. 

" This town of Mitla is situated seven or eight leagues from the city of 
Antiquera, stretching towards the east on level ground, and its situa- 
tion is at the foot of the mountainous range of Tentitlan that runs very 
near it, and the town stands upon an eminence somewhat higher than 
the valley through which passes a small river that traverses it. Upon 
the north side the laud is very dry and stony, and as respects its 
antiquity, nature or the universal deluge have left there a great hollow, 
of which the Devil took possession, and the Indians arriving to populate 
this place, he ruled them from the large rock of Xaquija or Tentitlan, 
and in the Miztecan country he used the cave of Chalcaeatongo to bury 
their chiefs, and this place for the chiefs of the Zapotecas, where Satan 
planted the greatest multitude of errors and abominations against the 
head of the Roman world, and against the sacred Apostolic seat of the 
Vicar of Christ and successor of St. Peter, introducing a superior head 
as regards the worship of his gods, which we call ecclesiastical jurisdic- 
tion, with spiritual and temporal power over the chiefs and the people. 

"Although many of the kings of Jerusalem were anointed as priests, 
as happened to the prophet Samuel, with Saul and David who came 
before him, in Mexico the emperors could chastize them. Here the 


Notes on Mitla. 


highest priests were absolute and independent, so that the kings of 
Teozapotlan entertained veneration and respect towards them, con- 
sidering - them to be so near to the gods, us instruments lit to order for 
all favors and chastisements, both the one and the other. They held 
the belief that the priest could alone be the mediator in all their troubles 
and difficulties, which were so constantly occurring. The whip of this 
superior priest was like that of a dissembling foreign tyrant, whose 
orders and mandates were executed at the cost of their blood. For the 
support oi this one they erected the palace of the living and the dead, 
because wise as the Devil was, he desired to act against the authority 
of the Tope, and gave indulgences to the living and conceded favors and 
concessions and remission of sins to the dead. They built in this square 
this beautiful house or Pantheon, with stories and subterraneans, the 
latter in the concavity which was found under the earth, equalling in 
style the halls which enclose it, having a spacious court; and to build 
the four equal halls they worked with what force and industry they 
could secure from a barbarous people. 

" It is not known from what quarry they could cut such great pillars of 
stone, that with difficulty two men could embrace them with their arms 
extended. These, although without capital or pedestal, straight and 
smooth, are more than live yards long composed each of a single stone, 
and served to sustain the root. The roof was of Hat stones two yards 
or more long, and one broad, and half a yard thick, laid upon the pillars 
successively. The hat stones are so much alike and so well adjusted 
one to the other, that without mortar or cement they appear in their 
construction like tables brought together. The four halls are very 
spacious, covered in the same way with this kind of roof. The walls 
excelled in execution the work of the most skilled artificers of the 
world, so that neither the Egyptians nor the Greeks have written of this 
kind of architecture, because they began at the lowest foundations and 
followed upwards, spreading out into the form of a crown, which pro- 
jects from the roof in breadth and appears likely to fall. 

" The centre of the walls is of a cement so strong that we do not know 
with what liquid it was made. The surface is of such a singular con- 
struction that it shows something like a yard of stones. The sculptured 
blocks serve to hold innumerable little white stones that till it, begin- 
ning with the sixth part of an ell and the half of an ell wide and the 
quarter part of an ell thick, so smooth and similar that it seems as if 
they were made in a mould. Of these there was so great a variety, and 
they were so connected one with the other, that various showy pictures 
an ell wide each, the length of the hall, were constructed with a variety 
of decoration on each as high as the capital. And it was so neat that it 
exceeded the description, and what has caused astonishment to great 
architects was the adjustment of these little stones without mortar or 
any instruments. They worked them with hard Hints ami sand and 
produced a building of so much strength that, being very old and beyond 
the memory of the living, it has lasted to our times. I saw it much at 


8fi American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

my ease thirty years ago. The rooms above were of the same style and 
size with those below, and although portions were somewhat ruined 
because some of the stones had been carried away, they were very 
worthy of consideration. The door frames were very capacious, com- 
posed of a single stone of the thickness of the wall at each side. The 
lintel or architrave was a single stone which held the two below. 

" There were four halls above and four below. They were divided in 
this way : That in front served as a chapel and sanctuary for the idols, 
which were placed on a large stone that served as an altar at the great 
feasts or at the funeral of some king and principal chief. The Superior 
gave notice to the lesser priests or inferior officers that they should 
arrange the vestments and decorate the chapel, ami prepare the incense. 
They went down with a great escort without any of the people seeing 
them, nor was it ever permitted them to turn their faces toward the 
procession, being persuaded that they would fall dead in the act of dis- 
obedience. Upon entering the chapel the priest put on a large white 
cotton robe, and another one embroidered with figures of beasts and 
birds in the maimer of a surplice or chasuble. Upon his head he had 
something after the style of a mitre, and upon the feet another invention 
woven with threads of different colors, and thus clothed he came with 
great pomp and circumstance to the altar. Making great obeisance to 
the idols he renewed the incense, and began to talk very much between 
his teeth with these figures, the depositories of infernal spirits. In this 
kind of communication he continued with these deformed and horrid 
objects, that held all overcome with terror and amazement until he 
recovered from his diabolical trance, and told the spectators all the 
fictions and orders which the spirit had persuaded him of, or which he 
had invented. 

" When he was obliged to make human sacrillces, the ceremonies were 
doubled and the assistants bent the victim across a great stone, and 
opening the breast with some knives of Hint they tore it apart with 
horrible contortions of the body, and laying bare the heart they tore if 
out with the soul for the Demon. They carried the heart to the Chief 
Priest that he might oiler it to the idols, putting it to their mouths with 
other ceremonies. The body they threw into the sepulchre of the 
blessed, as they called it. If after the sacrifice any one wished to 
detain those who officiated, or to demand some favor, he was informed 
by the inferior priests that he could not go to his house until his gods 
were appeased, commanding him to practice penance, fasting without 
speaking to any woman but only to the priest. To one doing penance 
for vices honesty was required, and until he declared that he practised 
it he was not allowed to depart from the enclosure. 

" One hall was the burial place of these priests, and another hall was for 
the kings of Theozapotlan, who brought decorations of the best gar- 
nents, feathers, jewels, and chains of gold with precious stones, arming 
them with a shield in the left hand and in the right a sword, like those 
they used in their wars. During the funeral rites they played upon very 


Notes on Mitla 


sad ami dolorous instruments, and with grievous lamentations and great 
sobbing they went on chanting the life and exploits of their chief, until 
they plaeed him upon the funeral pile intended for him. The last hall 
had another door at the rear into an obscure and fearful opening that 
was closed with a great stone to shut the entire entrance, ami into it 
they threw the bodies of those that they had sacrificed, and also those 
of great chiefs or captains that had been killed in battle, from whence 
they brought them, although from a great distance, for the purpose of 
burying them there. Here; was practised the blind barbarity of the 
Indians. The wicked priests taught those who were suffering from 
infirmities or from their labors that here they might hope for a happy 
life, and they let them in alive among those sacrificed, allowing them to 
enter by that door and walk about in that terrible space, seeking repose 
among their ancestors; and allowing this by favor they withdrew the 
attendants and departing by that opening, they again replaced the stone. 
The miserable creature then wandering about in that daivk abyss 
perished of hunger and thirst; the sufferings to which he was con- 
demned beginning at the time when he was left. To this terrible place 
they gave the name Liyobaa, from that of the town. 

" Since imparting to them the light of the Gospel our professors have 
taken much care in teaching them and in seeking to learn if the common 
errors of these people were perpetuated by their fabulous traditions. 

"The high rooms remained open which surrounded the square and 
other halls which were below, and the remains exist to the present 
time. One high hall was the palace of the Chief Priest, in which he 
gave audience and slept, which occupied the whole square. The 
throne was of the height of a cushion, with arms covered with tiger 
skins and stufied with small soft feathers or very pliable grass adapted 
to that use. The other seats were smaller. When the King came to 
visit him, such was the authority of this minister of the Devil that no 
one dared to pass through the square, and to avoid it they had the other 
three halls with gates at the rear through which the ollicers entered 
both above and below. They had outside passages and alleys Re- 
entering and going out from an audience. These priests never married 
and held no commerce with women except on certain solemn occasions, 
which they celebrated with much drinking, and over-indulgence. Un- 
> married women were brought to them, and if any o( them became 
'enceinte, she was kept retired until the birth of the child. If a boy 
was born he was brought up as the successor of the priest, which ollice 
belonged to the son or next of kin, and never was elective. 

" The second hall was that of the priests and their assistants. The 
third that of the King when he came, and the fourth that of the other 
leaders and captains. The space being limited for so many different 
and various households, they conformed themselves to circumstances 
without preferences or partiality; no one having any jurisdiction there 
except the Chief Priest, whose authority was supreme over all. 

88 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

"All the halls were well covered with mats and very clean. No oue,^ 
not even of the highest officers, was permitted to sleep in the upper 
rooms. All used very curious mats upon the ground, with the soft 
skins of animals and delicate fabrics to cover themselves. Their food 
was ordinarily animals from the mountains— deer, rabbits and other 
sorts, — together with birds, which they obtained in the lakes or artiiicial 
ponds. Their bread was from white corn meal well crushed. Their 
drinks were always cold, of crushed cocoa, and of gruel diluted with 
water; others were from fermented fruits and from orange juice stirred 
up with the wine of the maguey. As the people had no permission to 
drink, nor to become drunken, there was a great abundance of drink. 
And as there were so many beverages and so few to use them they 
never were able to exhaust the supply, the priests therefore drank very 
costly drinks to excess with free license, more than the chiefs in their 
best estate. This was the most contagious and injurious practice of 
the Indians, as it consumed their properties, wasted their health and 
shortened their lives. All this notice of Mitla is introduced into this 
history in order not to fail in performing the promise previously made, 
even though it concerns a profane and superstitious error, the most 
vital which I have discovered about this nation." 


South Group. Building No. 1. 
Present outside length, 88 ft. G in. ; width, 19 ft. 3 in. approximately. 
Original inside length, 83 ft. 4 in. ; width, 8 ft. 11 in. Thickness of front 
and back walls, 5 ft. 4 in. ; side, 2 ft. 7 in. approximately. Width of 
doorways, 7 ft. 2 in. Wall between doorways, 7 ft. From west end, 
outside, to west end of west doorway, 20 ft. 9 in. ' From east end, out- 
side, to east end of east doorway, 2G ft. 3 in. Present height, inside, 
9 ft. 10 in. approximately, from top of west door lintel; outside, 12 ft. 
very rough wall, much ruined at top. Height of doorways, G ft. G in. 
Monoliths, consisting of two door-jambs, at extreme east and west ends 
of extreme doorways. Height, G ft. G in. ; breadth, 5 ft. 4 in. ; thick- 
ness. 1 ft. 5£ in., aud three Lintels : 


On top. 

At bottom. 

East, 14 ft. 8 in. 

4 ft. 10 in. 

3 ft. 5 in. 

5 ft. 5 ii 

Centre, 14 " 10 " 

4 " 10 " 

3 '< 7 " 

5 " 5 ' 

West, 12 » 6 " 

4 " 10 " 

3 - 2 " 

5 " 5 ' 

Directly opposite centre doorway in north wall about 3 feet from 
tloor is a square recess, of large stones, measuring about 2 ft. long, 1 
ft. 3 in. high and 1 ft. G in. deep. 


Pillar. Height. G ft. 4 in. (the height of all of the rooms) ; circumfer- 
ence, 5 ft. G-i in. Uoom B. Length, 12 ft. 3 in. ; width, 5 ft. 24 in. Room C. 
Length, 18 ft. 2 in. ; width, 5 ft. l£ in. Room D. Length, 18 ft. 2 in. ; 
width, 5 ft. 14 in. Height of all, G ft. 4 in. 



Notes on Mitla. 



— i 






"^gs* 5 ^ 1 ^^ 


^^=^=S^— « 





r 1 







Plan of Suhtkiuianean Apartments. 




) i tw — . ,_ 

\ V i A jE:"^ Vrgl:' a^ririlTTTn- M ^jjjJ^rg 


'/////y /^TrrTT- ■ '77, 


PifiUi'KNUicuLAii Section, tiiuougii C. D.,, «/<*« No. 3. 

90 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Building No. 2. 

Outside length, 130 ft., approximate; width,, 38 ft. Inside length, 121 
ft. 3 in. ; width, 23 ft. Average height, 17 ft. G in. Thickness of front 
wall, 5 ft. Height of doorways, 6 ft. 10 in. 

Monoliths. Door-jambs each, height, 6 ft. 10 in. ; breadth, 6 ft. ;. thick- 
ness, 1 ft. G in. 

Lintels. — 
South. Length, 19 ft. 7 in. Breadth, 3 ft. 3 in. Thickness, 4 ft. 9 in. 
Centre. " 18 " 9 " " 3 " 4 " " 4 ; ' 9 " 

North. " 20 " " 3 " 3 " " 4 " 9 " 

Niche opposite centre door. Height from ground, 3 ft. Height, 1 ft. 
G in. ; width, 2 ft. 9 in. ; depth, 1 ft. 9 in. 

Building No. 3 
Is identical in measurements with No. 2, except as regards the 
monoliths. Jambs.-— Height, 6 ft. 8 in. 
1 ft. 7 in. 
Lintels.— West. Height, 15 ft. 

Centre. " 13 " 4 in. 
East. " 16 " 6 " 

Great Patio. About 150 ft. square. 

Sepulchral Chamber, or so-called Subterranean Passage. Length 
(inside door-jambs), 7 ft. 3 in. ; width, 3 ft. 7 in. From north entrance 
to room with pillar, 18 ft. Height of steps, about 1 ft. Height (the larger 
portion), 3 ft. 11:} in. (Just inside north door), 4 ft. 11 in. 
Doors.— North. Height, 3 ft. 9 in. Width, 3 ft. 2 in. 

South. " 3 " 8 " " 2 " 84 " 

Jambs, to uorth door. Thickness, 5 in. To south door. Thickness, 


, 5 ft. 

3 in. 

; thick 


readth, 5 ft. 
« 5 u 

" varies. 



3 v ft 
3 " 
3 " 

1 ft. 104 in. Thickness of door-jamb being measured in long diameter 
of room. Total length of room is 9 ft. 6 in. Height of ornament from 
floor, 1 ft. 1 in. Breadth of ornamented band, 1 ft. 10 in. Large stone 
which probably closed south end ; length, 3 ft. 4 in. ; width, 2 ft. 7 in. ; 
thickness, 2 ft., approximately. 

North Gkoup. North Building. 
Apartment M. — Inside, length, 125 ft. 2 in.; width, 23 ft. ; height 
(average), 12 ft. Thickness of front wall, 4 ft. G in.; side wall, 3 ft. 

2 in. Doorways; width, 7 ft. 94 in. Wall between doors, 7 ft. Door- 
way, west corner of building to west edge of west doorway, 47 ft. 
Doorway, east corner of building to east edge of east doorway, 49 ft. 
94 in. Window; is distant from inner east angle 2 ft. ; inside width, 
G ft. 4 in. Columns; height, 11 ft. 1 in; circumference, 9 ft. 04 in. 
From west wall to column 1, 15 ft. 4 in. ; column 1 to column 2, 15 ft. 
4 in. From column 2 to column 3, 15 ft.; column 3 to column 4, 15 ft. 
11 in. From column 4 to column 5, 15 ft. 4 in. ; column 5 to column G, 
15 ft. From column G to east wall, 15 ft. 4 in. From north wall to 
columns, 10 ft. 3 in. From south wall to columns, 9 ft. 10 in. Passage- 
way. From east wall of Apartment M, 36 ft. ; from west wall, 85 ft. 4 
in. Height, 6 ft. 74 in.; width, 3 ft. 8 in. (Portion running north.) 


Notes on Mitla. 



*T o a * o 

in ni — 


Plan of Buildings at Mitla, Oaxaca, Mexico. 


American Antiquarian Society. 


Length (short side), 18 ft.; (long side), 23 ft. 8 in. Length (portion 
running west), 10 ft. 10 in. Patio; north to south, 30 ft. 10 in. ; east to 
west, 29 ft. 4 in. 

artment N. 

Length, 29 ft. 4 in. 

Breadth, 8 ft. G in. 

Height, 12 ft. 


57 " 6 " 

8 « 2 " 

12 " 


29 " 5 " 

8 " 3 " 

12 " 


30 " 3 " 

G " 8 " 

12 " 

Average wall thickness, 4 ft. 

East building. Distance between pillars, 64 ft. 

All of these measurements were made repeatedly, in order to avoid 
errors, and may be considered as quite correct. A tape line GO feet 
long was used. Many measurements are omitted to avoid unnecessary 
repetition, but the plans accompanying these tables will supply the 
omissions if necessary. 



This group consists of three large buildings occupying the north, east 
and south sides of a large courtyard. They were originally elevated on 
large artificial mounds, now too much ruined to permit of accurate 
measurement. Below the north building were three subterranean apart- 
ments, C, 1) and B, and in front of these opened what has always 
.heretofore been called the subterranean passage. The walls of the 
buildings are externally much ruined, but in the interior are highly 
ornamented. A rough sketch of the facade of Building No. 1 is 
here presented. 

The huge monolithic lintels are cut into a series of cornices, across sec- 


Notes on Mitla. 


tion looking somcthin 

formed, which is fre- 
qu en tly repeated- 
Each building in 
this group consist- 
ed of a single long 
room, perfectly 
plain inside, roof- 

like Fig. 2, representing the pattern thereby 

"P* 9 less now, but origin- 

c ally covered. 

The manner of con- 
structing the roof 
w a s undoubted- 
1 y this : — 1 a r g e 
round beams were 
roollng of cement 1 
in this connection 

placed about two feet apart, and then a solid 
was laid. I used the word "undoubtedly" 
advisedly, as the holes for the insertion of the ends of the beams 
still remain in many places in the cement on the top of the walls, 
where the wood has long since decayed and fallen out. The build- 
ings were constructed by raising walls of rough stone, and then 
facing them on the inner side with squared stones, which in turn were 
covered with cement. This coat extended over the lloors. In Building 
No. 1 this floor still exists. The only ornament or variation on the 
inner side was a curious rectangular recess about three feet from the 
iloor. This niche is found in all the buildings in the south group, and 
also in the Hall of Pillars in the north group. The inner cement on the 
walls was probably painted in figures, as I found in other ruined build- 
ings at Mitla very beautiful mural frescoes. I shall refer to these 
further on. The doorways are surmounted by huge lintels, and at the 
extreme ends are large monolithic door-jambs. The exterior of these 
buildings on their facades was highly ornamented in panels of mosaic 
work. The separate stones were about 4 inches long, with faces 2x5. 
The depth of the pattern is about two inches; the 
relievo portion was left of the original cream color of 
the stone, standing out beautifully from the blood red 
with which the deeper parts were painted. Traces of this red paint are 
found everywhere. 

Building No. 2 consists of one large room utterly devoid inside of 
ornament, except the usual niche. Outside it is very richly ornamented, 
the patterns being similar to those found on Building No. 1. They are, 
however, in great part sculptured in the solid stone, as well as being 
formed in the mosaic pattern just referred to. 

Building No. 3 is almost the counterpart of No. 1, except that it has 
no visible subterranean chambers. These, however, may possibly exist. 
A curious feature is to be noticed in this building. The east lintel was 
cut as usual into cornices, as in Fig. 2, but for some reason, either a 
blunder in the carving or something of the kind, it was then turned 
around, the other side cut and the original cutting tilled out with plaster 
to imitate the flat surface of the lintel, thus : The portion- cross-shaded 

'This is exactly the method of roof-building in vogue in Mexico at 
the present day. 




American Antiquarian Society. 


represents the plas- 
ter filling. Directly 
below Building No. 
1 are found the sub- 
terranean apart- 

Tty 3. 


ments. These are 
three in number; 
they run west, north 
and east, respect- 
ively, at right an- 

gles, all opening on a central space which measures from north to south 
5 ft. l£ in., and from west to east 5 ft. 2£ in. In the centre of this space 
rises a supporting pillar. In all of the rooms, at a height of 3 ft. 2 in. 
from the floor, runs a band of ornament 1 ft. 9 in. broad, whose general 
characteristics arc found in the following figures: Fig. 4 is from east 
end of Room C. Fig. 5 is from east wall of Room B. This last room is 

in the worst condition of the three. The roof is formed of very large 
flat stones laid crosswise. The floor is very nearly perfect, of bright, 
smooth red cement, and the walls appear to have been once covered 
with this cement. These curious apartments are not uncommon in 
Oaxaca; they are known as " crnzeros." I was told of many in the 
neighborhood, and while I was measuring and taking notes my com- 
panions visited some of them. They tell me that they are in every 
respect similar to the one just described; and I understand that human 
bones have been found in these apartments. At the little village of 
Tentitlan del Vallc I heard that there were hundreds of such subter- 
ranean apartments, and while I was yet in Oaxaca, the then Governor 
Don Francisco Mejuciro sent to have some of them opened. Large 
numbers of very beautiful idols, statuettes, arrowheads, etc., were 
found, and in one large cruzero were found Jive loagon-loads of crania. 
Unfortunately I had to leave before they reached the city. On a still 
lower level, and stretching to the south, is another and much smaller 
room. At the time of my visit only the mouth was visible. Here for 
centuries has centered much of the interest of Mitla. This was the 
mouth of the wonderful subterranean passage said to extend for leagues. 
I will translate here so much as refers to this subject from Burgoa's 
account, dated 1674. " And from their fabulous traditions, it was 
known that they were all persuaded that this frightful concavity ran 
more than thirty leagues under ground, the roof being held up by 
columns, and there were men and certain curious Prelates, of good zeal, 
who being anxious to undeceive these ignorants, went down some steps 
with a great crowd carrying hatchets and many lighted torches and forth- 
with met with many columned rows like streets. They brought with 
them beforehand many strings to use as guides, that they might not 

1882.] Notes on Mitla. 95 

lose themselves in that confused labyrinth, but such was the corruption 
and bad smell, the dampness of the floor, and a cold wind which 
extinguished the lights, that at the little distance they had already 
penetrated, fearing they might become pest stricken or might meet 
with some poisonous reptile, of which they saw some, they resolved to 
come out, and ordered this infernal gate to be thoroughly closed with 

1 Bustamaute wrote in 182G : " During the government of Count 
Kevilla Gigedo, Captain Dupaix and Don Jos6 Castaneda, the artist 
(who stiil lives in Mexico), went in search of antiquities, protected by 
this chief. Castaneda has shown me the collection of drawings which 
he made in Palenque, Mictlan and other places, and assured me that in 
those places and in Zachila there exist a multitude of precious things, 
and anxiously desired that the excavation of the great Sylo or subter- 
ranean passage, which exists, closed up, among the palaces of Mictlan, 
might be protected (or favored) for in it he knew there were mummies 
as perfectly preserved as in the ancient Pyramids of Egypt." 

* In 1824 Mr. Nicholas Mill wrote: "The palace of Mitla was 
appropriated as a retirement for the sovereign, to lament for the loss of 
a wife, a mother, or a son. It forms three edifices, the principal of 
which is best preserved, and is 130 feet in leugth. A staircase formed 
in a pit leads to a subterranean apartment 88 feet by 2G. This gloomy 
place is covered with Grecques, the same as the exterior walls of the 
palace. The most material distinction between this and other Mexican 
edifices is its having pillars of porphyry to support the ceiling; they are 
17 feet high, and the shaft is a single piece. The similarity of. the apart- 
ments to those found in Upper Egypt is very striking." 

Burgoa's description of Mitla is in the highest degree valuable and 
interesting, and generally correct. Bustamante's note I give for what it 
is worth, but Mr. Mill I have quoted at some length, in fact have tran- 
scribed all he has to say about Mitla to correct some widespread errors. 
The guardian of Mitla, Don Felix Quero, assured me that the passage 
ran from one side of the patio to the other, about 150 feet. Resolved to 
set the vexed question at rest, I had four excavations made, one 75 ft. 
from facade of Building No. 1 {vide plan) ; at a depth of 3 ft. massive 
rock was struck. I had it carried down 3 feet further, and the rock con- 
tinuing I abandoned it. A second excavation, 00 ft. from Building No. 1, 
gave precisely the same result; a third, 50 ft. from Building No. 1, struck 
rock at 3 ft. 8 in., carried down through rock to depth of 7 ft. 6 in. and 

1 llistoria de las Conquistas dc Hernando Cortes escrita en Espanol 
por Francisco Lopez de Gomara, y traducida al Mcxicano y aprobada 
por verdadera por D. Juan BautisttL de San Anton Mufion Chimalpaiu 
Quanhtehuanitzin, Indio Mexicano. Publieada con varias notas y adi- 
ciones, Carlos Maria de Bustamante. Mexico, 2 Vols., 12mo. 182G. 
( Vide page 8G, Chap. 3G, Vol. II. Editor's note.) 

2 The History of Mexico from the Spanish Conquest to the Present 
iEra, by Nicholas Mill, Esq. London, 182L 


American Antiquarian Society. 


abandoned; a fourth, 43 ft. from Building No. 1 and 18 ft. from pillar of 
subterranean apartment, went down 5 ft. in sand. I then set all my men 
to work cleaning out the passage, and finally succeeded in opening it 
completely. It is only a room, and a very small one at that. Its rough 
dimensions (for accurate figures vide ante measures at Mitla) are: 
Length, 9 ft. G in. ; height, 4 ft. ; width, 3 ft. 7 in. Roof of very large 
stones. South end once closed by a large stone still lying in the large 
patio (vide plan). Floor hard polished cement. Walls ornamented in 
the usual mosaic pattern in a band 1 ft. 10 in. wide, 1 ft. and 1 in. from 
the floor. Stones forming pattern much decomposed by dampness. I 
broke through the floor to find solid rock underneath. In fact a great 
hole was dug in the rock and this chamber constructed therein. The 
approach is by a flight of three very rough steps hewn out of the living 
rock, each 1 ft. high. The passageway is a chamber which from its size 
and position seems to have been simply a sepulchral chamber. If I may 
be permitted an hypothesis, 1 should say this chamber served as a grave 
or vault for the remains of great dignitaries, either chiefs in war, rulers 
or priests, and that when a ruler died, his bones were collected and 
deposited in the rooms of the " eruzero." I am now confident that the 
"30 leagues" of Burgoa and the "88 feet by 26" of Mr. Mill are both 

Leaving the South Group we go to the northeast and reach the finest 
building left in Mitla. It occupies the north side of a " patio " or court- 
yard rather larger than that of the South Group. On the east side all 
that remains of the building once there is a portion of the centre doorway, 
still holding up two of the huge monolithic lintels; the third lies prone, 
but entire, at their foot, and within lie two large columns 54 ft. apart. 
The west and south sides are mere shapeless mounds. The North 

Noiirii Building, from N. W. 
Building is a very large construction containing Ave rooms, a central 
court, and a passageway. The llrst room one enters is that marked M 
on the plan. It is a noble apartment 125 ft. long and 23 ft. wide, and its 
most striking feature is the row of six large columns it contains. This 
room has as usual three doors with the usual three monolithic lintels 


Notes on Mitla. 


and two jambs. It is perfectly plain, save the niche. The iloor is well 
covered with cement. The columns are arranged from east to west, 
they do not run in aline hut are eccentrically placed as regards the room ; 
they also vary in their distances from each other and from the end wall. 
They are six in number (one of them does not appear in the picture 
owing to the location of the camera), monoliths, and are not of porphyry. 
The eccentricity of these columns is notable as a type of the ruling style 
of construction of Mitla. The great court-yards are not perfectly square ; 
lines drawn from the centres of doorways do not intersect in the centre, 
but at the side; the ornament on one side of a door is never duplicated 
on the other side, no two door lintels are of the same size. In a word, 
careful attention has been paid to make the whole asymmetrical. The 
effect in the matter of ornament is bizarre and striking, in the archi- 
tectural position of the buildings, rooms, and parts of rooms; it is only 
revealed on measurement. In Chichen-Itza, Uxmal and Kabah, on the 
contrary, we And the most perfect symmetry. This asymmetry of Mitla 
is not accidental I am certain, but made designedly; what that purpose 
was I do not know. M. DesirC* Charnay tells me that he has observed 
the same thing at Palenque. To return to our columns. They are 11 
ft. 1 in. high, nearly perfectly cylindrical, slightly tapering toward the top 
which is flat. They did not probably support a roof at any time, for the 

Hall of Pillars. Fig. 6. 
walls are still nearly one foot higher than the columns, and on the top 
of these very walls I found the holes where the roof beams rested. The 

98 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

position of the two pillars 54 feet apart, with a smooth cement floor 
stretching between them in the ruins of the East Building, shows con- 
clusively that they had a. special significance. Further, there are two 
iu front of another ruined building in Mitla, and a third in the village, 
standing in the open air. Authors, including Burgoa, say that they are of 
porphyry, and served to support the roof. Both of these statements are 
erroneous. A new feature in this room is a veritable window (vide 
plan). A curious point I noticed is a notable 'diminution in the width of 
the doorways of Kooms M, P and R in the later constructions, and also 
the window just mentioned. These later additions are sometimes, as 
in Room R, of adobe, in the other cases of brick and cement. At first I 
thought that it was clone as supports, as many, in fact all but two of the 
huge lintels are broken, apparently by their own weight, but close 
examination showed this hypothesis to be untenable. 

In Room R a very curious feature is to be noticed. As the whole of 
the inner walls was decorated, in this buiiding, with the usual mosaic 
pattern, whenever the solid stone rendered it necessary the pattern was 
sculptured across the stone; so we find it on the south end of the lintels. 
A glance at the plan will show that the north end is in a dark corner. 
Now the sculpture should have run clear across the stone; it does not, 
but for a great space the stone is left blank. Whether the sculptor 
became tired or forgot, or whether the stone was too hard, whatever 
the reason, there we have an evidently unfinished piece of work. That 
they were not afraid of work is shown by the care used and great labor 
expended on the east lintel of Building No. 2, South Group (vide Fig. 3). 
There are examples of apparent great care and as great carelessness. 
In the plan the win- g ^ This is wrong; it should have 

dow is shown vt w?z?7777 v///;/;/ x been thus : 6 *»' 

this form : 


age way is Outside 

of large stones covered with hard, bright, dark red cement; it opens 
on a central court surrounded by four rooms. The court-yard and 
rooms are all floored with hard cement. The patio is very well pre- 
served. Room N is poorest of the four, and Room O is in a very per- 
fect state. Room P comes next, and Room R. is in good condition. 

The patio and rooms, and indeed the whole building, except the Hall 
of Pillars (Room M), is covered with ornaments. These ornaments are 
variations from a few simple types. The walls are faced with large 
stones and the ornaments are arranged in panels. The photographs sent 
with this paper show the ornaments well. Still further to the north are 
the remains of a very large edifice, but it is now part and parcel of a 
church and of the buildings thereto annexed, and it is hard to separate 
the old from the new. Still here I found on a cornice remains of mural 
paintings. The subject seems (from memory) to be identical with that 
sculptured on the so-called " Sacrificial Stone " in the patio of the Museo 
Nacional at Mexico, and on the walls and roof of the chamber of the 

•m* ymz^-mL "'mm 



s on i 



Gymnasium at Chichen-Itza. You see the same lile of ehief's, all bent 
forward ami bearing - lances and other insignia. Directly west of this 
building is a high mound, with a very much ruined flight of steps leading 
to the summit. This mound is surmounted by a modern building. 
Further south and in and near the village, often occupied us houses, are 
other ruins, in one of which I saw a long strip of painted cornice. The 
centre evidently represented a '.' calendai io," but unfortunately it was 
broken in parts. The two groups I measured were accurately oriented 
to the magnetic points of the compass at the date of my visit. In 
speaking of the lintels, I iind that I have omitted to state that they 
repose on very large blocks, which have in every case but two, circular 
holes made in them. ( Vide Fig. 1.) They also project considerably 

thus, in cross-section. 
See also photograph of 
the Hall of Pillars. 
This concludes my 
notes on such build- 
ings as I could accu- 

Fur 7. 


Support- X 




(Zapotecos) tell me 
that everywhere, but 
chielly to the north and 
east, are large mounds, 
and during my stay I 
was continually pes- 
tered by women and 
children bringing me 
The buildings 

rately measure a n d p ace 

study. The natives 

idols, etc., to buy. One word as to the probable age 
are carefully looked after by the Government, and have an intelligent 
guardian in the person of Don Felix Quero, to whose hospitable 
courtesy and beautiful house I can heartily recommend all archaeologists 
who may visit Mitla. As he truly says, the big stones are too big, the 
small stones too small, to move with prolit ; hence they have suffered 
little ravage from men. An inhabitant of the village since 1849 assured 
me that the ruins are in exactly the condition they then were. But 
Burgoa in 1G74 says : " This work being most ancient, beyond the 
memory of any one living, has yet lasted to our times. I saw them 
very leisurely over thirty years ago," and then goes on to describe them as 
they stand to-day. Therefore, in 1644, two hundred and thirty-eight 
years ago, they were practically as they are to-day. I can see no rea- 
son why they should not last for centuries still. 

I beg that too severe criticism of my notes may not be exercised, as 
they were hastily thrown into shape, but every measurement may be 
relied on as correct. I have a large plan of the buildings measured by 
me, and tracings of some of Miihleupfordt's plans. They are useful, but 
not absolutely correct. They are four in number. No. 1. Plan of 
Buildings remeasured by me. No. 2. Section through cruzero and sub- 
terranean passage. No. 3. Grouud plan of cruzero and subterranean 
passage. No. 4. General plan of Mitla. 

I found Miihleupfordt's original plans in the library of the Institute at 
Oaxaca, but my short stay was shortened by violent attacks of fever, 
and I could ouly copy these. MUhleupfordt seems to have understood 
the construction and size of the supposed passage. I also send three 


Yik. II. 

New Series, 

Part 2. 



IPBfeftf ^ntipmiatt jltfridij, 


OCTOBER 21, 1882, 

311 Main Street. 

18 8 3. 



Proceedings at thk Meeting . . . . . . . • . ......... 101 

report of the council . . , . ." 108 

Report on the Library 136 

Donors and Donations ...;,.,., .......... 146 

Report of the Treasurer ................ 154 

A Visit to PaloS and Rabida . . . .J. • 159 

Notes on the History of Witchcraft in Massachusetts. . . 162 
Appendix to Notes on the History of Witchcraft in Massa- 
chusetts ....... 182 

The Olmec as and the Tultecas ii)3 

An Ancient Document of the House of Washington . . . . .231 
Notes on Copper Implements from Mexico 235 

t. : £SV 1 

1882.] Pi -oceed h t (js . 101 



The President, Hon. Stephen Salisbury, LL.D., in the 



The following members were present (the names being 
arranged in order of seniority of membership) : George 
E. Ellis, Edward E. Hale, Charles Deane, George E. Hoar, 
John P. Bartlett, Andrew P. Peabody, George Chandler, 
Joseph Sargent, Stephen Salisbury, Jr., P. Emory Aldrieh, 
Samuel A. Green, Elijah , B. Stoddard, Rufus Woodward, 
George S. Paine, Edward L. Davis, Henry M. Dexter, 
Eranc'is II. Dewey, James F. Hunnewell, Egbert C. Smyth, 
John I). Washburn, George H. Preble, Thomas W. 
Iligginson, Albert II. Hoyt, Edward G. Porter, George 
Dexter, Reuben A. Guild, Charles C. Smith, Hamilton B. 
Staples, Edmund M. Barton, Thomas L. Nelson, Lucius R. 
Paige, Franklin B. Dexter, George II. Moore, Charles A. 
Chase, Samuel S. Green, Justin Winsor, Henry W. 
Haynes, Edward Isaiah Thomas, Frederic W. Putnam, 
Solomon Lincoln. 

The Honorable George F. Hoar, LL.D., read the re- 
port of the Council, and .Mr. Edmund M, Barton, Assistant- 
Librarian, read the annual report of his department. The 
report of the Treasurer, Nathaniel Paine, Esq., was 
not presented, but the following vote was passed upon 

motion of Charles C. Smith, Esq. : 


Voted, That the members of the Society have heard with 
much regret of the illness of their devoted and efficient 
' 11 



102 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

Treasurer, Mr. Nathaniel Paise, and desire to extend to 
him their best wishes for his early restoration to health. 

After a tew words from Col. T. W. Higginson, in re- 
lation to the Society's portrait pf Francis Higginson, the re- 
ports of Messrs. IIoak and Barton, together with that of 
the Treasurer, when presented, were referred to the Com- 
mittee of Publication, on motion of Rev. Dr. Dexter. 

Dr. Joseph Sargent and Prof. Henry W. IIaynes were 
appointed a committee to collect the ballots for President, 
all of which were for Hon. Stephen Salisbury, LL.D., 
who accepted the oflice. 

Hon. Samuel A. Green, M.D., John R. Bartlett, 
LL.D., and Rev. Andrew P. Peabody, D. D., were 
appointed a committee to nominate the officers for the 
ensuing year. They reported the following, and the 
gentlemen named were, by ballot, unanimously elected : 

Vice-President* : 

Hon. George F. Hoar, LL.D., of Worcester. 
Hon. George Bancroft, LL.D., of Washington. 



Hon. Isaac Davis, LL.D., of Worcester. 

Rev. Edward E. Hale, D.D., of Boston. 

Joseph Sakgent, M.D., of Worcester. 

Hon. Samuel A. Green, M.D., of Boston. 

Stephen Salisbury, Jr., Esq., of Worcester. 

Hon. P. Emory Aldiuch, of Worcester; 

Rev. Edward II. Hall, of Cambridge. 

Hon. Dwight Foster, LL.D., of Boston. 

Rev. Egbert C. Smyth, D.D., of Andover. 

Rev. William R. Huntington, D.D., of Worcester 

Secretary of Foreign Correspondence: 
Hon. J. Hammond Trumbull, LL.D., of Hartford. 

1882.] Proceeding*. • 103 

Secretary of Domestic Correspondence; 

Charles Deane, LL.D., of Cambridge. 

Recording Secretary : 

John 1). Washburn, LL.B., of Worcester. 

Treasurer : 
Nathaniel Paine, Esq., of Worcester. 

Qoiamittee of Publication ; 
Kev. Edward E. Hale, D.D., of Boston. 
Charles Deane, LL.D., of Cambridge. 
Nathaniel Paine, Esq., of Worcester. 
Rev. Edward II. Hall, of Cambridge. 
Charles A. Chase, A.M., of Worcester. 

Hon. Edward L. Davis, of Worcester. 
Charles A. Chase, A.M., of Worcester. 

Hon. P. Emory Aldrich, from the Council, reported for 
the action of the Society, the following draft of a by-law, 
which was adopted as Art. XL : 

Whenever any member of the Society shall tender, in 
writing, a resignation of his membership, the Council may 
accept the same, and his name shall thereafter be omitted 
from the roll of members. 

The Recording Secretary, from the Council, reported the 
following gentlemen as candidates for foreign members of 
the Society, and they were, by separate ballot on each 
name, elected : 

Don Marco Ximenes de la Espada, of Madrid, Spain. 

Don Jusxo Zaragoza, of Madrid, Spain. 

Prof. Hermann von IIolst, of Freiburg, Germany. 

Prof. Edouard Chevalier, of Paris, France. 

M. James Jackson, of Paris, France. 

Kev. Edward E. Ha&e, D.D., read a brief paper 
descriptive of his recent visit to Palos, in Spain, which is 

104 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

printed in the proceedings. I On motion of Dr. Green, 
Dr. Hale was requested to present M. Jackson's letter on 
the Columbus family to the /Committee of Publication for 
their consideration. / 

Geokge H. Mooue, 1JL.D., read a paper entitled 
4k Some Errors in the History of Witchcraft in Massachu- 
setts," for which the thanks of the Society were accorded, 
on motion of Rev. Dr. Ellis. In support of his motion, 
Dr. Ellis said : 

A\ uile listening to the elaborately wrought and rigidly 
authenticated statements of the admirable paper read by 
I)i*. Mooke, some suggestions have come to my mind in 
connection with its subject. We are all familiar with the 
assertion that Stotighton, the chief judge on the bench at 
the trial of the Salem victims of the Witchcraft delusion, 
more or less out of sympathy with the confession of regret 
made by his associate, Judge Sewall, avowed that he felt no 
obligation to offer any such confession, as lie had acted in the 
direful proceedings according to the best light which (Jod 
had given him. I should like to ask if this avowal ascribed 
to Stoughton has any other warrant than that of tradition? 
Have any of those here present ever met with an expression 
of it under Stoughton's own hand, or as reported by one to 
whom he may have made it by word of mouth? 

A question may be raised as to the quality and amount of 
the fault with which Judge Sewall charged himself in his 
confession. As interpreted by the feelings and opinions 
current at the time we might infer that his com- 
punctions attached simply to his having admitted what 
was called k ' spectral evidence " — the fictitious assump- 
tion, through help derived from the Devil, of the 
form and personality of an accused person, to work 
mischief by proxy at a distance. We know that the first 
arrest of the proceedings ^vas caused by a mistrust and then 
by an open repudiation of the validity of such evidence 
after it had been for a time allowed. Can Sewall's misgiving 




be supposed to cover more than this? It certainly cannot 
be claimed that he renounced ^absolutely a belief in the 

the: k 

possibility and actuality of the i\\\ of witchcraft. 

To all of our lineage who why be sensitive to the mis- 
representations and exaggerations which have so mis- 
chievously become attached tqf the rehearsal in history and 
in lighter reference, of that/ New England tragedy, the 
question naturally presents itself — Why are the incidents of 
that brief episode of that single year in Salem village, made 
to represent in horror and reproach the sin and shame of all 
Christendom, at that time and long afterwards? Was there 
anything special, peculiar, intense, in the sombreness and 
the dread of an awful delusion and of the suil'ering, out- 
rage and wrong inflicted by it that makes what occurred in 
Salem different in a single quality or aspect from similar 
dark experiences over the whole of Europe? In the third 
generation after the trials at Salem, Blackstone wrote this 
sentence in his commentaries: kk To deny the possibility, 
nay, actual existence of witchcraft and sorcery is flatly to 
contradict the revealed will of God : and the thing itself is 
a truth to which every nation in the world hath in its 
turn borne testimony." Every nation in the world ! Was 
rural Salem to be the single spot where light might be 
expected to shine ? 

When, some fifty years ago, the so-called kt 1'useyite " 
movement was in its first vigor at Oxford, a zealous eilbrl 
was made to define a standard or criterion for the ratili- 
cation of any article of faith. One was suggested and 
proposed in a maxim of St. Vincent of Lcrins, viz. : 
44 What had been believed everywhere, in all time, and by 
everybody." He would be a rash man who should claim 
that any single article of theology or divinity had that 
supreme warrant. The belief in witchcraft comes nearer 
than any article of any creed to meeting its exactions. In 
Great Britain thirty thousand human beings had suffered 
torture and death, as dealers with the Devil. There had 

10() American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

been four thousand such victims in Scotland in ten years. 
Prance had offered up seventy thousand, Germany nearly 
a hundred thousand. Massachusetts needed only a score of 
sufferers to bring it to grief and remorse. Why then is 
the deepest gloom of that dread shadow cast over one of 
our wilderness towns? / 

The explanation, I think, /is not far for the search. It is to 
be referred simply to the awful frankness, fulness, sincerity 
and fidelity with which our history has been written. We 
tell and let out everything. , Some of our local antiquarians 
and annalists will get up an entire new history if they have 
moused out two or three trivial facts, or detected two or 
three trivial errors. Our enemies — so often from among 
ourselves — keep writing books. No State, no city, no 
town in any portion of this wide country has had every in- 
cident, calamity, wrong or folly in its annals, its ex- 
perience, its biographies, written out so fully and minutely, 
with such exposures and aggravations, as have most of the 
oldest communities in Massachusetts. A visitor from 
the old world, Dean Stanley, Mr. Freeman or Prof. 
Tyndall, and our own Zuni Indians, finding themselves 
in Salem, are taken to the Essex Institute, and diligently 
shown the pins which were stuck into the ki afflicted 
children," the canes with which poor old Mr. Jacobs hob- 
bled up to the gallows on Witch Hill, and that dismal 
elevation itself has to be mounted. Our earnestness and 
forlorn determination in such matters are like those of a 
poor wasted invalid creeping about for years, who gave as 
a reason for it, " that he wished to save funeral expenses." 

A few remarks were made by Messrs. Hoar and Moore 
on the same subject, and Dr. Moore's paper was then re- 
ferred to the Committee of Publication. 

Stephen Salisbury, Jr., Esq., presented a paper by 
Philipp J. J. Valentini, Ph.D., on " The Olmecas and the 
Tultecas, a study in Earjy Mexican Ethnology and History," 
tor which the thanks of the Society were voted, on motion 



Proceeding i 


of Rev. Dr. Dexter, and the paper referred to the Com- 
mittee of Publication. 

Rev.. Edward G. Porter presented, with explai atory re- 
marks which are elsewhere printed, an artotype copy of 
an ancient docuinent discovered in Durham, England, sup- 
posed to be the oldest document in existence relating to the 

... i 

Washington family. Judge Staples moved, and it was 
voted, that the thanks of the Society be returned to Mr. 
Porter, and the paper referred to the Committee of Pub- 

Prof. Frederic W. Putnam, of Cambridge, read his 
"Notes on Copper Implements from Mexico," and exhibited 
several specimens which have recently come into possession 
of the Peabody Museum. His paper was referred to the 
Committee of Publication, with the thanks of the Society, 
on motion of Prof. H. W. Hayne's. 

Hon. Samuel A. Green, M.D., presented a copy of the 
printed rules and regulations of an inoculating hospital 
maintained in Worcester County during the Revolution, 
and the Society received the same with grateful appreciation. 

The meeting was then dissolved. 


Recording Secretary. 

108 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 



The Council of the American /Antiquarian Society present 
their semi-annual report as /required by the By-Laws. 
The report of Mr. E. M. Barton, the Assistant-Librarian, 
presented as a part of the report of the Council, gives in 
detail the accessions to the- library for the past six months, 
and indicates the continued interest of members and others 
in the Society. From his report it will be .seen that the 
general affairs of the Society are in a prosperous condition, 
and that the use of the library under our present rules and 
regulations, by those interested in antiquarian and histori- 
cal studies, is increasing. 

The administration and management of the library is in 
charge of the Library Committee, who have been seconded 
in their efforts to increase its usefulness by the Assistant- 
Librarians, Messrs. Barton and Colton. 

The Treasurer's report, also a part of the report of the 
Council, shows the condition of the Society's finances and 
the investment of the various funds, which now amount 
to upwards of $7(>,<)00. The "Partial Index" of the 
"Proceedings" published previous to 18cS0, prepared 
under the direction of Stephen Salisbury, Jr., is now in 
print and will soon be ready for distribution. This index 
will undoubtedly prove of great value and give much 
desired information as to the topics which have been treated 
upon in the various reports of the Council, and in special 
papers prepared by our members. 

It is the duty of the Council to record the deaths within 
the past six months, of two of our most eminent members. 

George Perkins Marsh died at Vallombrosa, near Flor- 
ence, on the 23d day of July, 1&82. He was born at 




Report of the Council. 


"Woodstock, Vermont, on Sunday, March 15th, 1801. He 
was the son of the Honorable Charles Marsh and Susan 
(Perkins) Marsh, his wife. Charles Marsh was a native of 
Lebanon, Connecticut. He removed with his wife to Ver- 
mont shortly after their marriage, which took place June 3, 
1798, and settled at Woodstock. He was a lawyer of 
great power and distinction. /He served in Congress one 
term from 1815 to Its 17, and .declined a re-election. 

George P. Marsh wits graduated at Dartmouth in 1820. 
Soon after leaving college he removed to Burlington, Ver- 
mont, where he studied law and engaged in the practice of 
hi.-? profession. In l*.'). r ) he was elected a member of the 
Executive Council of Vermont. In 1*42 he was chosen a 
member of Congress and kept a seat there until 1*4'.'. when 
he was appointed by President Taylor Minister to Constan- 
tinople, which office he held for four years. He rilled his 
place oi' member of Congress and of minister with great 
ability, and in the latter did much to make the American 
character respected abroad. The Earl of Carlisle in his 
"Diary in Turkish and Greek Waters," under date of 
August 2, 1853, says: — 

•• I met the American Lc-^atiuii at dinner with our ambassador. Mr. 
Marsh, the minister, is one of the best conditioned and fully informed 
men it is possible to And anywhere." 

During his term of service at Constantinople, Mr. Marsh 
was sent to Athens under direction of Mr. Webster, then 
Secretary of State, to examine the case of Rev. Jonas 
King, and upon his report, to take charge of the demand 
made upon the Government of Greece for redress. This is 
one ut' the most remarkable cases in our diplomatic history. 

The liev. Jonas King, D.D., a missionary distinguished 
for his learning, zeal, devotion, Mild immaculate elm meter, 
afterward himself a member of our Society, established 
himself in Athens on its abandonment by the Turks at the 
successful close of the Greek Revolution, married a Greek 
lady of great worth, aijjd from 1830 until his death, was in 

110 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

the service of the American Board of Commissioners for For- 
eign Missions. He acquired, under the sanction and encour- 
agement of the government thereJ a lot of land in Athens, 
described by Mr. Webster in his Instructions to Mr. Marsh 

as ''containing about seventy-two thousand square feet, 
situated on a beautiful elevation, commanding a view of 
Mars Hill and the Acropolis, and some of the principal 
antiquities of Athens, the Piiwus and Gulf of Salamis 
on the south and southwest ; Mount Parnassus and the Plain 
of Athens on the west and north ; and Lycainettus and 
Ilymettus on the east/' This land had grown to a value 
of probably one hundred thousand dollars. Dr. King had 
become obnoxious to the hierarchy of the ({reek church, not 
only as an Evangelical missionary, but by reason of several 
works written before his residence in Greece, in which he 
had undertaken to show the inconsistency of the modern 
doctrine and ritual of that church with the faith of its 
ancient fathers. The government undertook to devote Dr. 
King's land to public uses, among them to the site of a 
grand national church of the Saviour. It evaded his claim 
for recompense for nearly twenty years. At the instigation 
of the priesthood, Dr. King was indicted for the offence of 
"reviling and malevolently assailing the doctrines, rites, 
and customs of the Established church," and of "express- 
ing opinions and principles repugnant to religion and 
morality in general." The only proof was that Dr. King 
had declared in his own house, that "Mary was not ever- 
Virgin ;" that she "had borne other children than the 
Saviour;" that she "ought not to be called Mother of God 
but only Mother of Christ," and had claimed that the 
" bread and wine of the communion did not become the 
real body and blood of Jesus Christ." The constitution of 
Greece guaranteed religious toleration, and equal privileges 
in this respect to aliens as to citizens. Yet Dr. King was 
convicted and sentenced to imprisonment and banishment, 
after a trial conducted in*a manner most disgraceful to the 



1882.] Report of the Council. Ill 

court, and the conviction and sentence sustained by the 
Areopagus, on appeal, in an evasive and disingenuous judg- 
ment. The whole story brings vividly to mind the two 
scenes in the life of St. Paul, his appearance before the 
same tribunal, and his encounter of the mob at Kphesus. 
The serene courage of the Massachusetts missionary was 
not unworthy of his great example. 

There was required by the difficult duty, imposed on Mr. 
Marsh, familiarity with the language, constitution, and laws 
of Greece, with the forms of procedure in her courts, with 
international law and diplomatic usage. lie pressed the 
crafty diplomatist of the Greek foreign ollice with great 
force of argument, and with a very unoriental vigor and 
plainness of .speech, and accomplished his mission with 
entire success, and to the perfect satisfaction of his own 
government, which was warmly expressed by Mr. Everett. 
The sentence against Dr, King was never enforced, and the 
indemnity demanded was conceded. 

During Mr. Marsh's stay in Athens he found time to pre- 
pare a report on the existing political condition of Greece. 

Mr. Marsh retired from his Turkish mission in 1853. 
After his return he remained in Burlington, devoting him- 
self to scholarly pursuits, but not resuming his profession, 
until 1861, when he was appointed minister to Italy by 
President Lincoln, in which office he remained until his 

He was twice married: first, April 10, 1828, to Harriet 
Buel, of Burlington; second, in 1839, to Caroline ('rune, 
of Berkele}' Mass., who survives him. The latter is the 
author of many poems and translations of great merit. 
He left no surviving children. 

He was elected a member of this Society in October, 

His intellect remained clear to the last. His death was 
peaceful but very sudden. He walked into the house from 
sitting with Mrs. Marsh under the shade of the famous 


112 American Antiquarian Society. [^ ct - 

leaves of Vallombrosa, feeling well, hut expressing a little 
sense of fatigue, not more than an hour before his death. 

Senator Edmunds, his near relative by marriage;, writes 
of him, to a member of the Council, as follows : — 

•' He was a man of entire purity and temperance in his private life, 
and, as you know, above all reproach in his public career. He had 
extraordinary kindness of heart and sympathy for those in trouble or 
distress, although his manner, except with those with whom he was 
intimately acquainted, was quite reserved. He might almost be called 
obstinate in his adherence to his formed opinions, and he was usually 
very plain spoken concerning men and things that appeared to him to In- 
going wrong." 

An associate of Mr. Marsh in diplomatic service, adds to 
this picture what the delicacy occasioned by a near relation- 
ship alone constrains Mr. Edmunds to omit: — 

'• George P. Marsh was the noblest combination of the noblest quali- 
ties which distinguish man — inflexible honesty, public and private; the 
most intelligent and purest patriotism; ideality of the highest as to his 
service in his official career; generosity and self-sacrifice in his personal 
relations; quick and liberal appreciation of all good in others, and the 
most singular modesty in all that concerned himself; unfaltering 
adherence to truth at any cost; an adamantine recognition of duty 
which knew no deflection from personal motive; and, binding the whole 
in the noblest and truest of lives, a sincere religious temperament, in 
which the extreme of liberality to others was united to the profoundest 
humility as to himself. A man, on whom his country or his countrymen 
might repose any trust, or impose any worthy service." 

It is impossible, within the limits of this report, to do 
justice to Mr. Marsh's great place in the list of American 
scholars. lie was one of the earliest of our great scholars. 
His labors in the branches of science to which he devoted 
himself were incessant, and were hardly interrupted by his 
public occupations. Among his principal published works 
may be mentioned the following: — 

A Compendious Grammar of the Old Northern or Icelandic Language, 
Compiled and translated from the Grammar of Kask. Burlington, 

is as. 

The Goths in New England. A Discourse before the Philomathesian 
Society at Middlebury Cbl^ge, 1843. 

1882.] Report of the Council. 113 

Address before the New England Society of New York, 1844. 

Speech on the Tariff Bill, 1814. 

Speech on the Bill for establishing the Smithsonian Institution, 1846. 

Speech on the Tariff Question, 184G. 

Human Knowledge : A Discourse before the Phi Beta Kappa Society at 
Cambridge, 1817. 

The American Historical School. A Discourse before the Literary 
Societies of Union College, 1817. 

Address before the Agricultural Society of Rutland County, Vermont, 
1847. I 

Speech on the Mexican War, 1848/ 

Remarks on Slavery in the Territories of New Mexico, California and 
Oregon, 1848. ' / 

Address before the American Institute, 1855. 

The Camel; his Organization, Habits and Uses considered with refer- 
ence to his introduction into' the United States. Boston, 185(J. 

Inaugural Addresses of T. W. D wight and George P. Marsh, in Colum- 
bia College, 1850. 

Report made under the authority of the Legislature of Vermont, on the 
Artificial Propagation of Fish, 1857. 

Thirty Lectures on the English Language, delivered at Columbia Col- 
lege, New York, 18G0. 

Origin and History of the English Language, and of the Early Litera- 
ture it Embodies. New York, 1862. 

Same. New Edition. .New York, 1874. 

Man ami Nature; or Physical Geography as Modilied by Human Action. 
New York, 1864. 

Several Articles on Icelandic Literature, in the American Whig Review 
and the Eclectic Review. 

Rev. Chandler Bobbins., D.D., was born at Lynn, Massa- 
chusetts, February 14, 1810 : was graduated at Harvard 
College in 1829 ; settled over the Second Church in Boston 
December 4, 1833, succeeding- Balph Waldo Emerson ; 
remained pastor of that church forty-one years ; was twice 
married, and died at Weston, Massachusetts, after a short 
illness, September 12, 1882. He was wholly deprived of 
sight for the last few years before his death. 

Dr. Robbins's work in life was that of an eloquent 
preacher and faithful parish minister. He was a man of 
very attractive personal qualities of character and manner, 
which gave him great influence in his pastoral office, and 
rendered him a tit successor in the line of pious and godly 
men who had stood in the pulpit of his ancient church. 
He was an ell'ective preacher ; devout, affectionate, and per- 


114 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

suasive. He was a member of this Society for twenty-five 
years. lie had a great taste and capacity for historical 
investigation : his studies in that department were such as 
grew naturally from his relation to his own parish and city. 
Dr. Ellis says of him that "he exercised authority, good 
judgment, a tine taste, thoroughness of research, and a 
supreme regard for accuracy in historical statements." 

lie was the author of various' papers in the collections of 
the Massachusetts Historical Society. He published: — 

" A History of the Second Church in Boston, with lives 
of Increase and Cotton Matheij;" two sermons on the death 
of Henry Ware, jr. D.D. ; two historical discourses on 
taking down the "New Brick Church;" Artillery Election 
Sermon in 1836 ; Memoir of the Rev. Alexander Young ; 
Memoir of Hon. William Appleton ; Lectures on the Kegi- 
-cides, delivered before the Lowell Institute ; and various 
occasional sermons. He contributed many articles to 
literary and religious periodicals. He was for two years, 
beginning in 183G, editor of the Christian Register; com- 
piled in 1843 "the Sacred Hymn Book;" and in 1854, the 
"Hymn Book for Christian Worship," and was himself 
author of several hymns. 

He was elected a member of the American Antiquarian 
Society in October, 1857. 

It was the expectation of the Council, until very lately, 
that their report for the period which completes the 
seventieth year of the Society, would be prepared by our 
distinguished associate, Mr. Bancroft, the publication of 
whose "History of the Formation of the Constitution of 
the United States of America" is the most interesting event 
in historical literature which has taken place during the past 
six months. But Mr. Bancroft has fairly earned, if it be 
ever fairly earned, the right to rest, or to choose his own 
held of labor, as shall please him best. Mr. Bancroft has 
brought into the compass of six hundred and thirty-nine 



Report of the Council. 


pages — the result of years of great labor — an account of 
the movements toward union of the separate colonies, 
beginning with the short-lived confederacy of three New 
England Colonies for mutual protection, especially against 
the Dutch, in 1G43 ; of the defects of the old confederation 
as a means of wielding with effect the strength of the 
American people for the purposes of either war or peace ; 
of the dreary years between the treaty of 1783 and the 
inauguration of the Federal constitution ; of the origin and 
growth of each of the separate provisions and principles 
therein contained ; of the debates and action of the Con- 
vention of 1787 ; of the characters of its principal mem- 
bers ; of the weighty argument and skilful management by 
which the required assent of the States was obtained. The 
more profound the study which shall be devoted to either of 
these interesting topics, the greater will be the satisfaction 
with the thoroughness, as well as the compactness, with 
which the eminent historian has performed his work. 

A space in Mr. Bancroft's two volumes nearly equal to 
that occupied by the principal text, is devoted to a selection 
from original manuscripts of great value, hitherto, with a 
half-dozen exceptions, unpublished, and nearly all new to 
historical inquirers. They suggest that there must still 
exist in this country a considerable wealth of historical 
material in private hands, or scattered in libraries, and 
uncatalogued. A full and systematic account and list of 
such treasures would do much to diminish the labors of 
students, and to throw new light upon every period of our 
history. Indeed, we suspect' that the catalogue of our own 
library, now making excellent progress, through the 
liberality of our associate, Mr. Stephen Salisbury, Jr., will 
disclose, even to many of our own members, resources of 
which they arc unaware. 

The report of the Council, made by President Salisbury, 
in 1880, gave an interesting and instructive account of the 
unpublished historical matter in the English Record offices. 


Ill) American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

He added a brief notice of the work of the Royal Commis- 
sion on Historical Manuscripts, a work of scarcely less 
importance to the American historian than to the English. 
This Commission, originally created by her Majest}' in 18G9, 
" to enquire what papers and manuscripts belonging to 
private families and institutions are extant, which would be 
of utility in the illustration of history, constitutional law, 
science and general literature, and to which possessors would 
be willing to give access," with authority to make abstracts 
and catalogues of such manuscripts, with the consent of the 
owners, and to report from time to time, have already par- 
tially reported the result of their labors in seven goodly 
folios, the last six of which are of great hulk. The reports 
arc amply indexed, and the references to America, and to 
our colonies and towns and historic names are numerous. 

The seventh report contains nearly a hundred letters 
from Bishop Berkeley to Lord Percival, included in the col- 
lection of the Karl of Kgmont, written from 1709 to 1730, 
many of them from Rhode Island. Among them is a letter 
written just before Berkeley's departure from England 
enclosing a first version of the famous ode, di tiering con- 
siderably from that which is so familiar. Berkeley says : — 
" You have, annexed, a poem wrote by a friend of mine 
with a view to the scheme. Your Lordship is desired to 
show it to none but of your family and allow no copy to be 
taken of it." 

The first and last verses of the ode in its original shape 
are as follows : — 

"The, offended at the Age, those climes 
Whore naught she found lit to rehearse, 
Wails now in distant lands for better times, 
Producing subjects worthy verse. 

Westward the course of Empire takes its way. 
The four first acts already past, 
A fifth shall close the Drama with the day, 
The world's great effort is the last." 

1882.] Report of the Council. Ill 

Under date, Trinity, June 4th, 1723, lie writes to Per- 
cival : '.* Something that will surprise your Lordship as 
much as it does me. — Mrs. Hester Van Omry, a lady to 
whom I was a perfect stranger, having- never in the whole 
course of my life, to my knowledge, exchanged one single 
word with her, died on Sunday night.. Yesterday her will 
was opened, by which it appears that I am constituted 
executor, the advantage whereof is computed by those who 
understand her a (lairs to be wprth £3000, and if a suit she 
had be carried, it will be considerably more." The will 
created Berkeley residuary /legatee of half the estate, as 
well as executor, and enabled him to make his gifts to Har- 
vard and Yale colleges. Esther Van ( )mry is the Vanessa 
so well known to fame as 'the friend, pupil and lover of 
Swift, the lady of his poem " Cadenus and Vanessa." She 
is said to have made this will and destroyed a prior one 
giving her property to Swift, moved by anger and jealousy 
caused by the report of his marriage to Esther Johnson — 
best known as "Stella." 

September 3d, 1728, Berkeley writes from Greenwich: 
"To-morrow Ave sail down the river. Mr. James and Mr. 
Dalton go with me ; so doth my wife, a daughter of the late 
Chief Justice Eorster, whom 1 married since I saw your 
Lordship. I chose her for her qualities of mind, and her 
unaffected inclination to books. She goes with great thank- 
fulness to live a plain farmer's life, and wear stuff of her 
own spinning. I have presented her with a spinning 

The Commission had, at the date of their last report, 
already examined and reported upon more than live hun- 
dred collections, including the archives of the House of 
Lords, counties and towns, learned societies and guilds, the 
universities, claustral and Episcopal libraries and of many 
noblemen and gentlemen. The Commissioners say that, 
"Judging from the work on hand and in prospect, there 
seems no likelihood that the labors of your Commissioners 


118 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

will shortly cease from want of material upon which to 

It is not likely that a work like this will he undertaken 
by national authority in this country. But tin; co-operation 
of societies and individuals would doubtless bring to light, 
and render accessible, many treasures which are now 

Of course, the archives at Washington are barren com- 
pared with the great riches pf which the English Commis- 
sioners give us so tantalizing a view. It is not yet a 
century since the government began its operation under the 
Constitution. The far greater portion of our historical 
records are in the possession of the States. We have not, 
as in England, great historic houses, whose annals and 
secret archives exceed those of kingdoms in importance and 
duration. We have no great religious body with political 
relations like the Church of England, and no great political 
corporations like the East India Company, or the Bank of 
England. But a brief and imperfect account of the 
material for historical study now accessible at our national 
capital may have its interest. 

The office of the Clerk of the Supreme Court of the 
United States contains the records of that tribunal from its 
organization in February, 1790, to the present time. 

By the Statute of May 8, 171)2, it was provided that 
all the records and proceedings of the Court of Appeals, 
heretofore appointed previous to the adoption of the present 
Constitution, shall be deposited in the office of the Supreme 
Court of the United States. 

November 25, 1775, Congress resolved; — 

"That it be, and is hereby recommended to the several Legislatures 
in the United Colonics, as soon as possible, to erect Courts of .Justice, 
or give jurisdiction to .the courts now in being, for the purpose of 
determining concerning the captures to be made as aforesaid, and to 
provide that all trials in such cases be had by a jury, under such quali- 
fications as to the respective legislatures shall seem expedient." 


Report of the Council. 


ll v>th. That in all cases an appeal shall be allowed to the Congress, 

or such person or persons as they shall appoint for the trial of appeals, 
provided the appeal be demanded within five days after definitive ,*>en- 
tence and such appeal be lodged with the Secretary of Congress within 
forty days afterwards, and provided the party appealing shall give 
security to prosecute the said appeal to eiiect." 

January 30, 1777, it was resolved: — 

"That a standing committee, to consist of live members, be appointed 
to hear and determine upon appeals brought against sentences passed 
on libels in the Courts of Admiralty in the respective states, agreeable 
to the resolutions of Congress; and that the several appeals, when 
lodged with the Secretary, mc by him delivered to them for their final 

The ninth article of (he Confederal ion provided that: — 

" The United States in Congress assembled, shall have the sole and 
exclusive right and power I * * * * of establishing rules 
for deciding, in all cases, vyhat captures on land or water shall be legal, 
and in what manner prizes taken by land or naval forces in the service 
of the United States shall be divided or appropriated; of * * 
*' * establishing courts for receiving and determining finally, 
appeals in all cases of capture: provided, That no member of Congress 
shall be appointed a judge of any of the said courts." 

Under these provisions appeals in prize eases were origi- 
nally taken directly to Congress from State Courts. 

January 14, 1780, a resolution establishing a Court of 
Appeals was adopted, and January 22, Messrs. George 
Wythe, William Paca and Titus Hosmer Averc elected. Mr. 
Wythe afterwards declined the office and Mr. Griffin was 
substituted by election April 28th. 

There are in the clerk's office the original papers in 
one hundred and twenty-nine cases which were brought 
before the tribunals above described. A list of these cases, 
with the States from which they came, and the year when 
docketed and when decided, is annexed. These records 
contain, in many instances, the original letters of marijue in 
case of the capture by a privateer, and such evidence as to 
the character and conduct of the captured vessel, and the 
circumstances of the voyage as was necessary to determine 


120 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

whether she was lawful prize. This is often quite full and 
minute and of much interest. 

List of Prize Appeal Cases during the War of the Revolution 
whose records are now in the office of the clerk of the 
Supreme Court of the United States. 

jgjM TITLE OF CASK. ***** ° 1 ' 

1781. Adventure, Schooner, 

1777. Alsup vs. Rittenburgh, 

1778. Admiralty Law of South Carolina. 
1787. Atkinson vs. Chester! 

1777. Allen vs. Schooner Gjbocl Fortune, 
1780. Betsey, Sloop, j 1 J 

1778. Brooks vs. Lopez, claimant of Schooner Hope, 

1780. Bragg vs. Sloop Doj/e, 

1781. Barry vs. Brig Mart, 
1780. Brown vs. Shi]) Perseverance, 

1780. Bradley vs. Sloop Betsey, 

1781. Babcock vs. Brig Brunette, 

1779. Bradford vs. Ship Victoria, 
1777. Baldwin vs. Polke, 
1771). Baratt vs. Schooner Packet, 
1783. Barrell vs. Sloop Good Intent, 
178L Barlow vs. Collin, 
1783. Brown vs. Schooner Speedwell, 
178L Boitar Vs. Schooner Adventurer, 
1779. Bradford vs. Schooner Viper, 

Babcock vs. Schooner Nancy, 

Court of Appeals, Papers of Resolution and Ap 

Cabot vs. Ship Neustra Seniora, 
Conklin vs. Brigantine Bermudas, 
Cleveland vs. Ship Francisco de Panta, 
Caldwell vs. Newman, 
Carr vs. Brig Hanover, 
Cruger et. ah, vs. Brig Cumberland, 
Chester, Sloop vs. The Fair American, 
Craig vs. Brig Richmond, 
Darby vs. Brigantine Estenburg, 
Davis vs. Schooner Polly, 
Decatur and Fosdiek vs. Schooner Barbary, 
Dennon (Win.) vs. Countess of Ellington, 
Derby vs. Ship Minerva, * 

Dob vs. Randall, 










T 79. 


T 77. 























R. 1. 


S. C. 


N. C. 


enn. 17 

70- [?] 



N. C. 


















R. 1. 


N. C. 





17 79. 









N. C. 


N. Y. 


S. C. 





N. C. 


N. J. 








1882.] Report of the Council. 121 

1779. Elderkin vs. A Sloop, 

1781. Ellis vs. Sloop Hannah, 
1788. Elkins vs. Sloop Good Intent, 
1783. Earlc vs. Schooner .Betsey, 

1779. Fosset vs. Sloop Jane, etc., 

1782. Foster vs. Sundry British Goods, 

1777. Fawkes vs. Schooner Roseana, 

1780. Gardner vs. Brig Sea Horse, 
1779. Glasson vs. Ship Mermaid. 

1783. Garnet vs. Brig- None Such, 
1779. Gibbs vs. Pallas, 

1778. Goodwin vs. Schooner Fortune, 

1779. Gurney vs. Ploy, 
1788 Griffin vs. Sloop George, 
1779. Harridon vs. Sloop Hope, 

1784. Hathaway vs. Ingers'oll, 
1782. Harris' Appeal, / 
17SG. Hazard's vs. Tucker et al., 
1779. Harper's Memorial, 

1779. Harman, Courter, 'etc., vs. Brig Bilt, 

1777. Hopkins vs. Derby, 

1778. Houston vs. Sloop Active, 

1780. Ingenuso vs. Schooner Lovely Nancy, 
1780. Jenks vs. Sloop Industry, 

1782. Johnson vs. Quantity of British Goods, 

1783. Jackson vs. Sloop Diamond, 

1784. Jones et al., vs. Babcock, 

1782. Judson vs. Wells, 

1776. Joyne, qui tarn, vs. Sloop Vulcan, 

1779. Ingersoll vs. Brig Recovery, 
1778. Jenkes vs. Sloop Fancy, 

1783. Jackson vs. Dolphin, 
1783. Jackson vs. Sloop Diamond, ^ 
1782. Kean vs. Brig Gloucester (decree), 
1782. Lockwood vs. Bradly, 
1778. Libel vs. Brig Industry, 
1778. Lopez vs. Griffith, et al., 

1782. Martin vs. Brigantine Hope, 

1777. Montgomery, -Sloop, vs. Brig Minerva, 

1783. Maria Theresa, Brig, Papers of 
1783. Mauley vs. Ship Bailey, 

1778. Murphy vs. Sloop llawke, 

1779. Massachusetts Bay vs. Ship Victoria, 
1783. McClure vs. Sundry British Goods, 

1780. Nicholson, etal., vs. Sandwich Packet, 
1783. Norton vs. Percival, 



N. J. 










N. C. 




N. J. 



S. C. 






N. J. 








N. Y. 






R. I? 




N. J. 

11. I. 




N. J. 







N. J. 


U. I. 



N. C. 



P. I. 


N. J. 



17 78: 





N. II. 














122 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

1778. Norris vs. The Polly and Nancy, 

1783. Nicholson vs. Parkell, 

1783. Nonsuch's Papers. 

1771). Pope vs. Sloop Sally, 

1782. Preble i s. Johnson, 

1777. Pierce vs. Brig Phoenix, 

1777. Perkins, Papers of, Costs and Appeal, 

1777. Price vs. Sloop Success, 

1782. Powers vs. the Sally and Mifflin, 

1780. Ratliburn, Lib' t vs. Ship Mary, 

1783. Robinson vs. Schooner Four Sisters, 
1783. Head vs. Schooner Squirrel, 
1782. Randall vs. Schooner Nostra Signora, 
1782. Ship Resolution's Papers, 
1782. Spencer vs. Sloop pally, 

1782. Scovel vs. Hope, / 

1783. Sampson vs. Uarlqw, 
1783. St. Autonius, Record, 
1783. Smith vs. Sloop Polly, 

1778. Straler vs. Sloop [Speedwell, 

1781. Smith vs. Sloop Mary, 
1783. Smith vs. Sloop Sally, 

1782. Stoddard vs. Schooner Squirrel, 
1778. Stevens vs. Schooner John and Sally, 
1775). Scudder vs. Gray, 

1777. Stanton vs. Schooner Two Brothers, 

1782. Smith vs. Sundry British Goods, 
1775). Taylor vs. Schooner Panic, 
1780. Taylor vs. Schooner Fame, 
1780. Taylor vs. Schooner Polly, 

1783. Tucker vs. Ship Severn [opinion,] 

1778. Taylor vs. Sloop Lark, 
177 ( J. Tayloe vs. Buroh, 

Treadwell vs. Ship Hawk, 

1778. Taylor vs. Sloop Polly, 

1771). Tracy vs. Holy Martyr, 

1780. While vs. Ship Anna Maria, 

1783, Wells vs. British Goods; 

177G. Wyngate vs. Brig Sherburne, 

1778. Weynau vs. Arthur. 

1777. White vs. Knight, 

1777. Weston vs. Schooner Industry, 

1780. Young vs. Sloop Two Friends, 

The records of the Supreme Court are complete and in a 
perfect .state of preservation from its organization in 1790, 

S. c. 









R, 1. 


N. J. 








R. I. 












N. J. 


N. C. 


R. I. 

R. I. 

N. J. 




R, I. 




N. J. 


N. J. 





N. J. 




R. I. 










S. C. 1798. (?) 








Report of the Council. 


on the first Monday in February, when its first notion 
was to appoint a (tut, until the present time. The court 
room was burned during the occupation of Washington by 
the British in 1814, hut the records escaped destruction. 
The August term of the court had become merely a session 
tor continuing causes till February, and this had been 
omitted several years, so that there was probably no court 
ill session at the time. The tirst entry on the records of 
the February term of 1815, is an order directing the Marshal 
to purchase a set of laws for the use of the court, indicating 
the probable destruction of a former set in the fire;. 

The records and manuscripts in most of the departments 
and offices belong! generally, to the period since those 
departments were established. There are in the Indian 
Bureau, in the Department of the Interior, some collections 
relating to the history of the Indian tribes before the Revo- 
lution, made by Jidediah Morse. The Post-Office Depart- 
ment has the recoijds of the national postal system from its 
organization by Dr. Franklin in 1775. The Registry of 
Deeds has the documents and surveys of the original laying 
out of the City of Washington, with many unpublished 
letters of its illustrious founder. The State, War and Navy 
Departments, and the Department of Justice have ample 
and rich material for the civil and military history of the 
period of rebellion and reconstruction, including the rebel 

The Patent Office contains its record and illustration of 
that most important and wonderful chapter in human 
history — the; history of American invention. That the 
material for this history may be complete, much ought to 
be done in various localities, especially in New England, to 
preserve facts whose sole depository is the memory of aged 
men. When that chapter is suitably written, the contribu- 
tion of the county where the annual .meetings of the 
Society are held, to the great inventions which have so dis- 

tinguished our century 


have an honorable place. 

124 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

Within its limits were born the inventors of the cotton <n\\ 
and the sewing- machine, and the envelope machine. Here 
Bigelow was born, and here he established his carpet loom. 
Here began and grew to its present vast proportions the 
great wire manufacture. Here was improved and devel- 
oped, from its first crude conception, the marvellous card 
machinery. Here was brought to its perfection the modern 
plough, as well as a great variety of the machinery which 
has so largely increased the agricultural product of the 
whole country. Here has been perfected the exquisite 
fancy loom, and the machines which have reduced by twenty- 
live per cent, the cost of shoes. 

But the collections of chief importance to the student of 
earlier history are 'those of the Library of Congress, the 
Department of State, the Smithsonian Institution and the 
National Museum. 

The Library of | Congress is exceedingly rich in English 
local histories, and in heraldry and genealogy, having a 
complete set of the County histories of England, Scotland, 
Ireland and Wales. It possesses also copies of a great por- 
tion of Sir Thomas Phillipps's collection of privately printed 
papers, of which twenty copies were printed at his private 
press at Middle Hill. These are contained in thirty-seven 
volumes under four divisions : — 

1. Pedigrees, 5 Vols. 

2. Visitations, 7 Vols. 

3. Topography, 3 Vols. 

4. History, 22 Vols. 

Many of these are of great interest to Americans, and, if 
better known, may save some journeys across the Atlantic. 
Among them is a copy of the indexes of the wills proved 
at Doctors' Commons. 

There are the following County Visitations : — 

Berkshire. 1565, 1G23, 1664-5. 
Cambridgeshire. 1619. 

1882.] Report of the Council. 

Derbyshire. 1620. 
Hampshire. 1575, 1622, 1086. 
London. Index to Visitation. 1593. 

Tart of Visitation. 1634. 

Middlesex. Visitation begun in 1063. 

Oxfordshire. Visitations of 1574 and 1634. 

Somersetshire. 1623. 

Staffordshire. 1663-4. 

Sussex. 1570. 

Warwickshire. Index. (No date.) 

Westmoreland. 1615. 

Wiltshire. 1077. Index to 1033. 

Worcestershire. 16b3-4. Index to 1509. 


There are also about three hundred pedigrees arranged 
alphabetically, beside Welsh pedigrees, pedigrees from 

wills, and those from the heraldic institutions of Northum- 


berland, the Wiltshire Gentry, Knights of Wiltshire and 
Hants in the time of Elizabeth, a list of Knights from 
James I. to Charles I., other lists, subsidy rolls and an 
index to genealogies of tenants in capite from Domesday 
Book. There are also registers of baptisms and marriages 
in certain chapels, mostly in Somersetshire and Worcester- 

There are also a very large number of copies of manu- 
scripts, some of great value, among which may be men- 
tioned : — 

Collections relative to MSS. and MS. libraries. 

Index to religious houses in England and Wales. 

Three letters of Junius believed to be unpublished. 

Lambeth Palace wills and testaments in the archepiscopal registers. 

Critical and historical account of celebrated libraries. 
Cartularies of Fountains Abbey and others. 
Cartae Antiquae in Turre : Index to those which are printed. 

The manuscript treasures of the Library of Congress are 
almost wholly documents of the Revolutionary period. 


126 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

They embrace more than sixty folio volumes of autographs 
and military papers, in the handwriting of numerous gen- 
erals of the Revolution, together with about one hundred 
colonial documents running from 1(>7() to 1770, most of 
which have special interest and value. There are also about 
thirty-two orderly books of the Revolution, about half of 
which are original manuscripts, most noteworthy of which 
is General Washington's orderly book for the year 1778, at 
Valley Forge, etc. There are also the manuscripts of Paul 
Jones in twelve Vols, from 1770 to 1778 ; two Vols, of 
Georgia Slate Papers, from 1735 to 1780; two Vols, of 
colonial documents of New Hampshire ; four Vols, of 
original documents of the State of Delaware, 1680^-1794, 
including several original documents of the Legislature ; a 
Journal of General J Bourne, 1771; two folio Vols, of the 
letter books of General Nathaniel Greene, 1781-82 ; Journal 
of the Baltimore Committee of Safety, 1774-7(1 ; record 
books of Ephraim Blaine, the Commissary-General of the 
Revolutionary Army from 1777 to 1782; MS. account of 
the French on the Ohio, 1755; MS. plan for expelling the 
French from the Scioto country and establishing English 
settlements in their room, about 1750-57. 

There are two manuscript folio volumes of records of the 
Virginia Company of London during its existence, 1019-24. 
These; contain the minutes of each meeting of the Company, 
prefaced by the lists of those present. Among notable names 
are recorded those of the Karl of Southampton (Shakespeare's 
friend), Edward Herbert (Lord Cherbury), John Donne 
and George Sandys, the poets, Samuel Purehas, etc. The 
minutes, which contain the full orders, proceedings and 
actual legislation of the Company, are full of the most 
interesting historical materia) relating to the personality of 
the early colonists, the Virginia aborigines, the shipping 
expeditions fitted out, the tobacco trade, the early Virginia 
manufactures, agriculture, etc. Colonel George Washing- 
ton's orderly book during Hraddock's expedition, 1755, in 
two Volumes; many journals (originals and copies) of 

1882.] Report of the Council. 127 

various campaigns and expeditions from 1755 to 1794. 
The whole number of original pieces relating to the Revolu- 
tion exceeds live thousand. There are/ also manuscript 
papers and letters of John Fitch, 1781-1791. 

The manuscript materials collected by the late Peter 
Force, tor the Documentary History of the American Revo- 
lution, include faithful copies of the journals of the Conti- 
nental Congress, and Congress of the Confederation, i 1 1 39 
volumes, never fully published ; also proceedings of the Board 
of War, and Hoard of the Treasury, together with multitudes 
of official letters, including papers copied from the archives 
of the State Department, and in the several States. These 
cover with considerable fulness, the whole period from 1774 
to 1788. Among Spanish manuscripts there are beautiful 
copies of severalj unpublished works concerning America ; 
as, Las Casas lliftoria de Indios, four volumes folio, also of 
his Historia Apologetica de los Indios Occidentales, four 
volumes. Duran's Historia Antiqua de Nueva Espaiia, three 
volumes folio, 1579. Teniente's Memorias de Nueva Espaiia. 
Echevarria's Historia del Origcn de los Genres Americanos, 
two volumes folio ; and several others. 

In files of newspapers the Library of Congress is espec- 
ially rich, having now over ten thousand volumes. The 
earliest is the London Gazette from its commencement in 
1665 to 1882, the only complete set in America; The Lon- 
don Times from 1790 to date; Le Moniteur Universel, and 
Journal des Debats, from their commencement in 1789 to 
date. The New York Evening Post, complete from its 
beginning in 1801. The National Intelligencer from its 
first issue in 1800. The Pennsylvania Packet, with its suc- 
cessors. Claypoole's Advertiser, and the Philadelphia 
North American for more than a century ; together with 
about three hundred volumes of miscellaneous newspapers 
published in America prior to 1800. There is also a full 
set of the Charleston (S. C.) Courier from 1803;^ the 
Savannah (Ga.) Republican from its beginning in 1811; 
Nashville papers from 1831, etc. 


128 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

The collection of family histories is large and constantly 
increasing, though there are still many gaps among the 
privately printed volumes. Of the County and Town 
histories of the New England States, and other States of 
the Union, the Library has now more than nine-tenths, and 
will, it is expected, in time have all which have been 

One of the most notable features of this National 
Library is its rich collections of the Transactions, Proceed- 
ings, and other publications of academies and learned socie- 
ties, covering the last two centuries. Of these the collec- 
tion is the most complete in America, although there are 
still many gaps to be tilled. This department of the library, 
derived (/'oin deposits made by the Smithsonian Institution, 
comprises many setB which are not sold, or which are 
entirely out of print and unprocurable. The Historical 
Documents in the \Dej)artment of State, beside those 
which belong properly to the records of the department 
itself, are numerous] and valuable. Among them are sixty- 
two volumes of letters from Washington, and one hundred 
and nineteen volumes of letters to Washington, and miscel- 
laneous papers accompanying them. There is also a great 
mass of Revolutionary correspondence including what is 
catalogued as the State Papers of the different State.-, I>< ing 
letters of their Executives and other prominent persons to 
the Presidents of Congress. There is also much interesting 
and curious correspondence, throwing light on the political 
history of the early administrations down to Monroe, 
unpublished, and to a great extent unused by historical 
investigators. The publication of the American State 
Papers, which is likely soon to be resumed, will make a 
portion of these generally accessible. An interesting event 
to the Libraries of the Department of State and of Congress, 
is the acquisition of the Franklin papers, of which Con- 
gress has authorized the purchase. These consist of about 
two thousand nine hundred and thirty-eight manuscripts, of 



Report of the Council. 

12 ( J 

which about two thousand three hundred and ten have 
never been printed, which were bequeathed by Dr. Franklin 
to his grandson William Temple Franklin. Many of these 
manuscript documents are in several States, so that the 
actual number of documents is some eight or ten thousand. 
No historian has had access to them. Temple Franklin 
published in 1817-18, six volumes of Franklin's writings, 
of which four were reproductions of historical works. Two 
only were occupied by selections from these manuscripts. 
He designed to publish six more volumes, but the 
publishers refused to go on. Only a fourth part, there- 
fore, of those designed by Temple Franklin for publication, 
were in fact published. His selection seems to have been 
made with little knowledge of the comparative historic 
value of those published and those withheld, and intended 
to meet the supposed wants of the English public at that 
time. Mr. Bifonore says ' k he seems to have proceeded on 
the idea of omitting everything which reflected on the 
British Government." These papers include the archives 
of our Legation at Paris, during a very important period of 
the War of the Revolution. They cover the period of Dr. 
Franklin's agency in London before the war, of the forma- 
tion of the French Alliance, and of the Treat}' of Peace. 
They begin almost with the beginning of Franklin's political 
career, and come down to near the close of his life. 
Among them are the originals of some documents of great 
historic interest, especially Franklin's original memoir rela- 
tive to the Hutchinson papers, and their publication in Eng- 
land, and the original petition of Congress to the King, 
dated October 1774, and signed by the representatives of 
the several States. The faded condition of the signatures 
to the Declaration of Independence, makes it interesting to 
know that these are fresh and clear. 

There are many letters from Paul Jones, which will 
doubtless throw new light on his adventurous career. 

These manuscripts are to be deposited in the Library of 

130 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

the Department of State. By the same purchase is acquired 
for (he Congressional Library, nearly three hundred vol- 
umes of printed books of and concerning Franklin, or 
printed by him, among them almost all of the earliest and 
rarest known, and the Pennsylvania Gazette nearly com- 
plete from October, 1739, to December 27th, 1748. 

It was extremely fortunate that our learned associate, Dr. 
Hale, happened to be in Washington when the question of 
this purchase was before the Joint Committee on the 
Library. The great number of oilers for the sale of manu- 
scripts to the Government, and the price demanded lor 
these, had rendered the Committee exceedingly unwilling to 
accede to the request pressed by three Secretaries of State 
in succession, although reinforced by petitions from many 
learned societies, for this appropriation. Dr. Hale's great 
authority, and hip familiarity with the literature of the 
period of Franklin's life, made his explanations of exceed- 
ing interest, and /probably turned the scale in securing a 
favorable report. / 

hi this connection it should be stated, that just before the 
adjournment of Congress, there were found in the garret of 
the Globe building, several huge trunks containing the 
manuscripts and correspondence of Andrew Jackson, for a 
long time supposed to be lost. The General preserved 
with care his most voluminous correspondence. These 
papers were committed by him to Amos Kendall, for the 
preparation of his biography. Kendall made little progress 
in the work, and that little, it is understood, not at all to the 
satisfaction of the subject, who quite peremptorily directed 
the transfer of the material to the elder Francis P. Blair. 
Among the papers is a trophy which will not probably be 
lost a second time. It is a paper labelled on the back in 
the handwriting of Andrew Jackson, ''British plan for the 
capture of Hew Orleans, picked up on the field of battle." 

But we have little space left for what in promise, and 
in actual possession are richer than all the departments 


1882.] Report of the Council. 131 

of government in historic and arclacologic wealth, the 
Smithsonian Institution and its neighbor and ally the 
.National Museum. Without enumerating the illustra- 
tions of natural history in the possession of the Smithsonian, 
or objects of curiosity, like the portion of the original 
steam engine of John Fitch, or the relics of the Frobisher 
expedition to Greenland, more than three hundred years 
ago, brought home by Captain Hall of the Polaris, or the 
relics of Sir John Franklin obtained from the Eskimos of 
the Mackane River region, we may refer merely to such 
objects as illustrate human history, and aid its intelligent 

The objects and methods of the Smithsonian Institution, 
and the general character of its collections, are, doubtless, 
well known to nearly all the members of this Society. 
The rapid progress and present extent of the National 
Museum are possibly less familiar. The Museum possesses a 
great many unique specimens relating to the archaeology of 

America, the most important perhaps, being a portion of 
the original tablet of the cross from Palenque, covered with 
hieroglyphics and always an object of great interest to 
antiquaries. The Museum also possesses by far the best 
collection extafit of North American Archaeology in general, 
consisting of stone implements, pipes, pottery, etc. 

in some especial branches other museums may have 
greater variety of specimens ; but on the whole no other 
collection can compare with this. In the material illustrat- 
ing the manners and customs of the Eskimos and the Aleu- 
tian Islanders, both modern and prehistoric, the National 
Museum is rich beyond competition. Its Eskimo collec- 
tions extend from Greenland, by way of the whole arctic 
coast, round to the peninsula of Alaska. Then; are also 
large collections from the islands off, and the; coasts of, 
South California. In material illustrating the characteris- 
tics of the Pueblo villages of New Mexico and Arizona 
the Museum abounds. 


132 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

Few persons are aware of the wealth of material which 
the National Museum has already collected, or has received 
from its parent the Smithsonian Institution, to enable it to 
realize its gigantic plan. In addition to its collections of 
material for investigation in natural history proper, it pro- 
poses the scheme set forth in Prof. Baird's Circular No. 2, 
as follows : — 

" It is intended to form an Anthropological Museum, organized upon 
the broadest and most liberal interpretation of the term 'Anthropology' 
and illustrating the characteristics of civilized as well as savage races 
of mankind, and their attainments in civilization and culture. The 
central idea will be man and the manner in which he adapts the products 
of the earth to his needs. All useful and noxious animals, plants, and 
minerals will be shown, industries by means of which they are utilized 
— by both method and finished product — and finally the various objects 
which men use for any purpose whatever. A place is provided for every 
object which has a name.'''' 

"Already the Museum is richer than any other, in the 
Ethnology of the native races of North America, the 
departments of animal products, of the fisheries, of building- 
stones and of North American ores." Competent and 
zealous agents have made large progress in the materia 
incdica collection ; in that of food products; of paints and 
pigments; of chemical products used in the arts; of cotton 
fabrics made in the United States, in addition to a large 
collection of those made in foreign countries, obtained by 
the State department through its agents. So that there 
will be found here a specimen of every article of the 
materia medica, in the form in which it appears in com- 
merce, or is prepared for administration, of ever)' article 
of human food, of every article of human clothing, and of 
every article used for the construction or for the furnishing 
of human dwellings, all the implements, offensive and 
defensive, of war, all varieties of musical instruments, and 
the implements of husbandry and the mechanic arts. 

The relation which the greatest and most complete library, 
containing every record of human action in the past, 


Report of the Council. 


would bear to history, as it has usually been conceived and 
written, — the Museum, so far as the scheme of its founders 
shall be realized, is to bear to history as written according 
to the conception of Macaulay, — not merely a history 
"of battles and sieges, of the rise and fall of adminis- 
trations, of intrigues in the palace, and of debates in 
the parliament, but a history of the people, as well as the 
history of the government, of the; progress of the useful 
and ornamental arts, of the manners of successive genera- 
tions, and of the revolutions in dress, furniture, sports, and 
public amusements." In the language of Mr. Burnet 
Phillips, adopted by the Smithsonian Institution in its 
Circular No. 10 : — 

"In its conception may be found one of the grandest of all schemes 
for instruction. Such a plan may be comprehended in a certain way, 
when it is stated that it takes man for its central pivot, and around this 
is to revolve everything that man has done in the past-, or in the present, 
in the world he lives in. Those depths which he has plumbed in the 
seas will contribute their quota, and where he has sought for light in 
the realms of heavenly space, such slight information as he has gleaned 
will all be presented here. Not a science is there which man has studied, 
which will not find its representative object. This museum, besides, is 
to enter into every detail of human life, not only of the present, but of 
the past, and is to be the custodian of its future. Its mission is to 
keep on i^oing, collecting forever and ever, it will show to our great- 
great-grandchildren how their forefathers dressed, how 7 they lived, 
cooked and ate their food, how they amused themselves, and 1982 will 
learn of the toys the children of 1882 played with. There is nothing ever 
so trivial, which is thought, unworthy of notice. The study of the evolu- 
tion of anything is supposed to impart its lesson, and the spinning- 
wheel of a past time is to lead up, by many stages, to the more per- 
fected mechanisms of to-day. Such a grand work as is so prospected 
will of course take years to perfect. The originators of such a com- 
prehensive scheme are perfectly conscious how short is life, and they know 
that the conclusion of their work is as far oil' as eternity." 

The Council are indebted to Theodore F. U wight, Esq., 
Chief of Bureau of Rolls and Library of the Department 
of State, for the following notes : — 

The fourth enactment of the First Congress, approved July 27, 1780, 
(Statutes at large Vol. 1.. pp. 28, 20, Little, Brown & Co. 's edition), pro- 

134 Jhnevicau Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

vided-'for establishing an Executive Department, to be denominated 
the Department of Foreign Affairs," 

In section 1 of that Act it was provided '-That the Secretary for the 
Department of Foreign Affairs, shall forthwith after liis appointment, 
be entitled to have the custody and charge of all records, books and 
papers in the Office of Secretary for the Department of Foreign Affairs, 
heretofore established b}' the United States in Congress assembled." 

The fourteenth enactment of the First Congress was entitled "An 
Act to provide for the safe-keeping of the Acts, Records and Seal of 
the United States, and for other purposes." Approved September 15, 
178!), [idem, pp. 08, 69]. 

The first section changed the designation of the "Department of For- 
eign Affairs" to the "Department of State." 

The second section related to the process of* creating a law, and pro- 
vided that the custody of the laws be given to the Secretary of State. 

The seventh and last section gave into the custody of the same Secre- 
tary, the Seal of the United States, "and also all books, records and 
papers, remaining in the Office of the late Secretary of the United 
States in Congress assembled; " and also " that such of the said books, 
records and papers, as may appertain to the Treasury Department, or 
War Department, shall be delivered over to the principal officers in the 
said departments respectively, as the President of the United States 
shall direct." 

By virtue of the last section, the Department of State became the 
depository of the General Archives of the United States. 

The papers which formed part of this collection at the outset, in 
addition to the documents which appertained especially to the Depart- 
ment of Foreign AH'airs prior to the formation of the Federal Govern- 
ment, were the Journals, Correspondence, Original Motions, Reports 
of Committees, Memorials and Petitions of the Continental Congress. 

There is a distinction to be noticed between the " Records of the 
Department," which were referred to in section 4, of Chap. IV., 1st Con- 
gress, 1st Session; and the Ll books, records and papers remaining in 
the office of the Secretary of the United States in Congress assembled," 
mentioned in section 7, Chap. XIV., same Congress, and same session, 
[vide notes herewith.] 

The latter, the most precious of the historical Archives, being the 
veritable history of the Congress of the Revolution, ami, speaking more 
generally, of the War of the Revolution. 

The papers of Washington formed the first addition to that great 
body of documents. 

The second addition was of that portion of the papers of James 
Madison, which contained his Journal of the debates in the Constitu- 
tional Convention, purchased by authority of the Act making appropria- 
tions for the civil and diplomatic service, approved March o, 1837. 
[Statutes at Large, Vol. V., page 171.] 

The third addition was of the balance of the Madison papers. Act 

1882.] Report of the Council. 135 

approved May 31, 1848, Chap. LIL, 30th Congress, 1st session. [Statutes 
at Larue, Vol, IX. page 235.] 

The fourth addition was the collection of the papers of James Mon- 
roe, by Act approved March 3, 1841), Chap. 10U, section 8, 30th Con- 
gress, 2d session. [Statutes at Large, Vol. IX., page 370.] The rest of 
'Washington's papers were purchased by the same act. 

The fifth addition comprised the papers of Thomas Jefferson, in one 
hundred and thirty-seven quarto volumes, and the papers of Alexander 
Hamilton in sixty-live folio volumes. Both series were purchased 
under authority of a single act of Congress. [The Act making appro- 
priations for the Civil and Diplomatic expenses for the year ending 
June 30, 1849. Approved August 12, 1848.] 

The sixth addition was the Collection of the papers of Benjamin 
Franklin. Appropriation for purchase made in the act approved August 
7, 1882; Chap. 4153, 47th Congress, 1st session. 

The most important documents among the Archives are: 
The Petition of the lirst Continental Congress to the King, October 2G, 

1774. [In the Franklin Collection.] 
The original draft, in the writing of Jefferson, of the Declaration of 

The engrossed and signed copy of the same. 
The Articles of Confederation. 

The Constitution of the United States, and the amendments to the same. 
The Laws of the United States. 

For the Council. 


136 American Antiquarian Society. [Get, 


Since the Spring meeting, the library has been increased 
by the addition of gifts : three hundred and seventy-eight 
books, thirty-eight hundred and sixteen pamphlets, one 
hundred and eight tiles of unbound newspapers, one plaster 
east, lifteen engravings, thirteen maps, three autographs, 
three coins, one medal, and one photograph. Exchanges : 
one hundred and forty books, eight hundred and ninety-one 
pamphlets; and from the binder, ninety volumes of news- 
papers and eleven volumes of magazines. Total : live hun- 
dred and twenty-nine books, fifty-two hundred and sixty-tive 
pamphlets, ninety volumes of bound, and one hundred and 
eight of unbound newspapers, and various articles for the 
Cabinet. Among the sources of these supplies are the fol- 
lowing : — 

Prof. Heinrieh Fischer of Freiburg, Henry Stevens, 
Esq., of London, and Seuor Eligio Anemia of Yucatan, 
have favored the Society with reminders of their connection 
with it, as foreign members. From Wisconsin, Prof. 
tJanies D. Butler sends his Observations on Medheval Ger- 
man Schools, and Rev. Stephen D. Peet his American 
Antiquarian and Oriental Journal. Ohio contributes, 
through Robert Clarke, Esq., Recmlin's Critical Re view of 
American Politics, and the Doings of the Society of the 
Army of the Cumberland at its Thirteenth Reunion ; Col. 
Charles Whittlesey, six of his historical and other Mono- 
graphs; Dr. James II. Salisbury, his Original Investiga- 
tions in Diphtheria and Scarlet Fever; and Hon. Isaac 
Sniueker, six volumes relating to the State. Bishop William 
Stevens Perry, of Iowa, John Fletcher Williams, Esq., 


1882. j Report on the Library. 137 

of Minnesota, and Mr. Andrew McFarland Davis, of Cali- 
fornia, have not forgotten the Society into which they have 
recently been elected ; and Dr. William F. Poole, of 
Illinois, presents his paper on the Progress of Library 
Architecture. Col. Charles C. Jones, Jr., forwards his 
semi-annual gift of Southern material, including his 
address before the Augusta Confederate Survivors' Associa- 
tion. Prof. Herbert B. Adams, of Maryland, provides a 
•companion for his Tithingmen, in an interesting paper of 
like character upon Constables; Dr. Charles Ran, of the 
District of Columbia, his paper on some of the treasures 
in the National Museum; and Robert A. Brock, Esq., of 
Virginia, a copy of his reprint of Grantham's "Historical 
Account of Souk; Memorable Actions, particularly in Vir- 
ginia.'' Prom Sefior Andres A. Perez, now residing in 
New York, we have a Geographical, Historical and Statisti- 
cal Review of the State of Yucatan, with an abridgment 
of Ancona's History of the same country. 

The New England members who have contributed, are 
Ellis Ames, Esq., Holmes Ammidown, Esq., Mr. Edmund 
M. Barton, Charles A. Chase, Esq., Hon. Francis H. 
Dewey, Prof. Franklin B. Dexter, Rev. George E. Ellis, 
1 >.D., Hon. Samuel A. Green, Samuel S. Green, Esq., 
Clarendon Harris, Esq., Col. Thomas VVentworth Iliggin- 
son, Prof. Edward Hitchcock, Hon. George F. Hoar, Rev. 
William R. Huntington, D.D., Henry Cabot Lodge, Esq., 
Hon. Thomas L. Nelson, Nathaniel Paine, Esq., Admiral 
George II. Preble, Hon. Stephen Salisbury, Stephen Salis- 
bury, Jr., Esq., Mr. Charles C. Smith, William A. Smith, 
Esq., Dr. Charles (). Thompson, Col. John D. Washburn, 
Rev. Robert C. Waterston, and Henry Wheatland, M.D. 

The gifts of some of these require further mention. Mr. 
Chase has given eighteen bound volumes on American and 
European Agriculture ; Rev. Dr. Ellis, his large and valua- 
ble work on the Red Man and the White Man in North 
America from its first Discoverv to the Present Time ; and 


138 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

Mr. Lodge, his Life of Hamilton, and his Short History of 
the English Colonies. Senator Hoar's gift is large, and 
includes the Boston edition of his Tribute to Garfield, the 
first volume of the History of Woman Suffrage, and the 
War Records of the Rebellion so far as they have been pub- 
lished. Rev. Dr. Huntington, whose position as one, of the 
Joint Prayer-Rook Committee of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church of America, has led him to present his Views upon 
the Revision of the American Common Prayer, has followed 
it witli a practical illustration of the enrichment proposed, in 
his *' Materia Kitualis," it being an appendix to his Paper. 
These, together with his Tribute to John Cotton Smith, 
he litis placed in the library. President Salisbury's dona- 
tion includes copies of his Troy and Homer, his Endecott, 
and Antiquarian Papers, Sibley's Biographical Sketches of 
Graduates of Harvard University, Vol. II., Kennedy's 
Longfellow, a framed crayon photograph of Emory Wash- 
burn — for thirty-eight years a beloved officer of the Society — 
and more than a thousand pamphlets. Mr. Salisbury, Jr., 
besides his daily contributions of money and time towards 
the important work of card cataloguing, has relieved the 
Society of the expense of keeping up its extra set of the 
Massachusetts Historical Society Collections, by placing 
his own upon our shelves. He has also deposited a choice 
selection of the authorities used by him in his Central 
American studies. Judge Staples has again shown his 
interest in art, as well as history, by placing upon our walls 
a bronzed plaster copy of Morel Ladeuil's Milton shield, 
successfully reproduced by Joseph Nicoletti and Son, of 
Providence. The original, which is of steel and silver, 
ornamented with gold, was manufactured tor the Interna- 
tional Exhibition of Paris, in 1867, and purchased by the 
English Government for fifteen thousand dollars. Prof. 
Thompson, now of Indiana, has left a large deposit of 
educational material, both in the way of gift and exchange, 
which we are assured will not be the last. Among the 

18*$..] Report on the Library. 139 

faiities found, are two copies of the Society's Transactions, 
VoL. II., andrare numbers of the early Proceedings. It is to 
he hoped tliat the library will continue to he the depository 
tor Worcester Free Institute remainders. Dr. Thompson has 
been allowed by the Council, temporarily to withdraw, tor 
use in establishing the Hose Polytechnic Institute at Torre 
Haute, Indiana, the sets of Technical School Reports he 
had so patiently gathered for our shelves. Few members 
have a better knowledge of the Society's work, and we 
may reasonably expect a large return for the loan thus 

Col. Washburn has presented insurance literature, and 
ten copies of his Decoration Day Oration, happily entitled 
"One and Twenty Years from Sumter;" and Dr. Wheat- 
land a score of Salem locals, and the Peabody Press, in 

The book of donations also records, among others, the 
following names of friends outside; the Society, who are 
worthy of special notice: Mr. Alfred S. Roe is making an 
effort to complete our set of the Methodist .Magazine and 
Quarterly Review; General William S. Stryker sends his 
Reception of Washington by the People of New Jersey in 
1789, and his New Jersey Continental Line in the Virginia 
Campaign of '81 ; and Mr. Henry J. Parker, the. result of 
some of his labors in tin; somewhat obscure Held of Mur.oiiir; 
history. Rev. Augustine Caldwell has placed in the alcove 
of Genealogy a copy of his Caldwell Records, with manu- 
script additions; and Edward II. Flwell, Esq;, one of the 
active, local historians of Maine, has supplied his Sketch of 
Portland and Vicinity. Mrs. Samuel F. Haven has again 
made the Society her debtor, by presenting a collection of 
law and other books, bearing the honored names of Fiske 
and Merrick, with several manuscript volumes, about live 
hundred pamphlets, and a heliotype portrait of Dr. Haven. 
Messrs. William S. Pingry and William W. Johnson have 
o-iven their family histories, and Messrs. John D. Caldwell 



140 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

and D. F>. Brunner, their accounts respectively of Early 

Cincinnati and the Indians of Berks County, Pennsylvania. 
J. Evarts Greene, Esq., has made a contribution to the 
Rebellipn alcove, which is growing less rapidly than is to 
be desired. The United States Government is putting in 
print important original papers, which will help to make 
and unmake the history of our late war, but we have hoped 
to be able to preserve many of the impressions of the 
officers and men of the line, on the march and in the Held. 
Our dibits to secure soldiers' letters began soon after 
the close of the war and have been continued ever since, 
with very limited success. When we remember that these 
letters are the very groundwork of some of our best regi- 
mental histories, we shall appreciate their real value. The 
plan adopted by a Massachusetts soldier who has had con- 
siderable assistance from the library, might largely be 
adopted in all sections of our country. From eight of his 
war correspondents, he has secured the letters he addressed 
to thein during his term of service in the Eastern and 
Western Armies. His intention is to arrange them chrono- 
logically, adding illustrations from the pictorial and other 
magazines of the period, the whole to be suitably bound and 
eventually placed in some public institution for preserva- 

Among the Haven manuscripts, are a lew which may 
properly be added to the Fifteenth Massachusetts Regimental 
papers now in the Society's possession. They were pre- 
served by Surgeon Samuel Foster Haven, fir., and relate, 
as do most of tin; others, to the medical and surgical 
history of the regiment. .Mrs. P. S. Cantield, daughter of 
our former Vice-President, Levi Lincoln, has shown her 
continued interest in the Society, by her gift of some of 
the latest and best English and American books, with 
various coins and autographs, tier daughter, Miss P. W. 
Cantield, has added the American Art Review and the 
Magazine of Art to date, together with Clarence Cook's 


1882.] Report on the Library, 141 

"House Beautiful." Dr. Pliny Earle has favored us with 
a large collection of books and pamphlets, which relate 
ehielly to the philanthropic, educational and reformatory 
movements of the world; and Mrs. Anne II. Southwick, 
horticultural literature. Among' the additions to the Medal 
and Coin case — which has already begun its suggestive 
mission — is t he silver medal awarded Mr. David Lee 
Child, by the Massachusetts Charitable Mechanic Associa- 
tion in 1839, for the first beet sugar in America. It was 
presented by Mrs. Sarah M. Parsons, to whom il had 
descended, and preserved in most positive form, a fact 
known to but few, at least of this generation. Mr. Frank- 
lin P. Rice-has brought us the Worcester Town Records 
1753-1783, which, with the Earlier Records, from 1722 lo 
1753, and the Proprietors' Records from 1(>(57 to 1788, have 
been edited and printed by him, under the auspices, and as 
Volumes of the Transactions of the Worcester Society of 
Antiquity. The city is indeed fortunate in thus having its 
records preserved from possible loss by tire or decay. We 
are indebted to our associate, Col. T. W. Iligginson, for 
steps taken towards the identification of the portrait of Rev. 
Francis Iligginson, the first minister of Salem, long 
unnamed, upon our walls ; and to Waldo Iligginson, Esq., of 
Boston, for its perfect restoration, after the canvas had appar- 
ently been damaged beyond repair. The. success in this case, 
indicates what can be done when the tooth of time shall 
have made too many marks upon our other valued portraits. 
Among books of value received from the War Depart- 
ment, is volume three of Surgeon Billings's Index Catalogue 
of the Library of the Surgeon-General's office. It is proper 
to record the fact, that before this great work was begun, 
our duplicate room was successfully ransacked for the 
benefit of this national collection. Mr. James F. limine- 
well has made additions and corrections to the Society's 
List of Ante-Revolutionary publications, with especial 
reference to Charlestown imprints. Our circle of exchange 

142 American Antiquarian (Society. [Oct. 

correspondents is widening, and the effort to place our 
specialties where they will serve us and others most effec- 
tively, is Meeting with gratifying success. For instance, 
our duplicate Young Men's Christian Association reports 
and magazines have been sent to Mr. Jacob T. Bowne, Y. 
M. C. A. (Jeneral Secretary, at Newdmrgh, X. Y., to assist 
in building what is already by tar the finest collection in 
the country. This material will not only serve him as 
historiographer — by appointment of the Y. M. G. A. Inter- 
national Committee — but also in his unique training school 
tor young men who are to undertake the kind of work in 
which he is engaged. Aside from a return in the same 
class of literature, valuable Americana have been received, 
including the rare ". Pocket Commentary of the First Set- 
tling of New Jersey by the Europeans, and an account of 
Fair Detail of tin; Original Elizabeth-Town Grant; and 
other Mights of the like Tenure in East New-Jersey." New 
York : Printed by Samuel Parker, 1759. An incidental 
advantage of exchanges may be here mentioned. In pre- 
senting to the Society a family copy of the second com- 
pilation of the Laws, known as the "Acts of Assembly 
passed in the Province of New York, from May 1691 to 
1725," Mr. Bowne says, "theseveral little favors you have 
done for me at different times, have drawn me toward the 
Institution, and I think I shall tind other things of interest 
to you." A copy of this rare Bradford folio of 1720 
brought $1)7.50 at the Brinlcy sale, while the first com- 
pilation, printed by Bradford in 1698-94, was sold to the 
New York State Library for $1600, 

For many years, some oi our best books were obtained in 
trade from the late Mr. Joel Munsell, the veteran author 
and printer of history. It is pleasant to be able to report 
a renewal of the old custom with his sons, who succeed 
to his business. The latest edition of the People's En- 
cyclopaedia has just been added, by exchange, to our 
open alcove. While it will tind among the earlier kindred 

1882.] • Report on the Library. 143 

authorities, some of the best, many of the later will he 
conspicuous by their absence. A few hooks belonging 
to the library of the: Mathers — the hulk of which were 
presented to the Society in 1814, by Dr. Isaiah Thomas 
and Mrs. Hannah Mather Crocker — have been obtained 
by purchase, and there has been an occasional addition by 
gift. They generally contain the Mather autographs and 
should all be brought together in the Mather alcove. 
The opportunity oilered, by the sale of Judge Wilkin- 
son's library, to bid for early Massachusetts Laws, was 
improved, but without result. However, we do not 
despair of increasing our collection, since among our mem- 
bers who are students in this dry but interesting depart- 
ment, are Dr. George II. Moore, Ellis Ames, Esq., Hon. 
I*, Emory Aldrieh, and William S. Barton, Esq. The 
reprints prepared by the State Commissioners, and to which 
our set of originals contributed, make absolute completeness 
less important, though still desirable. In theyear 1831), the 
Society issued circulars to the Governors, asking for State 
documents, and as a result a fair foundation was laid for 
such a collection. Of late years scarcely half a dozen 
States have continued their annual gifts, and since the 
exchange of documents by the States has been made general, 
the failure is not to be so greatly lamented. No depart- 
ment of the library lias been more freely consulted than 
that of Newspapers, though the searching for facts in these 
unindexed folios, requires much time and patience. In the 
year 1839, when the library numbered but fourteen thou- 
sand, and the collection of newspapers but twelve hundred 
and fifty-one volumes, the newspaper series, from 170 1 to 
1774, was referred to, as "probably more full and perfect 
than any other in the United States/' To-day, the National 
Library, including as it does, the Peter Force collection, 
outnumbers ours, but in the possible future of libraries of 
specialties, our Ante-Revolutionary series will most likely 
be the basis of the newspaper structure. There has been 

144 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

the usual call for the Society's publications, hut after 
supplying members and corresponding societies, the rest 
of the edition is so small, that it has not been thought 
advisable to put them 14)011 the market by allowing a dis- 
count to dealers. Reprints serve a good purpose, not only 
in supplementing the short supply, hut in advertising the 
original issues ; and when such editions are small, as in the 
case of Senator Hoar's Garfield tribute, the effect is evident. 
The new rules and regulations continue to work well. 
Instead of discouraging the use. of the library, they plainly 
indicate; that the privilege is well worth the asking. The 
right to alcove entrance has added dignity and value to 
membership. The rule of fifty years ago — see By-Laws 
of 1831 — was as follows: "Visitors may be admitted on 
the personal introduction, or on producing a ticket of a 
member of the Society." Eight years later, Mr. Lincoln, 
in his Council report says : kW Free access to the collection 
has been permitted to visitors. During one hour of each 
day the halls have been open to every citizen, whether 
attracted by curiosity or pursuit of information ; dining all 
hours they have been accessible to every student of history 
or of literature who sought the use of the library," The 
library has been open a greater number of days, and has 
averaged more hours each day than ever before. There has 
been no change in the working force of the library. It may 
not be out of place to add that harmony, industry, and 
a quiet enthusiasm have prevailed. Referring to the 
growth of the library, it may be stated that though not 
rapid, it is steady. Mr. Lincoln says in his report 
of 1839, already quoted : "It cannot be hoped that it will 
ever be able to bear honorable comparison in the amount of 
literature or science, with the depositaries of the works of 
the learned, founded in the cities, or at the Universities, or 
sustained by the patronage of the Federal and State Gov- 
ernments. In some departments, however, the Society may 



Report on the Library, 


be considered already rich." These statements may, to a 
considerable extent, be applicable to the condition of the 
library in 1882. 

Respectfully submitted. 


Assistant- Librarian. 


14() American Antiquarian Society. [Oct 

Donors anti Donations 


Auams, Prof, Herbert B., Baltimore, }ld.— His paper on Constables. 

Ames, Ellis, Esq., Canton.— His " Porter-Poor Duel." 

Ammjdown, Holm is, Esq., Southbridge.— His .second Letter on the Turin*. 

Hvktox, Mr. Kkmini) M., Worcester.— Fifty-five pamphlets. 

Brock, Roberta., Richmond, Va.— "Grantham's Account of some Memorable 

Actions, particularly in Virginia.'" 
Butler, Prof. James D., Madison, Wis.— His article on " Mediaeval German 


Chase, Charles A., Esq., Worcester.— •Eighteen bound volumes relating to 
American and European Agriculture. 

Clarke, Robert, Esq., Cincinnati, 0. — Reemelin's Critical Review of Ameri- 
can Politics; and an account of the Thirteenth Reunion of the Society of the 
Army of the Cumberland. 

Damon, Rev. SAMUEL C, D.D., Honolulu, II. I.— His "Damon Memorial, or 
Notices of three Damon Families." 

Davis, Andrew McF., Esq., San Francisco, Cal.— The Californian in Con- 
tinuation, containing his article entitled "Does it Pay to be Educated?" 

Dewey, Hon. Francis II., Worcester.— Fifteen books, and one hundred and 
eighty-live pamphlets. 

Dexter Franklin B., Esq., New Haven, Conn.— His "Founding of Yale 
College" and " Governor Elihu Yale." 

Ellis, Rev. George E., D.D., Boston.— His " Red Man and White Man in North 

FISCHER, Prof. HeinriCH, Freiburg, Baden. — His "Referati;" and his 
"Uber Zennerze Aventuringlos und grunen A venturing quartz aus Asien," 

Green, Hon. Samuel A., Boston.— Eight books and eighty-three pamphlets. 

Green, Samuel S., Worcester.— His report, 1882, of the Worcester Free 
Public Library. 

Hakims, Clarendon, Esq., Worcester. -Two hundred and seventy-four pam- 

Hitchcock, Prof. Edward, Amherst.— His " Physical Statistics of Amherst 
College," 1882; and five pamphlets. 

Hoar, Hon. GEORGE F., Worcester.— His Tribute to James Abraham Gar- 
field; the Records of the War of the Rebellion, four volumes; History of 
Woman Suffrage, Vol. 1.; fifteen books; five hundred und sixty pamphlets; 
and thirty-tour numbers of the Patent Oflice Gazette. 

1K82..] JJonovx and JDormtloits. 1 17 

IIUN'JINGTON, Rcv v WlLLIAM R., D.D., Worci -e»L« r.— His Review of tin; Ameri- 
can Common Prayer;" " Materia Ritualis," being an appendix thereto; and his 
k * Counsellor of I 'eaee ; " a sermon '• ( onuucmorativc of .John ( otton .Smith." 

Junks, Hon. Charles C.,Jr., Augusta, Ga -His address id Augu.-da before 
the Confederate Survivors' Association, April 2U. Ls*<2; and the History of 
the Confederate Powder Works, Augusta. 

Lodue, Uknuv Cabot, Esq., Boston.— His Life of Alexander Hamilton; and 
his Short History of the English Colonies in America. 

Nelson, Hon. Thomas L., Worcester.— One pamphlet. 

Paine, Nathaniel, E.sq., Worcester.— The Paine Family Records* Nos. 14 
and 15. 

Peet, Kev. Stephen D., Clinton. Wis. — His American Antiquarian ami 
Oriental Journal, as issued. 

Perez, Sen or Aznar, New York.— Restena Geograliea; Historica y Estadis- 
tica del Estado de Yucatan, and a Compendium of Ancona's History of the 
same Country. 

Perry, Right Rev. Wm. Stevens, D.D., Davenport, la.— His Episcopal 
Address to the Diocese, of Iowa; and the Iowa Churchman, as issued. 

Preble* Admiral George IE, Brookline. -Newspaper cuttings relating to 
tin; subject of longevity. 

Rau, Dv. Charles, Washington, D. C— His Jiuleitgegenstande des Nationa.1- 
Museuius zu Washington. 

Salisbury, James H., M.D., Cleveland, O.— His Original Investigations in 
Diphtheria and Scarlet Fever. 

Salisbury, Hon. Stephen, Worcester. —Copies of his Memorial of John Ende- 
cott; his Troy and Homer; and his Antiquarian Papers; a framed India Ink 
portrait of Hon. Emory Washburn; Sibley's Biographical Sketches of Grad- 
uates of Harvard University, Vol. II.; Kennedy's Life of Longfellow; one 
thousand and forty-nine pamphlets; and four tiles of newspaper-. 

Salisbury, Stephen, Jr., Esq., Worcester. — Massachusetts Historical 
Society Collections, Vols. II., III., V. and VI., lifth series; three hooks; one 
hundred and ninety-eight pamphlets; and fifty-four numbers of the Gardener's 
Monthly, in continuation. 

SMITH, C, Esq., Boston. — His son's Prize Essay on Civil Service 
Reform, with an introductory note by Mr. Smith; and one pamphlet. 

Smith, William A., Esq., Worcester.— The Weekly Underwriter, in con- 

Smucker, Hon. Isaac, Newark, O. — Two books, and four pamphlets. 

Stevens, Henry, Esq., Loudon, G. B.— Monthly Notes of the Library Asso- 

- eiation, March 15, 1882. 

Thompson, Prof. CHARLES O., Worcester.— His remarks at the Complimen- 
tary Banquet given him; thirty-live books; four hundred and seven pam- 
phlets; the Journal of Education, 1875-82; the Sunday School Times, .1880-32 ; 
and the Congregationalist, in continuation. 

Washburn, Col. John I)., Worcester.— His "One and twenty years after 
Sumter," an oration delivered before the Francis Washburn Post, G. A. R., 
June 4, 1882; four books; and one hundred and thirty-seven pamphlets. 

1-lK American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

Waterston, Rev. RoiiEitT C, Boston.— His address before the Boston Eng- 
lish High School Association. May 11, 1881 ; and his remarks at their Reunion, 
February 20, 1BS& 

Wheatland, JIenuy, ED., .Salem.— Due book and twenty-two valuable 
pamphlets relating to Salem; and- the Peabody Press, in continuation. 

Whittlesey, Col. Chakles, Cleveland, O.— Six of his historic pamphlets. 

WILLIAMS, J. Fletcher, Esq., St. Paul, Minn.— The Calendar of the 
University of .Minnesota for 1881^82. 


Ancona, Senor Desideuio, Uol yoke. — Two Jiles of Yucatan newspapers. 

Ancona, Sen Oi? ELIGIO, Mcrida, Yucatan.— Two tiles of Yucatan newspapers. 

Bailey, Mr. Isaac II., Boston. — Jlis Shoe and Leather Reporter, as issued. 

Baker, Mrs. Frances M., Worcester.— One map. 

Baldwin, Messrs. John D. and (Jo., Worcester.— Their Daily and Weekly 
papers, as issued. 

Bancroft, Mr. Harlow P., San Francisco, Gal. — Two pamphlets. 

Barker, Mr. WHARTON, Philadelphia, Pa.—The American, in continuation. 

BOARDMAN, Master -John It., Augusta, Me.— His Short Treatise on a few of 
the more Important Extinct Animals. 

Bowne, Mr. Jacob T., Xewburgh, N. Y.— "Acts of Assembly passed in the 
Province of New York, from 1691 to 1725, folio; printed and sold by 
William Bradford, 172G." 

Bradlee, Rev. Caleh D., Boston.— Massachusetts Humane Society Certificate 
of 1701, and one lithograph. 

Brown, Alexander, Esq., Norwood, Va.— A Sketch of the Pioneer Press of 

Brenner, 1). B., Esq., Beading, Pa.— His " Indians of Berks County, Penn- 

CALDWELL, Rev. AUGUSTINE, Worcester.— His Caldwell Records, With manu- 
script notes; his Antiquarian Papers, in continuation; and one pamphlet. 

Caldwell, John D., Esq., Cincinnati, (J.— King's " When and by whom was 
i incinnati founded?" 

Caneield, Mrs. P. L., Worcester. — Seven valuable books; two medals; two 
Jefferson autographs; and two pamphlets. 

Caniield, Miss P. W. S., Worcester.— The American Art Review, a complete 
set; the Magazine of Art, to date, in five volumes; and Clarence Cook's 
" Mouse Beautiful." 

Coins, Hon. Samuel C, Boston.— Proceedings of the Massachusetts Senate on 
receiving the portrait of Gen. David Cobb. 

Cook, Mr. Henry II., Barre. -His Gazette* as issued. 

Doe, Messrs. Charles 11. and Co., Worcester.— Their Daily and Weekly pa- 
pers,.as issued. 

DePevsteR, Gen. J. W., New York.— His '-Mary Queen of Scots, a Study." 

Dodge, James H., Esq., Auditor, Boston.— His Annual Report for 1881-82. 

Du ken, Mr. E. F., Secretary, Bangor, Me.— Minutes of the General Confer- 
ence of Maine, and Maine Missionary Society. 

1882.] Donors and Donations. 149 

Earle, Pliny, M.D., Northampton.— Eighty-six books; one hundred and 
seven pamphlets'; and twenty-one numbers of magazines, largely educational 
and philanthropic. 

ELWELL, EDWARD II., Esq., Portland, Me.— His " Portland and Vicinity.*' 

EMERY, Mr. George E., New Bedford.— A sketch of Rev. Stephen Bachiler. 

FEGIRO, Sefior E., Santo Domingo.— "Another Controversial pamphlet, on the 
resting place of Columbus." 

FELTON, Mr. Cyrus, Marlborough.— His "Garfield Family Genealogy." 

Fisher, < iiarles H., M.D., Secretary, Providence, 11. 1 —The Twenty-Eighth 
Registry Report of Rhode Island. 

FOOTE and IIORTON, Messrs., Salem.— Their Gazette, as issued. 

Fox, Hon. G. V., Washington, D. C— "The United States Coast and Geodetic 
Survey, Appendix, Nos. 18 and PJ. 

Gatschet, Alhkrt S., Esq., Washington j 1). C— His •' Indian Languages of 
the Pacific States and Territories." 

Gerould, Mrs. J. II., Worcester.— Twenty-seven pamphlets, and live maps. 

GIBBS, Mrs. Tyler, Worcester.— " Life and Light for Heathen Women," 
twenty-four numbers. 

Gould, Mr. S. C, Manchester, N. II.— "Miscellaneous Notes, Queries and 
Answers," as issued. 

Greene, J. Evartjs, Esq., Worcester.— Crowe's "Tragedy of Abraham Lin- 

Haven, Mrs. Samuel F., AVorcester.— Seven English lawbooks, 1G33-1755; 
ten hound volumes of manuscripts; four hundred and eighty-seven pam- 
phlets; four diplomas; two wood-cuts; and one map. 

Hlcoinson, Waldo, Esq., Boston.— Restoration of the Rev. Francis Iliggin- 
son portrait. 

HuJJli.vUD, Mr. EDWARD, Chicago, 111.— His Towne Family Memorial. 

lNi.UAHAM, R. C, New Bedford.— Memorial Record of the Acushuet Ceme- 

Jillson, Hon. Clark, Worcester.— His address on "New Hampshire and 
Vermont: their Unions, Secessions and Disunions." 

JOHNSON, Mr .WILLIAM W., Milwaukee, Wis.— His Records of the Descendants 
of David Johnson, Leominster, Mass. • 

JULIEN, Rev. M. C, New Bedford.— Semi-Centennial Celebration of the Trini- 
tarian Church, New Bedford, Mass. 

KELLOOG and StRATTON, Messrs., Fitehburg.— Their Fitchburg Sentinel, as 

Lancaster, Mr. George Y., Worcester.— Two large parcels of newspapers. 
Leamon, Mr. Jacob, Lawreneeburg, Tenn.— His Lawreneeburg Press, as 

Learned, Mr. JosepiiusN., Buffalo, N.Y.— Forty-sixth Report of the Young 

Men's Association of Buffalo. 
Lincoln, Edward W., Esq., Worcester.— His Reports, 1870-1681, ;t.» chair- 
man of the Worcester Commission of Shade Trees and Public Grounds. 


J 50 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

Ma HULK. ALBERT P., Esq., Worcester.— II is address to the Hudson High 
School, June 30, 1882. 

Mason, Prof . OtisT., Washington, D. C— His "General Notes on Anthro- 

Medical Eclectic Publishing Company.— New York Medical Eclectic for 
July, 1882. 

Metcale, Caleb B., Esq., Worcester.— Two books; thirty-six pamphlets; 
and liles Christian Union, New England Journal of Education, and the 
Nation, in continuation. 

MORGAN, Mrs. LEWiS II., Rochester, N. Y.— He v. Dr. Mcllvaine's Tribute to 
Lewis H. Morgan, LL.D. 

Morrell, Mr. II. K., Gardiner, Me.— "For and Against Assessment Insur- 

Nash, Mr. Edward W., New York.— Catalogue of the Library of Hon. L. G. 

New Yoke Evening Post Printing Company.— The Nation, as issued. 

Nickekson, Mr. Sereno 1)., Grand Secretary, Boston. — Proceedings of the 
Massachusetts Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons, April 21— Juno 
14, 1882, 

Paine, Royal, Esq., Brooklyn, N. Y.— Grosvenor's History of the First Con- 
gregational Church of Woodstock, Connecticut; and one sermon. 

Parkier, Mr. Henry J., Boston.— Two of his pamphlets relating to the History 
of Masonic Lodges. 

Parsons, Mrs. Sarah M., Brooklyn, N. Y.— A silver medal awarded to David 
Lee Child for the first beet sugar made in this country. 

Phillips. Rev. Geokce W., Worcester.— His Decennial Sermon, January l, 
1882., before the Plymouth Congregational Society. Worcester. 

Phillips, Mr. Oscar, AYorcester.— Greek edition of 1535, of "Arriani de 
Aseencii Alexaudri." 

PiNCiRY, William M., Esq.., Ludlow, Vt.— His Genealogical Record of the 
descendants of Moses Pingry, of Ipswich, Mass. 

RlCE, Mr. Franklin P., Worcester.— Worcester Town Records, 1753-1763, 
edited by Mr. Rice; and two historical pamphlets. 

Rice, Hon. William W., Worcester.— United States Message and Documents, 

Riordan, Mr. John J., Worcester.— The Boston Daily Globe, January to 
July, 1882; u tile of the Church Builder; and one pamphlet. 

Roe, Mr. ALFRED S., Worcester.— Five bound volumes, and sixty-four num- 
bers of American magazines. 

Rogers, Mrs. James S., Worcester.— Sixteen books, and five pamphlets. 

Selwyn, Mr. Alfred C. It., Montreal, P. Q.— Report on the Geological and 
Natural History Survey of Canada, 1879-80. 

Smith, Mr. John G., Worcester.— Two books, and seven pamphlets. 

Smith, Mr. William White, Worcester.— His plan of ground and buildings 
in the vicinity ot Front and Park streets, Worcester, in 1818-19. 

Southwick, Mrs. Anne II., Worcester.— Five books; nine pamphlets; and 
one hundred and fourteen numbers of the Horticultural Magazine. 

1882.] Donors and Donations. 151 

Staples, Samuel E., Esq., Worcester;— .The Connecticut. Register for 1812 

and 1858; and live pamphlets*. 
Stryker, Gen. William 8k, Trenton, N. J.— His "New Jersey Continental 

Line in tin' Virginia Campaign of 1781;" and his " Washington's Reception 

by the people of New Jersey in 17SU." 

STURGiS, Mrs. HENRY P., Boston.— Ten pamphlets. 

Tills y, Mr. R. IL, Newport, R. I.— The Newport Historical Magazine for 
October, 1882. 

TONER, J. M., M.D., Washington,!). C— His address before the Rocky Moun- 
tain Medical Association, June G, 1877, with Biographies of Members. 

Towne, Enoch II., City Clerk, Worcester.— The City Document for 1882; and 
Massachusetts Acts and Resolves, 1882. 

Turner, John II., Aver, Mass.— His Public Spirit, as issued. 

Tyler, Mr. Newell, Worcester*— His " Brief Genealogies of the Tyler, Taft 

Wood, Mates and Hill Families." 
Waking, GeORGK E., Jr., Esq., Newport, R. 1.— His ''Separate System of 


Wentworth, Hon. John, Chicago, III. — His Addenda to the Wentworth 

Wesby, Mr. Joseph S. «fc Son, Worcester.— Two books; one hundred and 
fifty-six pamphlets; six maps; ami thirteen prints. 

West, Miss Teresa II., Milwaukee, Wis. — German Catalogue of the Milwau- 
kee Public Library. 

WlTHERUY, Ri <;<: and Richardson, Messrs., Worcester.— The Scientific 
American, the Engineering and Mining Journal, and the National Car Builder, 
in continuation; and a parcel of miscellaneous newspapers. 


Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia.— Their Proceedings, 
Part I., 1882. 

ACADEMY OF Science OF St. Louis.— The Transactions, Vol. IV., No. 2. 

American Baptist Missionary Union.— The Baptist Missionary Magazine, 
as issued. 

American Geographical Society.— Their Bulletin, No. 4, for 1881, and 
No. 1, for 1882. 

American Museum of Natural History.— The Bulletin, No. 1. 

American Philosophical Society.— Their Proceedings, Numbers 110 and 

Archaeological Institute of America.— Papers, Classical Series, No. 1. 

Boston Board of Health.— Monthly Statement of Mortality, in continua- 

Boston, city of.— The City Documents for 1881, in three volumes. 

Boston City Hospital, Trustees of.— The Medical and Surgical Reports, 
Third series. 

Boston Public Library.— The Thirteenth Annual Report; and the Bulletin, 
as issued. 

152 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

City and Society of London Institute for the Advancement of 
Technical Education.— The Programme of Technical Examinations for 

the year 1882-83. 

Couden CLUB.— Buxton's A, B, C, of Free Trade. 

Congregational Library Association. — The Twenty-ninth Annual 

Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences.— The Transactions, Vol. 

IV., Part 1, ami Vol. V., Part 2. 
Davenport Academy of Natural Sciences.— Proceedings, Volume III., 

Part 2. 
English Reform Spelling Association.— Five of their publications. 
Essex Institute.— The Historical Collections, January to June, 1882; ami 

Bulletin. Vol. XVI., Nos. 1 to 6. 
FIRST Parish in Hingham.— An Account of the Celebration of their Two 

Hundredth Anniversary; and Stebbius's Tribute to Calvin Lincoln. 
Genealogical Association of Pennsylvania and New Jersey.— 

Their Genealogical and Biographical Magazine, No. 1. 
Harvard University.— The Bulletin, as issued. 
Historical Society ok Pennsylvania.— Their Magazine of History and 

Biography, as issued. 
Indiana, The -State ok.— Laws of the State for 1875 and 1877. 
Lancaster Town Library. —Their Catalogue Supplement, 1877-82. 
Literary and Historical Society of Quebec.— Their Transactions, 

Maine State Library.— Two State Documents. 

Massachusetts, Commonwealth ok.— Public Documents, 1882, six Vol- 

Massachusetts HISTORICAL Society.— Their Collections, Vols. VII. and 

VIII., Fifth .series. 
Massachusetts Horticultural Society.— Their Transactions for the 

year 1882, Part 11. 
Massachusetts Institute ok Technology.— The Seventeenth Annual 

Massachusetts Medical Socikty.— Their Communications, Vol. VIII., 

No. 1. 
Minnesota Academy ok Natural Sciences.— The Bulletin, Vol. II., Nos. 

2 and 3. 
Missouri Historical Society.— Their Publications, Nos. 5 and (J. 
New Bedford Free Public Library.— Thirtieth Annual Report of the 

Trustees; and the City Documents for 1881-82. 
New England Historic Genealogical Society.— Memorial Biogra- 
phies, Vol. II.; ami the Register, as issued. 
New England Manufacturers and Mechanics Institute.— Catalogues 

of the First and Second Exhibitions. 
New York Genealogical and Biographical Society.— Their Record, 

as issued. 

1862.] Donors and Donation*. 153 

New Yokk Historical Society.-— Their Collections for the year 1878; 
Documents relating to the Colonial History of New Jersey, Vols. IV. aud 
V.; and their Prvccedings, Vol. VII.., No. 2. 

New York Meucan tile Library Association.— Th'e Sixty-first Annual 

Peauody Institute of Baltimore.— The Fifteenth Annual Report. 

Philadelphia Library Company.— Their Bulletin for July, 1882. 

Rhode Island Board of Health.— The Fourth Annual lie port. 

Rhode Island Historical Society.— Their Proceedings, 1881-82. 

Rutland Historical Society.— Their Proceedings, Vol. II., Nos. 1-3. 

Saint Louis Mercantile Library Association.— The Report of 1882. 

Smithsonian Institution.— Annual Report for 1880: First Annual Report 
of the Bureau of Ethnology; and Proceedings of the National Museum. 

Sociltk Amkricaine DE France.— Their Annual for 1881. 

Socilte des F/1UDES II1ST0RIQ.UES.— Their Journal, May to August, 1881. 

Springfield City Library Association:.— The Annual Report for the 
year ending May, 1882. 

Traveler's Insurance Company.— Their Record, as issued. 

United States Bureau of Education.— Circulars No. 6', 1881, and 
No. 1, 1882. 

United States Department of the Interior.— Thirty-one volumes of 
Public Documents. 

United States War Department.— Annual Report of the Chief of Engi- 
neers, 1881, three volumes; the Map of Surveys for River and Harbor 
Improvements; Report of the Geographical Survey wot of the 100th 
Meridian; and the Index Catalogue of the Surgeon- General's Oliice, 
Vol. HI. 

Virginia Historical Society.— Their Collections, Now Series, Vol. I.; and 
Proceedings at the Annual Meeting, February 2-4, 1882. 

Worcester County Mechanics Association.— Eighteen files of news- 
papers, in continuation. 

Worcester Free Institute.— Eighty-four Institute Catalogues. 

Worcester Free Public Library.— Fifty-eight tiles of newspapers; and 
forty pamphlets. 

Worcester Society of Antiquity.— Worcester Town Records, 1775-1783. 

Wyoming Historical and Geological Society.-— Their Proceedings for 
the year ending February, 1882; and live pamphlets. 

Yale College.— Three College pamphlets. 

Young Men's Christian Association International Committee.— 
Year Rook of the Young Men's Christian Associations, PS82-S3. 

Young Men's Christian Association of Worcester.— Ten numbers of 
magazines; anil the Scientific American, in continuation. 

154 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct, 


The Treasurer of the American Antiquarian Society here- 
with presents his semi-annual report, made up to October 
18, 1882. 

As appears by the proceedings of the Society, at their 
annual meeting, the illness of the Treasurer prevented the 
presentation of his report at that time ; for the same 
reason, the dividends and interest due on investments, early 
in October, were not collected, and as result thereof the 
total income shows somewhat less than usual. 

As will be seen by the detailed report, the cash on hand 
was nearly tive thousand dollars. This has been largely 
reduced since the annual meeting, by investments made 
under direction of the Finance Committee. 

The Publishing Fund continues to show a reduction, 
owing, as has often been stated before, to the insufficiency 
of the fund to produce income enough to meet the yearly 
expense of printing our i4 Proceedings." Py vote of the 
Council, the income of the Tenney Fund, for the past six 
months, amounting to $126.22, has been placed to the 
credit of the Publishing Fund. 

The Lincoln Legacy Fund, by the accumulation of 
interest, has nowreaehed the sum of over $1800.00. It was 
a provision of the legacy that the income should be 
"expended as a premium for the writing of papers on 
archaeological subjects." If it could be so arranged that the 
income might be used for the printing of special papers on 
this subject, it would prove to be of more practical value 
to the Society, than it is at present. Put one charge has 
been made to the fund since its establishment, and that was 


1882.] Report of the Treasurer. 155 

for a premium, or gratuity, to Dr. Haven for a valuable 
archaeological paper prepared by him, after much study 
and research. 

The Haven Fund remains on deposit in a Savings Bank, 
and the interest will be allowed to accumulate until its use 
shall be required for the purchase of books for the Haven 

The following statement gives, in detail, the receipts and 
disbursements for the six months ending October 18, 1882, 
and the condition of the several funds. 

Statement of the condition of the several Funds, 
October ,18th, 1882. 

The Librarian's and General Fund. 

1882, April 15. Balance of Fund $31 ,403.5)0 

" Oct. 18. Received interest to date and for pre- 
mium on Bond paid, 740.00 

" (i " Received for life assessment, 50.00 

•' " " " " annual assessments, and 

fees of new members, 255.00 

Paid for salaries and incidental expenses, 1,075.94 

1882, Oct. 18. Present amount of the Fund, $31 ,378.96 

Invested as J olio ws: 

Bank Stock, $9,400.00 

Railroad Stock, , 1,800.00 

Railroad Bonds, . 9,200.00 

Mortgage Note, 9,000.00 

Cash, 1,978.96 


The Collection and Research Fund. 

1882, April 15. Balance of Fund $17,571.75 

" Oct. 18. Received for interest and dividends to 

date, 299.25 

" " '* Received for books sold, 'J2.25 

Paid for part of Assistant-Librarian's salary.. . $250.00 
" " Books and incidentals, 27.17 $277.17 

1882, Oct. 18. Present amount of the Fund, $17,016.08 

156 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

Invested as follows : 

Bank Stock, $0,400.00 

Railroad Stock, 5,300.00 

Railroad Bonds 3,100.00 

Worcester Gas Co. Stock, 500.00 

Mortgage Note 2,150.00 

Cash, 106.08 


The Bookbinding Fund. 

1882, April 15. Balance of Fund $0,189.34 

" Oct. IS. Received for interest and dividends to 

date, 155.00 

Paid Assistant-Librarian on account of this Fund, 125.00 

/ 1882, Oct. 18. Present amount of the Fund, $6,219.34 

Invested as follows : 

Bank Stock, $2,500.00 

Railroad Stock, *, 1 ,000.00 

Railroad Bonds, 2,000.00 

Cash, 119.34 


The Publishing Fund. 

1882, April 15. Balance of Fund, $8,904.98 

" Oct. 18. Received for dividends and interest to 

date, 183.06 

" " " Received for publications sold, 29.49 

Transferred from Tenney Fund 120.22 

Paid for printing semi-annual report, &c. 529.90 

1882,'Oct. 18. Present amount of the Fund, $8,714.45 

Invested asftrfloius: 

Bank Stock, $1,600 00 

Railroad Bonds, 5,500.00 

City Bond, 1,000.00 

Cash, 014.45 


The Salisbury Building Fund. 

1882, April 15. Balance of Fund, \ $1,421.24 

" Oct. 18. Received interest to date, 35.00 

Paid for repairs in the building 25.19 

1882, Oct. 18. Present amount of the Fund, $1,431.05 

1882.] Report of the Treasurer. 157 

Invested as follows: 

Railroad Bond, $1 ,000.00 

Cash , 431 .05 


The Isaac Davis Book Fund. 

1882, April 15. Balance of Fund, $1,485.72 

" Oct. 18. Received for dividends to date, H.00 

18S2, Oct. 18. Present amount of the Fund, $1,403.72 

Invested as follows : 

Hank Stock $500.00 

Railroad Stock, bOO.OO 

Cash, 103.72 


The Lincoln Legacy Fund. 

1882, April 15. Balance of Fund, $1,814.82 

" Oct. 18. Received fur dividends to date, 12.00 

1882, Oct. 18. Present amount of the Fund, $1,826.82 

Incest ed as follows : 

Bank Stock, $1,000.00 

Cash, 22C.82 


The Benj. F. Thomas Local History Fund. 

1882, April 15. Balance of Fund, $1,050.82 

" Oct. 18. Received interest to date, 35.00 

Paid for book, .75 

1882, Oct. 18. Present amount of the Fund, $1,085.07 

Invested as follows : 

Railroad Bond, $1,000.00 

Cash, JS5.07 

The Tenney Fund. 

1882, April 15. Balance of Fund, $5,000.00 

" Oct. 18. Received interest to date, 120 22 

1882, Oct. 18. Transferred to Publishing Fund, 120.22 

" " Present amount of the Fund, $5,000.00 

158 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

Invested as follows : 

Mortgage Notes, $4,000.00 

Cash l ,000.00 

The Alden Fund. 

1882, April 15. Balance of Fund, $1,0.35.00 

" Oct. 18. Received interest to date, 35.00 

" " " Present amount of the Fund, $1,070.00 

Invested as follows : 

Railroad Bond, $1 ,000.00 

Cash, 70.00 


The Haven Fund. 
1882, Oct. 18. Present amount of the Fund (in Savings 

Bank ) $1,000.00 

Total of the eleven Funds, $70,^35.49 

Cash on hand, included in foregoing statement, $4,885.49 

In Librarian's and General Fund, $1,978.96 

Collection and Research Fund, 1GG.08 

Bookbinding Fund, 119.34 

Publishing Fund G14.45 

Salisbury Fund, 431.05 

Isaac Davis Fund, 193.72 

Lincoln Legacy Fund, 22G.b2 

Ben.}. F. Thomas Fund 85.07 

Tenney Fund, 1 ,000.00 

Alden Fund, 70.00 

Total Cash, $4,885.49 

Respectfully submitted, 

Worcester, October, 1882. 

lleport of the Auditors. 

The undersigned, Auditors of the American Antiquarian Society, hereby 
certify that they have examined the report of the Treasurer, made up to Octo- 
ber IS, 1882, and find the same to be correct, and properly vouched, and that 
the securities held by him for the several funds are as stated, and that the bal- 
ance of cash on hand is accounted for. 

Worcester, December, 1882. 


Palos and Rabida 



By Edwakd E. Hale. 

The end of a long, lovely summer clay ;— the western sun, low in the 
horizon, is streaming in through the windows of the railway carriage. 
The Spanish gentleman on the Eastern side is looking watchfully across 
the marshes and the river, — and at last, as some mound of sand is 
passed by the train, and opens a full view to the other side of the wide 
estuary, — he raises his hand and says "Palo!" 

We were all silent for a moment. I think he knew something of ray 
feeling. And I found I cared for Palos more than I had supposed 
possib"e. I had crossed Spain with the intention of seeing the place. 
I had overcome some local and accidental difficulties in the way, — but 
I had not, at any moment, pictured to myself the gulf between 1492 and 
1882:— nor even asked myself to try to imagine Columbus and Martin 
Pinzon at work on the equipment of the ships. Of a sudden all the 
features of the contrast presented themselves. Enough, perhaps, that 
as we dashed on in the comfort of a railway train, we were looking 
across the desolate marshes to the forsaken village, where hardly a few 
white houses could be made out, and told ourselves that from the 
enterprise and courage of that place, the discovery of America became 
possible. The seaport of Palos, in the time of Columbus, was a place 
so important'that the crews and vessels for the first expedition were all 
gathered there, in face of the difficulties which the superstition of the 
time and the terrors of the voyage presented.. I do not suppose it to 
have been a seaport of the first class, but it was a considerable and 
active town. It was on the eastern side of the estuary of the Tinto 
river, a considerable stream known to navigators as far back as the first 
history of navigation. It takes its name, Tinto, from the color which 
)t brings from the copper and iron mines above, which are the very 
mines which gave to Spain its interest for Phoenician navigators. In 
nearly four centuries, since Columbus's time, the current of the river has 
been depositing silt in what was then the port of Palos, and this port is 
now entirely filled up. With the destruction of the harbor, the lown has 
gone to ruin. The few white specks, which ray Spani>h friend pointed 
out to me, in the light of the evening sun, marked the place of the few 
houses in which a hundred or two poor people are living, where were 
once the dockyards and warehouses of the active town. The rival 
town Huelva, which was even in Columbus's time a place of consid- 
erable importance, takes all the commerce of the estuary. I think not 
even a fishing boat sails from Palos itself; its name will not be found on 
some of the best recent maps of Spain, and is in very few geographical 



100 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

Huelva is a port where large steamers can lie at the pier, and is now 
a place of active and apparently successful trade. An English company, 
which is developing: the mines, has built a good system of railroads, 
which unite Huelva with its mining establishments and with Seville, 
from which beautiful city I had crossed in a four hours' ride. The 
distance by rail is about sixty-six miles, the railway not being very 
direct. 1 will say in passing that the excursion from Seville is an 
agreeable one for travellers in the south of Spain. There is a new 
hotel at Huelva where we were comfortably accommodated. 1 was 
interested to see thatall the furniture, which was new, was of American 
manufacture, coming very likely from Worcester County, Massachusetts. 
Thus far, at least, have we been able to pay our debt to Columbus, and 
to Palos. 

I was wakened the next morning to hear the singing of birds in a 
lofty orauge tree in the front of my window, that we might embark at 
once on our visit to the convent of llabida, and if possible to the ruins 
of Palos. A tine half-decked boat, such as one might have hired in 
Marblehead for a like purpose, with a skipper who looked precisely 
like his Marblehead congener, but with the lateeu-sail which is so 
curiously characteristic of Southern Europe, was ready for our little 
voyage. We passed heavy steamers, which suggested little enough of 
Columbus, but there were line looking fishing-boats which suggested 
the plucky little Nina of his voyage; and their seamen are probably 
dressed to-day much as the men who landed with him at San Salvador. 

A run of an hour brought us to the flue headland on which the 
Convent of llabida — or of Santa Maria de llabida— stands; scarcely 
changed, if changed at all, from the aspect it bore on the day when 
Columbus '-asked of the porter a little bread and water tor his child." 
Lord Houghton, following Freiligrath, has sung to us how the 

"Palm tree dreameth of the pine 
The pine tree of the palm" — 

and in his delicate imaginings the dreams are of two continents — ocean- 
parted — each of which longs for the other. Straime enough, as one 
pushes along the steep ascent from the landing at Kabida up the high 
bluff on which the convent stands, the palm tree and the pine grow 
together, as if in token of the dream of the great discoverer who was 
to unite the continents. 

The convent is a large rambling building — of Moorish lines aud 
aspect, built around several patios or gardens. Hardly any windows 
open through the outer walls, but the life of the building engages itself 
in and around the pati os within, Here cloisters made by columns with 
arches surround the pretty enclosures, and here one dines, writes, 
takes his siesta, or does nothing. Columbus's room — as a tine chamber 
up-stairs is called — has a large table in the middle, on which is the 
inkstand which is said to have been used by him. 

In this conveut Columbus made his home while the expedition was 
fitted out at Palos hard by and quite accessible. Hither the Pinzons and 

1882.] Palos and Habida. 161 

the learned physician Garcia Fernandez were summoned by the good 
prior Marchena, Columbus's steady friend, for the great consultations 
from which the discovery grew. I shall have the pleasure of presenting 
to the Society a sketch of the landscape and of the Atlantic seaside 
which met the eye of Columbus when he looked from his bed-room. I 
have made a careful thawing of his inkstand, — ami if I succeed in 
reproducing it in a fac-simile, I will bring that to our next meeting for 
the use of the Librarian and Council. 

All around the room there hang pictures, some of him, duo of 
Isabella, one of the good old prior, and some by modern painters of 
different scenes in the great llrst voyage, and of his experiences after 
his return. 

The chapel of the convent is down-stairs. It is neat and pretty, and 
worship could be renewed there at any moment. The Duke of Mont- 
pensier, who married a sister of Isabel II., the late Queen of Spain, 
arranged to have it all put in proper order. There are no longer any 
monks here or any priors. But the Spanish nation takes a national 
pride in maintaining the convent, and a charming family of Spaniards — 
grandfather, grandmother, son, daughter, and three nice boys, Christo- 
pher, Immanuel, and Joseph — keep the place. 

After a visit full of interest at Babida, we returned to our boat, and I 
directed my seamen to take me to some landing whence I could go into 
the only street of Palos — or what is left of it. To my surprise I was 
told that this was impossible. No such landing remains, even for a 
fishing boat of Ave tons. If the Senor wished, it would be necessary 
for the boat to come to anchor, and the Senor must be carried on the 
back of the skipper for three-quarters of a mile or more, over the flat 
under water which has formed where proud ships once rode. The 
, Senor declined this proposal, and bade the boatman take him to the 
' bar of Saltes, the little island in front of Palos and Huelva, where 
Columbus's vessels lay, — and from which he sailed at eight o'clock on 
the morning of Friday, August 3, 1492. ' 

The run from Kabida, tacking back and forthwith a brisk breeze, was 
perhaps an hour or a little more. The island, which was the last of 
Europe to the great navigator, can be scarcely changed. I lauded on 
the beach, and with the hope of being present to-day, gathered the shells 
which I have now the pleasure of presenting to the cabinet of the 
Society. The island is a narrow bar, high enough to break the force 
of the South and Southwest winds, as they sweep in from the 
Atlantic, and thus makes the admirable harbor of Huelva. We 
discharged the grateful duty of collecting some memorials of a place so 
interesting, and then by a rapid run before the wind, returned to the 
pier at Huelva, which is some six miles up the river. 

'So Mr. Irving says, and the other historians. But in his own Diary 
Columbus says " half an hour before sunrise." 


102 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 


By George II. Moore. 

I desire to call attention to certain errors in the current history of 
Witchcraft in Massachusetts, and must ask your indulgence for my 
inability to make these dry bones live in more pleasing forms. 

The first errors I note are in the statements— that there was no colonial 
or provincial law against witchcraft in force at the time of the witch- 
craft proceedings in 1GU2, in Massachusetts — that the prosecutions took 
place entirely under English law, that law being the statute of James I. — 
and that witchcraft was not a criminal offence at common law. It is 
probable that these errors may be traced mainly to Hutchinson, whose 
statements I quote. It should be remembered that Hutchinson was not 
originally bred to the profession of the law. 

He says (vol. ii., page 52) : " At the first trial there was no colony or 
provincial law against witchcraft in force. The statute of James the 
first must therefore have been considered in force in the provinces, 
witchcraft not being an offence at common law. Before the adjourn- 
ment the old colony law, which makes witchcraft a capital offence, was 
revived, with the other local laws, as they were called, and made a law 
of the province." Again (p. 59), " The general court also showed their 
zeal against witchcraft by a law passed in the words of the statute of 
James the first, * * * * If the court was of opinion that the stat- 
ute extended here, I see no necessity of a provincial act exactly in the 
same words; if the statute did not extend here, I know not by what law 
the first that was tried could be sentenced to death." 

With reference to the same period, and the same proceedings, George 
Chalmers said : " What reflects disgrace on the province, it was then 
doubtful, but is now certain, that there existed no law in Massachusetts 
for putting supposed witches to death." Cont. Polit. Ann. : Coll. N. Y. 
Hist. Sue. 1868: p. 111. 

Hutchinson was a loyal sou of Massachusetts, but Chalmers felt 
pleasure in this severe and unjust reflection upon the people of that 
province. From the earliest period there had never been any lack of 
law against witchcraft in England. Blackstoue found the "antient 
books " of the law full of this " offence against God and religion." He 

1882.] History of Witchcraft in Massachusetts. 103 

adds " the civil law punishes with death not only the sorcerers them- 
selves, but also those who consult them, imitating in the former the 
express law of God, ' thou shalt not suffer a witch to live.' And our 
own laws, both before and since the conquest, have been equally penal; 
ranking this crime in the same class with heresy, and condemning' both 
to the flames," Comm. iv., GO. 

I suppose Hutchinson's error arose in part from the following pass- 
age in Hale's History of the Pleas of the Crown : "If a man either by 
working upon the fancy of another, or possibly by harsh or unkind 
usage puts another into such a passion of grief or fear, that the party 
either dies suddenly, or contracts some disease, whereof lie dies, tho' 
as the circumstances of the case may be, this may be murder or man- 
slaughter in the sight of God, yet in foro hiimano it cannot come under 
the judgment of Felony, because no external act of violence was ottered 
whereof the common law can take notice, and secret things belong to 
God; and hence it was, that before the statute of 1 Juc. Cap. 12, witch- 
craft or fascination was not felony, because it wanted a trial, though 
some constitutions of the civil law make it penal." ■ Hist. P. C, Cap. 33, 
1. 429. 

See Barrington's reference to this : Observations on the Statutes, p. 528, 
"Hist- 1*. C, iv., 429," in which he explains that the proof of allegations of 
witchcraft is "attended with infinite difficulty. Lord C. J. Hale for this 
reason informs us that 1 James I., Cap 12 (which makes it felony to kill 
any person by the invocation of an evil spirit), was occasioned by there 
being no external appearance of violence which might make it criminal 
by the common law, though the offence was punished with death by the 

" Plato saitfa well the strongest of all authorities is, if a man can 
allege the authority of his adversary against himself.'" Bacon : Case of 
the Post Nad. We have the authority of Lord Chief Justice Coke and 
Chief Justice Hale himself for the statement that witchcraft, as a capi- 
tal offence immediately against the Divine Majesty, at common law, 
was punished with death, as heresy. Coke: 3 Inst., Cap. vi. Hale: P. 
C, pp. 3, G. 

The declaration of heresy, and likewise the proceedings and judgment 
upon hereticks, were by the common law of the realm referred to the 
ecclesiastical jurisdiction, and the seculararm was reached to them by the 
common law, and not by any statute for the execution of them which 
was by the King's writ de haeretico comburendo. Bacon's Cases of Trea- 
son : Chap. xiii. JIarl. Misc. v. 20. 

Before the statute 2 Henry IV., Cap. 15, no person could be convicted 
of heresy, but by the archbishop, and all the clergy of the province; 
but, by that statute, any particular bishop might in his diocese convict 
of heresy, and issue forth his precept to the sheriff, to burn the person 
he had convicted, a law whereby the clergy gained a dominion over the 
lives of the subjects, independent upon the crown. It was repealed by 



164 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

the statute 25 Henry VIII., Cap. 14. But so as particular bishops might 
still convict ; though without the king's writ de haeretico comburenclo, 
lirst obtained, no person convicted could be put to death, and so the law 
stood until . . . [1677.] Harleian Misc. viii. 70. 

" Under the general name of heresy there hath been in ordinary speech 
comprehended three sorts of crimes : 1. Apostacy. ... 2. Witchcraft, 
Sortiltujium, was by the antient laws of England of ecclesiastical cogniz- 
ance and upon conviction thereof without abjuration, or relapse without 
abjuration, was punishable with death by writ de haeretico comburerido, 
vule Co. P. C, Cap. G, et libros ibi, Extf de haereticis Cap. 8, § 5, u. G. 
3. Formal heresy ..." Hale : P. C. i. 383. Hawkins, P. C. Cap. 
Ill, 2. All these [including those guilty of witchcraft] were anciently 
punished in the same manner as hereticks, by the writ de haeretico com- 
burcndo, after a sentence in the ecclesiastical court and a relapse. And 
it is said also that they might be; condemned to the pillory, &c, upon an 
indictment at common law. 3 Inst. 44, F. X. B. 2G9. 8. P. C. 38. 
Croke, Eliz. 571. 

Fitzherbert, in his Natura Brevium, says in a note: "It appeareth by 
Britton in his book, that those persons shall be burnt who feloniously 
burn other's corn, or other's houses, and also those who are sorcerers or 
sorceresses ; and sodomites anil heretics shall be burnt; and it appeared 
by that book, lib. I., cap. 17, that such was the common law." Natura 
Brevium, 2G ( J. 

A reference to Britton amply sustains this ancient oracle of the 
common law : "Let inquiry also be made of those who feloniously in time 
of peace have burnt others' corn or houses, and those who are attainted 
thereof shall be burnt, so that they may be punished in like manner as 
they have offended. The same sentence shall be passed upon sorcerers, 
sorceresses, renegades, sodomites, and heretics publicly convicted." 
Britton: Lib. I., Cap. X. 

The learned editor of Britton says: "It seems as to these offences, 
though the King's court was in general ancillary to the ecclesiastical 
tribunal, it sometimes acted independently." And he cites a contempo- 
rary MS. that "if the King by inquest tind any person guilty of such 
horrible sin, he may put them to death, as a good marshal! of 
Christendom." Compare also Britton, lib. 1, cap. xvi sect. G, and chap. 
xxx. sect. 3. 

I am well aware that the King's Writ did never run in Massachusetts; 
but Law and History alike will sustain the assertion that the Fathers of 
Massachusetts never failed in their duty, if they knew it, " us good 
marshalls of Christendom." 

Four years before it was abolished by the Statute of 21) Ch.JL, there 
was a debate in the House of Lords concerning taking away the Writ 
De haeretico comburerido. The discussion plainly shows that it was well 
known as a writ in the Register, and before 2 Henry V., in which 
time the Statute against Lollards was made, and put in execution against 


1882.] History of Witchcraft in Massachusetts, 165 

them and that the writ was, before that time, a Writ at Common Law. 1 
The Bishop and Ecclesiastical Power were Judges of Heresy, who, upon 
condemnation of the party, delivered him up to the secular Power; and 
the Writ De haeretico combnrendo was thereupon issued out. It was 
declared in Parliament that the writ was still in force at Common Law, 
and the same power in the Clergy, notwithstanding the Statute of Queen 
Elizabeth of the thirty-nine Articles, and the Statute of Heresy, so that 
if they fell into the misfortune of Catholic Governors and Clergy, as in 
the Marian days, that writ was still in force, and might be put in 

The Act for taking away this writ was passed four years afterwards, 
29 Charles II., 1077, declaring " that the writt commonly called Breve de 
heretico combnrendo, with all Processe and Proceedings thereupon in 
order to the exeeuteing such writt or following or depending thereupon 
and all punishment by death in pursuance of any Ecclesiastical Censures 
be from henceforth utterly taken away and abolished." 

But the abolition of the law and process for burning heretics did not 
finish or do away with the legal penalties for witchcraft. 

It was declared felony by Statute 83, II. VIII. c. 8. [1541-2] which 
was repealed by the operation of the Statute 1 Edward VI., c. 12. 
Again declared felony by Statute 5 Elizabeth, c. It], it was only more 
accurately defined by the Statute Jac. I., c. 12, by which the previous 
statute was also repealed. This law, which was " enacted (as Mr. 
Bancroft says) by a House of Commons in which Coke and Bacon were 
the guiding minds, " continued to disgrace the English statute book 
until 1730. By it the Invoking or Consulting with Evil Spirits, taking 
up Dead Bodies, &c, for purposes of witchcraft, &c, or practising 
Witchcraft, &c., to the harm of others, was declared Felony without 
Clergy. It also imposed penalties on declaring by Witchcraft where 
Treasure, &c., is hidden; procuring unlawful love; or attempting to 
hurt Cattle or Persons : for the first offence a year's Imprisonment and 
Pillory; for the second, that of Felony, without Clergy. 

The original Body of Liberties of the Massachusetts Colony in New \ 
England made Witchcraft a capital offence. This article follows 
immediately after the provision for the punishment of idolatry, which 
is the first article of the capital code. 

" 2. If any man or woman be a witch (that is hath or consulteth with 
a familiar spirit)'- they shall be put to death." 

It is fortified by scriptural authorities in the margin — viz: by 
references to Exodus 22: IS ; Leviticus 20: 27; Deuteronomy 18: 10; 

VBarrington says (p. 120) there is no legal argument which hath such 
force, in our courts of law, as those which are drawn from ancient writs; 
and the Registrum Brevium is therefore looked upon to be the very 
foundationof the common law. St. 18 Edw. I. Statute of Westminster 
the Second. 

"This legal definition of a witch seems to have been adhered to 
throughout the examinations and proceedings at Salem in 1002. 



American Antiquarian Society. 


and continued without modification through the whole period of the 
government under the first charter, appearing in all the editions of the 
laws which have been preserved. 

The contemporary code, drawn up by John Cotton, printed in London 
in 1641, and long supposed to have been the actual "laws of New 
England as established," gives the same prominence to witchcraft in the 
chapter of crimes. After blasphemy and idolatry, comes 

"3. Witchcraft which is fellowship by covenant with a familiar. 
spirit, to be punished with death. 

"4. Oonsulters with Witches not to be tolerated, but either to be 
cut off by death, or by banishment." 

His authorities from Scripture are Exodus 22 : 18; Leviticus 20 : 27, 
and 11) : 31. 

This alternative penalty of banishment, "the consulters with witches " 
shared with "scandalous livers" and "revilers of religion." Those 
who reviled the church establishment of Massachusetts came under the 
latter description. 

The laws of the colony of New Plymouth, in 1636, enumerated among 
"capilall offences lyable to death," as the third in order after treason 
or rebellion, and murder, " solemn compaction or conversing with the 
divell by way of witchcraft, conjuration or the like." 

By the revision of 1071, this law appears to have been modified. The 
eighth section of chapter II., Capital Laws, provides, that " if any 
Christian (so called) be a Witch, that is, hath, or consul teth with a 
familiar Spirit; he or they shall be put to death." This qualification of 
"Christianity " (so called) " was probably a saving clause for the Indian 
inhabitants of the territory within the jurisdiction of the colony. The 
Indians had been always regarded as worshippers of the Devil, and their 
Powwows as wizards. 

From the date of the judgment in the King's Bench, by which the 
Colonial Charter was cancelled, Massachusetts was governed by a Royal 
Commission until, in 1G8 ( J, the news of the English revolution produced 
an insurrection at Boston, in which the Royal Governor was deposed, 
and the "antient Charter" and its constitutions de facto resumed. During 
this period, the Royal Commission and Instructions established the 
government " according to such reasonable laws and statutes as are 
now in force or such others as shall hereafter be made and established 
within our territory and dominion aforesaid." And the King declared 
his royal will and pleasure to be " that all lawes, statutes and ordinances 
[therein] * * * shall continue and be in full force and vigor," 
excepting such as might be in conflict with the Governor's Commission 
and Instructions, &c. 

On the 22d June, 1G89, after the deposition of Andros, " at the Con- 
vention of the Governor and Council and Representatives of the 
Massachusetts Colony, it was declared that all the laws made by the 
Governor and Company of said colony that were in force on the 12th 


1882.] History of Witchcraft in Massachusetts. 167 

-day of May, 1686 (except any that are repugnant to the laws of England) 
are the laws of this colony, and continue in force till farther settlement, 
to which all inhabitants and residents here are to give due obedience." 
3 : Hutch. Papers, 372, in M. 11. S. Lib., quoted by Gray in Eeports IX. 517. 

Under this temporary settlement of the laws, the authorities in 
Massachusetts did not hesitate to exercise the highest judicial powers 
and even to inflict capital punishment; taking the highest steps in the 
administration of government, by trying, condemning, and executing 
some notorious criminals found guilty of piracies and murder. Brad- 
street to Increase Mather, 29 January, 1689. Hutch. Papers, 57<>. 

Chief Justice Shaw stated very clearly the doctrine which has always 
prevailed: " We take it to be a well settled principle, acknowledged by 
all civilized states governed by law, that by means of a political revolu- 
tion, by which the politieal organization is changed, the municipal laws, 
regulating their social relations, duties and rights, are not necessarily 
abrogated." Commonwealth v. Chapman^ 13 Metcalf, 71. 

Nor should it be forgotten here that the validity of the judgment 
against the Charter in 1684, which was decided by the House of Com- 
mons, and " questioned by very great authority in England," was never 
admitted in Massachusetts: 9 Gray, 517. As there was nothing in the 
repeal of the Colony Charter to affect the private rights of the colonists, 
9 Gray, 518, so generally the rights of the inhabitants, as well as the 
penalties # to which they might be subjected, continued to be determined 
by the effect and according to the form of the colonial and provincial 
legislation, i. e. the common law of Massachusetts, rather than by the 
ancient, common law of England. 5 Pickering, 203. 7 Cashing, 76-77. 
13 Pickering, 208. 13 MelcaXf, 68-72. 

1 may be permitted also, at this point, to state a fact which fso far 
as I know) has escaped attention entirely in all the later discussions of 
this topic: that It was deemed necessary by the Legislature of this 
•Commonwealth, to pass an act as late as the year 1824, for the repeal of 
a law of the Colony passed in 1660!' 

Thus far legislation under the Colony Charter. On the arrival of 
Phips with the Province Charter, the change which was made was 
scarcely perceptible, almost the same men continued in power, the 


An Act to repeal an Act, entitled " An Act Against 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives in General 
Court assembled, and by the authority of the same, That an Act entitled 
"an Act against self-murder," passed in the year of our Lord one 
thousand six hundred and sixty, and providing that the bodies of per- 
sons who shall be guilty of self-murder shall be buried in some public 
highway, be, and the same is hereby repealed. 

[Approved by the Governor, February 21st, 1824.] 

168 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

laws and customs of former times remained, and the spirit of the 
people had undergone little alteration. 

The provincial legislature met for the first time on the 8th of June, 
1(392. Proceedings and examinations upon charges of witchcraft had 
been going on for several months before; the special court of Oyer and 
Terminer had been organized on the 27th of May, and sat, on the 2d of 
June, for the trial of its first victim, whose death warrant, signed on the 
very day the legislature came together, was executed two days after- 

One of the first acts of the Great and General Court, passed on the 
15th of June, 1092, was to continue all the local laws of the former gov- 
ernments of Massachusetts Bay and New Plymouth, being not repug- 
nant to the laws of England, nor inconsistent with the new constitution 
and settlement by the Province Charter — to stand in force till Novem- 
ber 10th, in the same year. 

This was that "Greatest General Court that ever was in New Eng- 
land," in the early part of whose session (June 9th), Increase Mather 
appeared and gave an account of his doings as Agent of the Colony at 

On the 29th of October they passed an act for the punishing of capital 
offenders, in which Witchcraft maintains its old position in the list of 
Capital Crimes, being declared to be felony, of which persons legally 
convicted were to be "adjudged to sutler the Pains of Death." The 
text is the same as that of the former law, but the scriptural authorities 
are omitted. The description of what constitutes a witch, furnished a 
legal definition of the crime. This law was subsequently disallowed in 
England by reason of the Articles relating to Witchcraft, Blasphemy, 
Incest, and slaying by Devilish Practice, which were declared l>y the 
Privy Council to be "conceived in very uncertain and doubtful terms," 
etc. Letter from the Privy Council, 20 Dec. 1G95. 

Before the end of the same session, on the 14th December, 1(J92, the 
General Court of Massachusetts reinforced their own local law by the 
substantial re-enactment of the English Statute. 

This "Act against Conjuration, Witchcraft, and dealing with Evil and 
Wicked Spirits," is expressly declared in the preamble to be "for more 
particular direction in the Execution of the Law against Witchcraft." 
The. original Bill is preserved among the Archives in the State House at 
Boston, with such changes byway of correction as indicate the design of 
its promoters still more clearly. "For Explanation [or Explication] of 
the Law against Witchcraft, and more particular direction therein, the 
execution thereof, and for the better restraining the said offences, and 
more severely punishing the same," etc. Mass. Archives. This phrase- 
ology shows conclusively that they had previously been proceeding upon 
their own or the common law, for if they had been guided by the statute 
of James I., they needed not to re-enact it, for particular direction, or to 
increase the severity of punishment. 




1882.] History of Witchcraft in Massachusetts. 169 

The fac-simile given in the Memorial History of Boston, Vol II., 163, 
does not indicate this important feature in the original, and the error to 
which I call attention is reiterated there in the statement that "the 
witches had been tried without any Colony or Province Law on the sub- 
ject, and presumably uuder the English statute of James I." Ibid. 154. 

Mr. Bancroft, in his exhaustive and most able discussion of this 
topic, states that the General Court adopted the English law, "word for 
word as it stood in the English Statute Book" but the differences 
between the original statute and that of Massachusetts are consider- 
able, and characteristic, even when notvery important, which some of 
them certainly are. 1 

In the enacting clause, "the Governor, Council, and Representatives 
in General Court assembled" take the place of "the King our Sovereign 
Lord, the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and the Commons in parliament 

The denial of "the privilege and beneiit of Cleargie and Sanctuarie" 
to persons convicted, which is a conspicuous feature in the English law 
is omitted in that of Massachusetts. 

"The Markett Town, upon the Market Day, or at such tyme as any 
Faire shall be kept there," as the place of exposure and confession upon 
the pillory four times during the year's imprisonment, finds its substi- 
tute in "some Shire town" of Massachusetts, where it was also required 
in addition, that the "olfence shall be written in Capital Letters, and 
placed upon the Breast of the Offender." 

A much more important omission was that which excluded the pro- 
visions for saving of Dower, Inheritance, Succession, &c, as well as 
the proviso that " Peers shall be tried by Peers." The want of agree- 
ment with the English statute, "whereby the Dower was saved to y« 
Widow and y-° Inheritance to y e heir of y party convicted" is expressly 
mentioned in the letter of the Privy Council to the Governor, &c., of the 
Province, 26th December, 1695, as the reason for its repeal. 

The rights of heirs had also been saved in the previous statute of the 
same session — ki An Act setting forth General Prii •Hedges" — which provided 
that they should not be defeated by any forfeitures for crime, except in 
cases of high treason. This saving applied only to "lands and heritages," 
so that goods and chattels might be forfeited in cases of felony. This 
act meta similar fate at the hands of the Privy Council, as being repug- 
nant to the laws of England. 

Yet the laws of Massachusetts from the beginning had preserved the 

Mr. Bancroft was evidently misled by Hutchinson, as quoted ante, p. 
162. The passage in the iirst edition of the History of the United States, is 
as follows: "The General Court adopted what King William rejected—- 
the English law, word for word as it stood in the English Statute Book." 
Edition 1840, iii.. 95. As subsequently revised for the centenary edi- 
tion, it stands "the English law, word for word, as it was enacted by a 
House of Commons, in which Coke and Bacon were the guiding minds." 
Edition 1876, ii., 265. 

170 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct, 

rights of heirs by the entire exemption of lands and heritages from 
" forfeitures, upon the deaths of parents or Ancestors, be they natural!, 
easuall or Juditiall." Body of Liberties, Art. 10. Under this law of the 
colony, traitors as well as other felons might dispose of their estates, 
real and personal, by will, after sentence, and if they died intestate, dis- 
tribution was made, as in other cases. In 1078, the Attorney General 
of England objected to this feature of the colonial law as repugnant to 
the laws of England, to which the General Court replied that they con- 
ceived it to be according to their patent; and "its originall, viz 1 that of 
East Greeuwitch, according unto which, as we conceive, notwithstanding 
the father's crime, yet the children are to possesse the estate." Mass. 
Bee, v., 199. 

I have thus shown that, whatever may be the estimate placed upon the 
proceedings of the authorities against alleged witches, the disgrace does 
not attach to them of having acted without warrant of law. In point 
of fact a popular devotion to law that was fanatical, was an influence 
second only to their fidelity to religious conviction, among the moving 
causes of the witch delusion. Palfrey, iv\, 130. 

Another error has been constantly repeated hi the statement that no 
lawyer was engaged in the proceedings. Gov. Washburn said there was 
not a lawyer concerned in the proceedings of the court. Judicial Hist., 
p. 145. And Mr. Chandler in his Criminal Trials followed the Governor 
somewhat literally. lie says — "it was a popular tribunal; there was 
not a lawyer concerned in its proceedings." Am. Grim. Trials, i,, 92. 
And again — "Neither is the common law, nor are its professors responsible 
for their mistaken proceedings. The special court of Oyer and Terminer 
was essentially a popular tribunal. There was not a regular lawyer 
concerned in its proceedings." lb., 137. Mr. Palfrey confirms this 
statement of the case : " there were no trained lawyers in the province." 
Mist. N. L\, iv., 120. And the statement has been generally accepted. 
But it, is not true. In the original constitution of the court — on Friday, 
the 27th May, 1092, Mr. Thomas Newton was appointed to officiate as at- 
torney for and on behalf of their Majesties at the special court of Oyer 
and Terminer. He took the oath before Stoughton, June 2, in open 
court at Salem, and continued to act until 26th July, when he was suc- 
ceeded in that service by Anthony Checkley, who had been previously 
employed in that office, and who continued in the same position for 
several years after the witchcraft trials had passed by. 

Newton was an Englishman by birth, bred a lawyer, and appears to 
have come to Boston in 1088, when he is noticed in a contemporary 
diary as a new-comer and sworn an attorney. Edward Randolph had 
represented to Mr. Bovey of the English Board of Trade a year or two 
before " the want of two or three honest attorneys, if [there be] .any 
such thing in nature," and Newton probably came under that encourage- 
ment. He was Attorney General in New York in 1091, and prosecuted 
Leisler, Milborne and others in the trials for high treason in that year — 


1882.] History of Witchcraft in Massachusetts. 171 

returning to Boston, however, very soon after those trials were over. 
It is a curious fact never before noticed which thus connects the 
judicial murders of Leisler and Milborne in New York, with those of the 
alleged witches at Salem. 

It is hardly less remarkable that a brother of the same Milborne, an 
Anabaptist minister who had been conspicuous in the proceedings 
against Andros and Randolph, and evidently one of the leaders of the 
popular party, was arrested and held to bail by the government of 
Phips, apparently because he had appealed to the Assembly against 
these very proceedings in the witchcraft cases. 1 

I have not time in this place to give details of the career of Newton as 

1 "June 25, 1092. There being laid before his Excellency and Council 
two papers directed unto the Assembly one of them subscribed by 
William Milborne of Boston, and several others, containing very high 
reflections upon the administration of public justice within this their 
Majesty's Province, the said William Milborne was sent for, and upon 
examination owned that the said papers were of his writing, and that 
he subscribed his name to one of them. 

"Ordered to be committed to prison or give bond of £200 with two 
sureties to appear at next Superior Court to answer for framing, con- 
triving, writing and publishing the said seditious and scandalous papers 
or writings, and in the meantime to be of good behaviour." Council 

The following document is evidently a part of the same proceedings : 

"To the Sheriff of the County of Suilblke. 
"By his Excellency the Govern r . 

" These are in their Ma liis name to will and require you forthwith to 
take into yo' custody the Body of William Milborne of Boston, and to 
cause him to make his appearance before inyselfe and Council to answer 
what shall bee objected against him on their Ma lilM behalf for writing, 
framing, contriving and Inhibiting under his hand, with the names of 
several others, a scandalous and seditious paper containing very high 
reflections upon their Ma 1 '^ Government of this their Ma lioa Province of 
. the Massachusetts Bay in New England. Inscribed to the Grave and 
Judicious Members of the General Court for the said Province. Hereof 
fail not and make Return of tins Precept with your doings therein. 
Given under my hand and seal at Boston the 25th of June, 1692. 

William Phips." 
Mass. Archives, cvi., 372. 

Edwaid Randolph, writing from the "Common Gaole" in Boston the 
29th of May, 1089, says : " Five Ministers of Boston, viz 1 . Moode, Allen, 
Young, Mather, Willard and Milborne, an Anabaptist Minister, were in 
the Council Chamber on the eighteenth of A prill when the Govern' 
[Andros] and inyselfe were brought out of the Fort before them, write- 
ing orders, and were authors of some of their printed papers." X. Y. 
Coll. MSti., iii., 582. And a letter of Colonel Bayard, from Albany, 23d 
September, 1(589, speaks of Jacob Milborne as a "brother to Milium 
the Anabaptist preacher," etc. lb., 021. See also Bullivant's Diary in 
Proc. M. 11. aS'., March, 187b. "The Northern! men, headed by Sir 
William Phips, Milbourne and Way, apply to the Deputies for the dis- 
charge of Turell and White in execution for a just debt," ete. 18 
March, 1089-90. 

172 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

a lawyer, but his obituary in the " Boston News Letter" of June, 1721, 
speaks of him as ''having" been for many years one of the chief lawyers 
of Boston." 

And here I may remark in passing that notwithstanding the extreme 
sensitiveness of Massachusetts writers of history on this subject — if Eng- 
lish law, English judges or English lawyers are to be taken as standards 
of comparison, I can see no necessity to apologize for those of Massa- 
chusetts in that day and generation. "Simeon and Levi are breth- 

The first conspicuous sign of recovery from this awful delusion and 
earliest public demonstration of the strong and certain reaction which 
had slowly set in, was the Fast of lG'JG-7. A proposition for a Fast and 
Convocation of Ministers had been made as early as October, 1692, but 
it did not receive the sanction of the Council. 

[Mass. Archives,] xi., 70. 

" Whereas it hath pleased the Most High out of Sovereign and holy 
will, in this Day of Tryall and Adversity, to Exercise his people with 
sore trouble arid Affliction in divers Respects ; more Especially in per- 
mitting the Grand Enemy of Mankind to prevaile so far, with great 
Kage, and Serpentine Subtilty ; whereby severall persons have been 
Seduced, and drawn away into that horrid and most Detestable sin of 
Witchcraft; to the great vexation, and Amazeing affliction of many per- 
sons w •'' is Notoriously known beyond Expression; And That for the 
Due derserved punishment of the Nocent, clearing the Reputation, &. 
persons of the Inocent, and by Divine Assistance i 11 the use of meanes 
to prevent the farther progress and prevailence of those Satamcali, 
Delutions; a Speciall Comission hath been granted to Certaine Gen- 
tlemen of the Council, and thereby a Court Errected by those persons of 
known Integrity, faithfullness and (according to man) Sutliciency who 
have Strenuously Endeavored to Discharge their Duty to the utmost of 
their Power for the finding, out and Exterpation of that Diabollicall 
Evill : so much prevaileing amongst us, But finding (Notwithstanding the 
Indefatigable Endeavors of those Worthy Gentlemen with others to 
Suppress that Crying Enormity) the most Astonishing Augmentation 
and Increase of the Number of Persons Accused, by those Afflicted: 
many of whom (according to the Judgment of Charity) being persons 
of good Conversation Godliness and honiesty ; And on the Other hand 
severall persons have Come and Accused themselves before Authority, 
and by many Circumances, confessed themselves Guilty of that most 
abominable Wickedness ; with divers Other Strang & Unaccountable 
Occurrances of this Nature through the Rage and malice of Sathan. great- 
ly threatening the utter Ruine and Distinction of this poor Country; if 
the Lord in his Tender Mercy, doth not Wonderfully Appear for y Sal- 
vation of his People : by Expelling those Dismal! Clouds of Darkness, 
and Discovering the wiles of the Devil, and that mistry of Iniquity that 
doth so much abound; and by Ills Gracious guidance, and Divine assist- 
ance; Direct his people in the Right way, that those That are guilty 
may be found out, and brought to Condigne punishment, the Inocent 
may be Cleared, and our feares and troubles Removed. 

"To vv 1 ' End, it is humbly Proposed by the Representatives now 
Assembled, That a Geuerall Day of llumilliation may be Appointed, 
Sollemnly to Seek the Lord and to Implore his Ayd. That he would be 
graeiously pleased to Shew unto his people What they Ought to doe at 


18.82.] History of Witchcraft in Massachusetts. 173 

such a time as this; And that A Convocation of the Elders may be 
called who with the Hon 1 ' 1 ' Council and Other persons, (whom they in 
their wisdoms shall deem meet) may Seriously Consider the Premisses; 
and make Inspection into these Intricacies humbly Enquiring that they 
may Know the mind of God in this Difficult Case ; That so if it be his 
Blessed Will, all dissatisfaction may be Removed, peace, love, and 
Unity may be increased and Continued amongst ns, and that y Gracious 
Presence of Our Blessed God may Remaine with us. 

" Octob 1 : 26 : 92 : This Bill read a first second & third time in y° house 
of Representatives & voted passed in y Affirmative & Sent to his 
Excellency the Gouerno' & Councill, for Consent. 

William Bond., Speaker. 

"Endorsed. Read once since returned by y° Committe. Motion for 
a Convocation 1692." 

Chief Justice Se wall's entry in his diary of this date throws some 
light on this Bill: 

" Oct. 26, 1(592. A Bill is sent in about calling a Fast, and Convoca- 
tion of Ministers, that may be led in the right way as to the Witchcrafts. 
The reason and mailer of doing it, is such, that the Court of Oyer and 
Terminer count themselves thereby dismissed. 29 Nos ami 33 yeas to 
the Bill. Capt. Bradstreet and Lieut. True, Wm. Iluchins and several 
other interested persons there, in the affirmative." 

Hutchinson tells us that: — "The winter of 1G96 was as cold as had 
been known from the first arrival of the English; slays and loaded sleds 
passing great part of the time upon the ice from Boston as far as 
Nantasket. Greater losses in the trade had never been known than 
what were met with in this year; nor was there, at any time after the 
first year, so great a scarcity of food; nor was grain ever at a higher 
price." History of Mass., II., 104, note. 

The province had long languished under a war with the French and 
Indians, by which the estates of the people were much exhausted and 
many led into captivity or slain. Their trade had decayed and their 
population diminished by emigration to other colonies l<ss exposed to 
the calamities of war and the burdens of taxation which it imposes. 
Information of all these disastrous events was the burden of letters to 
England towards the end of the year 169(5. 

Under these circumstances a Committee of Religion was chosen by 
the House of Representatives of Massachusetts in which some of the 
clergy of the neighborhood were joined with the deputies, who prepared 
a Declaration enumerating Sundry Evills to be confessed on a Publick 
Day of Humiliation therein proposed. This is "the Declaration as 
drawn by the Deputies, with the assistance of the Ministers, but received 
a Non concurrence," referred to by Robert Calef in his " More Wonders," 
in his letter to the Ministers, Jan. 12, 1696. 

The document is still extant, though unpublished, in the handwriting 
of Cotton Mather — and is eminently characteristic of the man and the 

174 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

times. I will read from it only the passage which refers directly to the 
Salem tragedies : 

[From Mass. Archives, xi., 120.] 

" Inasmuch as the Holy God, hath been, by Terrible and Various 
Dispensations of Mis Providence for many sevens of Years Together, 
most Evidently Testifying His Displeasure against us; and these 
Humbling Dispensations of Heaven have proceeded from One Degree of 
Calamity upon us to another, Wherein God hath vexed us with all 
Adversity, until at last the Symptoms of an Extreme Desolation 
Threaten us : A More than Ordinary Humiliation of this whole people, 
accompanied with fervent Supplications, and thorough Reformations, 
must bee acknowledged Necessary, to prepare us for o' Deliverance, 
from o' most unhappy circumstances. 

" Tis to bee Confessed, and it hath been often Confessed, That, the 
people of this land in a long Increasing Apostasy from that Religious 
Disposition, that signalized the first planting of these Colonies, and 
from y very Errand unto this wilderness, have with multiplied provoca- 
tions to the Almighty, sinned exceedingly. 

" The Spirit of 7'his World hath brought almost an Epidemicall Death 
upon y spirit of serious, and powerful Religion. 

" The Glorious Gospel of the Lord Jesus Christ, here enjoy'd with 
much plenty as well as purity, hath not been Thankfully, and Fruitfully, 
Entertained, by those who have been Blessed with the Joyful Sound. 

"The Covenant of Grace, recognized in o l Churches hath been by 
multitudes not submitted unto; and of them that have made a profession 
of submission unto it, very many have not walked according to the 
sacred obligations thereby laid upon them. 

"A Flood of Excessive Drinking, w"' Incentives thereto hath begun u; 
overwhelm Good Order, in some Townes & Even to Drown civilitie 

"Some English, by selling of Strong Drink unto Indians, have not 
only prejudiced the Designs of Christianitie, but also been the faulty 
and Bloody occasions of Death among them. 

" The most unreasonable Impieties of Rash and vain Swearing, with 
Hellish Cursing, on the mouths of some, have rendered them Guilty 

" A Vanity in Apparrel, hath been affected by many, whose Glory 
hath bin their Shame. 

•'The Lords-Day, hath toeen disturbed, with so many profanations, 
that wee may not wonder, if the land see no Best. 

" The Woful Decay of all Good Family Discipline hath opened the 
Flood-gates for evils Innumerable, & almost Irremediable. 

" Wicked Sokcekiks have been practised in the land; and, in the late 
inexplicable storms from the Invisible world thereby brought upon us, wee 
were left, by the Just Hand of Heaven unto those Errors whereby Great 
Hardships were brought upon Innocent persons, and (wee fearej Guilt 
incurred, which wee have all cause to Bewayl, with much confusion of o r Face 
before the Lord. 

"It is commonly and credibly Reported, That some, who have 
belonged unto this country, have committed very Detestable Pyracies 
in other parts of this world. 

"The Sins of Uucleanness in many, & y 1 ' Grossest Instances, have 
Defied the land. 

"The Joy of Harvest hath too much forgotten y Glad Service of 
God. when Hee hath given us, an Abundance of all Things. 

1882.] History of Witchcraft in Massachusetts. 175 

" Much Fraud hath been used in the Dealings of many, and mutual 
and multiplied Oppressions, have made a cry. 

"Magistrates, Ministers, and others that have served the publick have 
been great Sufferers by their services, and mett with Unrighteous 
Discouragements. 1 

[V Irreverence to Superiors in age & authority & disobedience to 
parents Is too frequent among us. Parents not keeping up their 
authority in their families, Neglects in the Administration of Justice 
impartially and duly in Courts of Justice is too Obvious in this Land. 
Voted, lOt' 1 I)ec ,,r .p 

"Falsehood and Slander, hath been continually carrying of Darts thro' 
y Land. 

"And the successive and Amazing Judgments of God, which have 
come upon us for such things as these, have not Reclaimed us, but wee 
have gone on still in o 1 Iniquities. 

"For these Causes this whole people is Admonished now to Jumble 
themselves before the Lord with Repeted Acts of Repentance; and 
particularly, To this purpose, It is Ordered, That Thursday be kept 

as a Day of HUMILIATION, by prayer with FASTING, before the God 
of Heaven, in the several Congregations throughout this province; and 
all Servile labor on y Day is hereby Inhibited : That so wee may obtain, 
thro' the Blood of the Lord JESUS CHRIST, the Pardon, both of these 
Iniquities and of whatever other secret sins the Lord may have sett in the 
Light of His Countenance. And, that wee may Implore y° Effusions of 
y l Spirit of Grace from on High, upon all ranks of men, and especially 
upon the Rising Generation, whereby o r Turn to God, y u Fire of whose 
wrath is dreadfully consuming o' young men, may bee accomplished. 

" And it is hereby further signified, That it is hoped, the pastors of the 
churches, will, in their several charges, by private as well as public 
Applications, Endeavour to prevent all Growth of Sin, as they may 
discern it, in their Vicinities : and y churches join with their pastors 
in sharpening the Ecclesiastical Discipline against the Scandals that may 
arise among them. 

"And all Civil Officers are hereby likewise called upon Vigorously to 
pursue y execution of y lawes, from Time to Time, Enacted against 
all Immoralities ; and in their several places, as well to make Diligent 
Enquiries and Impartial presentments of all offences against y said lawes 
as to Dispense Justice equally, for no cause forbearing to do their o//ice, 
according to the Oath of (rod, \v h is upon them, and unto this end, 
frequently to have their consultations in their several precincts, what 
mag bee done by them to suppress any common evils. 

" Finally, All persons are hereby advised seriously to pursue the 
Designs of a general Conversion unto God, as y best expedient for y e 
encouragement of o 1 Hopes, That Hee who hath shown us great & sore 
Troubles may Revive us; and not leave us to perish in the convulsions 
which are now shaking a miserable World. 

"In the House of Representatives. Read 10"' Deceiub". 1696 — a first 
and second time. Voted, and sent up for Concurrance. 

Pknn TOWNSKND Speaker. 

"Voted. That the aforesaid Declaration be published in the respec- 

'Compare Calef : More Wonders of the Invisible World, p. 92. 

2 This passage in brackets was the " Streamer," etc. referred to by 
Chief Justice Sewall in his Diary, as having been added to the original 
" Bill " — not the passage quoted in Sewall Papers, i., 439 note. 


176 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

tive Congregations within the province by the Ministers therein, and 
further That a proclamation issue from this Court requiring all Justices 
Constables Grand jury men Tyihinginen, and all other civil oilieers to 
be faithful in the Execution of their respective oiiiees ; And That the 
Laws setting forth the dutys of the Respective oilieers afores 1 ' be 
collected and inserted in the body of s ,! proclamation. And that tive 
hundred of s 1 Laws and of the s' 1 Declarations be printed. 

Penn Townsend Speaker. 

Dec. 11. 1696. Head in Council and Voted a non-concurrance. 

Is" Addingtox Sec'ry. 

This Bill, as it was called, on being sent to the Council, met with a 
prompt negative — the latter body decidedly resenting the movement by 
the House as an invasion of their prerogative. But alter a sharp 
controversy between the two houses — another document much shorter, 
originating with the Council, and drawn up by Samuel Sewall, who had 
been one of the Judges in the Witch Trials — was duly passed — in which 
a solemn Fast was appointed for the 14th January, 1697.' 

This paper has been printed and is doubtless familiar to you all. I 
will not read it here — but I will not hesitate to repeat my humble tribute 
of admiration for the character of its author. It was at this Fast that 
•Chief Justice Sewall made his public confession of fault and repentance for 
his part in that bloody Assize of Witches at Salem — a signal example of 
the genuine old Puritan — a brilliant instance of that magnanimity which 
submits to just reproof without resentment, and that higher grace which 
is at once the sign and the blessing of repentance — that real Christian 
courage which could humiliate itself by confession. 

Samuel Sewall's voluntary confession before God and men of his sin 
in that thing, ought to be cherished as one of the most precious memo- 
rials of the history of Massachusetts. That solemn sad figure, handing 
the confession to his minister "as he passed by" in the meeting-house, 
" and standing up at the reading of it, and bowing when finished ; in the 
afternoon" of that winter's day, is to me personally more beautiful and 
glorious than all the heroes of the Magnalia. 

[Mass. Archives, xi., 122. J 

"By the Hon 1 ' 1, the L 1 . Gov 1 . Council & Assembly of his Maj'>' Prov- 
ince of y Massachusetts Bay in General Court Assembled. 

'Dec. 11. 1690. A -Declaration containing Several Articles of Con- 
fession and Appointment of a Day of Publick Fast sent up from the 
House of Representatives with their vote thereon, and that a Procla- 
mation be issued to excite oilieers to their duty, was read, and Voted in 
the negative. 

A Bill for appointing a Public Fast upon Thursday the 14th of January 
next, was Drawn up and voted and sent down. Council liecords, p. 

1882. J History of Witchcraft in Massachusetts, 


Whereas the Anger of God is not yet turned away, but his Hand is still 
stretched out against his people, in manifold Judgments; particularly in 
drawing out to such a length the Troubles of Europe, by a perplexing 
War. And more especially, respecting ourselves in this Province, in 
that God is pleased still, to go on in diminishing our Substance, cutting 
short , our Harvest; blasting our most promising Undertakings ; more ways 
than one, Unsettling of us ; and by his more immediate Hand, snatching 
away many out of our Embraces by suddain & violent deaths; even at 
this time, when the Sword is devouring so many; both at home and 
abroad; and that after many Days of publick and Solemn addressing 
of Him. And altho, considering the many sins prevailing in the 
midst of us, we cannot but wonder at the Patience and Mercy modera- 
ting these Rebukes; yet we canot but also fear, that there's something 
still wanting to accompany our Supinations. And doubtless, there are 
some particular Sins, which God is angry with our Israel for, that have 
not been duely seen and resented by us, about which God expects to be 
sought, if ever He turn again our Captivity. 

" Wherefore its comand' 1 & Apoi't 1 that Thursday the Four- 
teenth of January next be observed as a Day of Prayer with Fasting 
throughout this Province; strictly forbidding all Servile Labour thereon. 
That so all God's people may offer up fervent Supplications unto him 
for y i preservation and prosperity of his Maj l >' s Royal person and Gov- 
ernm' and success to attend his Affaires both at home & abroad 
That all Iniquity may be taken away, which hath stirred God's holy 
Jealousie against this Laud; that he would shew us what we know not, 
and help us wherein we have done amiss, to doe so no more : And 
especially, that whatever Mistakes, on either hand, have been fallen 
into, either by the body of this People, or any Orders of Men, referring 
to ihe late Tragedie raised amongst us by Satan and his Instruments, 
through the awfull Judgment of God; He would humble us therefore, 
and pardon all the Errors of his Servants and People that desire to Love 
his Name, and be attoned to His Land. That he would remove the 
Rod of the Wicked from off the Lot of the Righteous; That He Would 
bring the American Heathen, and cause them to hear and obey his voice. 

Dec. 11° 1G9G. Voted in Council and sent down for Concurrance. 

Is". Addinoton, Sec'rtj. 

Decemb 1 17"' 1G96. Voted a Concurrance, 

Penn Townsend, Speaker. 
I Consent. 

W"'. Stougiiton. 

Endorsed: Bill for a Fast Vot' 1 Dec" 11° 1696. 

When this Bill was first sent down to the House, on the 11th Decem- 
ber, 1G96, a non-concurrence was promptly voted. The Diary of Chief 
Justice Sewall throws some light upon the details of the business, in 
which he says : " I doe not know that ever I saw the Council run upon 
with such a height of Rage before." Sewall Papers, i., 441. The 
following document belongs to this controversy between the two houses 
to which allusion has been made. 

[Mass. Archives, xi., 122.] 

Dec r 1G96, In the House of Representatives. Resolved, 4t That y" 
freedom of speech to debate, so to resolve ct vote upon a free debate of 


178 American Antiquarian Society . [Oct. 

any mutters for the publick good of the Province without Consulting, 
advising or asking direction from the Hoh 0,,le Board Above is the 
Undoubted Right & Priviledge of this House. 

Voted, That seeing the Minits of Council are from time to time to be 
l;i id before Ins Majesty and Council at home, for the preventing any 
Inconvenieucy to the; Hon' 1,1, Board above, This house shall not be 
Unwilling (always saving the priviledge of this House) to propose and 
concert by Message such things as shall be thought necessary in Pru- 
dence by this house, before they are brought to a vote. 

That in y late choice of a Comittee of Religion by this house y 
receiving their Report in y Bill conteining an Enumeration of Sundry 
Evills to be Confessed on a Publick day of humiliation therein pposed 
to be ordered & appointed, & voting said Bill in this house and sending 
it up to y° lion' 1 ' Council for their concurr. Tins House 

Protests, That these things were not transacted w lh any designe 
to derogate from y Preheminence of that hon ,ble Board, or to cast any 
disrespect thereon. 

That in voting a non-concurrence to y Bill for a fast sent down to 
this house from y Council, This house did not out of any hum 1 of 
Vyeing w"' that lion' 1,1. Board vote a non-concurrance. 

Proposed, That Both Bills for a fast, upon w 1, the late debates have 
been, may be comited to y Reverend Elders of this Town, and that out 
of both they be desired to draw a Bill for a fast and lay the same before 
the Court. 

Decemb' : 15 th 16«J6. Read a lirst and Second time. 
(Endorsed) Resolve Vote, &''. 

A careful scrutiny of the original manuscript of the bill adopted re- 
vealed its history. When first sent down from the Council, it was 
immediately underwritten "Decemb' 11th VotedaNonConcurrance. Penn 
Townsend, Speaker." After the matter was composed, the "11th" was 
altered to "17th" and the "Non" stricken out. 

I have still one more error to point out in the history of Witchcraft in 

Massachusetts. The statement has been constantly repeated, hitherto 
without correction, that some years after these melancholy trials, the 
■General Court of Massachusetts passed an act reversing "the several 
convictions, judgments and attainders against the persons executed and 
several who were condemned, but not executed." An act of this sort has 
actually been printed and has found place and authority among recog- 
nized materials of history: but no such act ever became a law. 1 A 

1 The act referred to has not only been quoted as authority 
(Urn am, ii., 465, 479;, but published at large in the Becords of Salem 
Witchcraft, vol. ii., pp. 216-18. Mr. Chandler says: "a law was 
made reversing the attainders of those convicted, and making a grant 
for and in consideration of the losses sustained." Am. Crim. Trials, i., 
135. Mr. Poole says: " October 17, 1711, the General Court passed an 
act reversing 'the several convictions, judgments and attainders against 
the' persons executed, and several who were condemned but not 
executed, and declaring that [them] to be null and void." Witch- 
craft Delusion, etc. page 43, note 57, and again, in Memorial History of 

188*2.] I Ustory of Witchcraft in Massachusetts. 


private act of a similar character was passed in 1703, with reference to 
three of the surviving sufferers; and a few years later — sundry appropri- 
ations were made from the public treasury in aid of families who had 
been ruined by this storm; but none were adequate to the occasion— all 
were scanty and insufficient: and although the subject was revived from 
time to time during the next half-century, nothing else was done. 1 

It has not been my purpose, in the small collection of historical notes 
which I have thus had the honor to submit to you, to repeat the often 
told story of the Salem Witchcraft, or to recall any of the gloomy scenes 
of suspicion, persecution, prosecution, imprisonment, torture and death; 
which still glare out from the history of that period like flames from the 
pit. The main facts are familiar and they will uever be forgotten. 

Nothing could be more dramatic, full of interest, marked characters 
and striking situations. Strong as the impression of those scenes must 
have been on those who lived at the time, no events of American Colo- 
nial History have more earnestly engaged the attention of men in later 
years : and while the events themselves can hardly be said to have been 
viewed in opposite lights, the characters of those who were actors in 
them have furnished themes of lasting controversy. 

Permit me to introduce here an illustration of this — in extracts from 
two writers both eminent and both belonging to Massachusetts. 

"Next to the fugitives whom Moses led out of Egypt, the little ship- 
load of outcasts who landed at Ply mouth two centuries and a half ago 
are destined to influence the future of the world." This statement is the 
key-note of a comparatively recent and sympathetic essay on "New 
England two Centuries ago," by James Russell Lowell. I quote it here 
simply as an introduction to the same writer's summary of affairs in the 
latter part of the seventeenth century, when the Witchcraft Delusions 
of that generation culminated in the Salem tragedies. Mr. Lowell 
says : "Till 1G00 the Colony was ruled and mostly inhabited by English- 
men closely connected with the party dominant in the mother country, 
and with their minds broadened by having to deal with questions of 
state and European policy. After that time they sank rapidly into 
provincials, narrow in thought, in culture, in creed. Such a pedantic 
portent as Cotton Mather, would have been impossible in the first 
generation; he was the natural growth of the third, — the manifest judg- 

Boston, ii.,172: "Twenty years afterwards, when the General Court 
reversed the attainders of "the persons executed in 1G92," etc. Mr. 
Palfkey says: "Twenty years after, the General Court annulled the 
convictions and attainders, etc." Hist. iV. E., iv., 117. And in another 
place: "All the attainders, twenty-two in number, were reversed, etc." 

Mr. Sibley says: "The General Court, 17 October, 1710, passed an 
act that 'the several convictions, judgments and attainders be, and 
hereby are, reversed and declared to be null and void.'" Haw. Urad., ii., 
433. (Printed Dec. 17, 1880, and published since 30 May, 1881.) Other 
eminent authorities might be cited, but perhaps these will suffice. 

1 See Appendix— -post. 


180 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

incut of God on a generation who thought »« Words a saving- substitute 
for Things." 

From this picture of the younger Mather, turn to that of the elder, 
drawn by another hand, but not less true to the traditions in which it 
was trained. 

Prof. Enoch Pond, in the " Lives of the Chief Fathers of New 
England," writing of the Father of Cotton Matjier, says : 

" Among the stars in the right hand of the great Head of the Church, 
which glittered upon the Golden Candlesticks of primitive; New Rug- 
land, none have shone with a brighter and more attractive lustre than 
Increase Mather." 

These views of the personal character of the Mathers, to whom history 
has assigned so conspicuous a place in the picture of Witchcraft in 
Massachusetts, furnish an illustration of the differences which still 
pervade the discussions of scholars concerning the period of which I 
have spoken. 

The extreme facility of belief that was displayed by these eminent 
men even in matters that were not deemed supernatural, can only be 
realized by those who have an intimate acquaintance with their works. 1 
Of this, as well the general historical question whether the tendencies of 
the age, the general spiritual movement and agitation of opinion in 
Massachusetts, had produced an exceptional amount of credulity during 
the half century or more before the occurrences at Salem in 1G ( J2— it is 
no pari of my present purpose to enter into discussion. 

Out of differences such as those to which I have alluded and the 
collision of critical judgments respecting men and events, the truth of 
history is ultimately to be developed. 

But as it is the essence, of history to be true, the judicious student of 
its records will always be justified in every faithful attempt to correct 
errors, and to apply the strict principles of historical criticism to every 
doubtful passage. Doubtless there may be some to whose minds (as 
Lord Bacon happily expressed it) "the mixture of a lie doth ever add 
pleasure." " It is not only the dilliculty and labour which men take in 
finding out of truth; nor again that when it is found, it imposeth upon 
men's thoughts, that doth bring lies in favour; but a naturall, though 
corrupt love of the lie itself." But such as these do not belong to the 
School of History in our day. "There is nothing more modern than the 
critical spirit which dwells upon the difference between the minds of 

'Both the Mathers were ambitious of distinction as authorities on the 
subject of witchcraft, and proud of the recognition of Baxter and others. 
See the letter of Cradock to Increase Mather in the postcript to Cases of 
.Conscience, London: 1GD0. I have myself read in the handwriting of 
Cotton Mather his own record of an interview with an angel of God. It 
was written in Latin in one of his Diaries with the following remarkable 
marginal note, giving the reason for his veiling it in the obscurity of a 
learned language — " IIwc scriho Latiue, ne chara mea conjux, lias chartas 
aliquando inspiciens, inleUigat "I 

1882.] IBM r.j of Witchcraft in JlassticAu* ; 

sen in one age and another; which eodearonrs lo make each age iu 
own interpreter, and judge what U did or produced bj a relative 

Manj are the errors produced bj the want of this historical feeling 
and leading to an entire misunderstanding of the nature of tv 

-•' -■•-■--'--;•?.--- . . : :. . »:; . _,- .;..-;, 

endeavor to scrutinize the motives of the chief actors, the natural 

leaders of the people and councillors of the eorenimm • *~a e* t- - 

fur u> who read the history of thai day in the light of the- 

followed it, to perceive that theae sen erred: bat we >ho< 

before judging the actor> of \di a* we would iadfe oar r - 


182 Apierican Antiqituricm Society. [Oct 


Anno K R» Ann.e Anglie &c. Skclindo. 

Province of the 
Massacii nsetts Bay. 

An Act for J j s r reversing the 

Attainder of Abigail) " • ' (Faulkneh & others. 

Whereas Abigail Faulkner, wile of Francis Faulkner of Anclover in 
the County of Essex, Sarah Wardel Wife of Samuel Wardel of the same 
place, Elizabeth Procter, Wife of John Procter of Salem Village within 
the said County. In the Court of Oyer and Terminer and Goal Delivery 
holden at Salem Village within the said County of Essex in the year One 
Thousand Six hundred ninety two, were arraigned convicted and 
attainted of Felony for practising Witchcraft, who have now humbly 
petitioned this Court, That the said Attainders may be set aside and 
made void. — 

Wherefore be it Declared & Enacted by liis Excellency the Governour 
Council and Representatives in General Court Assembled, and by the 
Authority of the same, — 

That the said Several convictions, Judgements and Attainders of the 
said Abigail Faulkner, Sarah Wardel, Elizabeth Procter and every of 
them be, and are repealed, reversed, made and declared null and void to 
all intents, constructions and purposes whatsoever; as if no such 
convictions, Judgements or Attainders had ever been had or given. 
And that no Corruption of blood, pains, penalties or Forfeitures of 
Goods or Chattels be by the said convictions and Attainders or any of 
them incurred. But that the said persons and every of them be and 
hereby are reinstated in their just Credit and reputation Any Law, 
usage or custom to the contrary notwithstanding 

Boston July the 26 th 1703. This Bill haveing been read three several 
times in the House of Representatives— Pass'd to be Enacted 

Jam\ Converse Speaker,— 

This Bill having been read three several times in Council, Pass'd to be 
Enacted July 27 th Is". Addington Sec'ry.— 

Die predict. By his Excellency the Governour 

I Consent to the Enacting of this Bill 

J. Dudley. 

The foregoing act had a curious history, which will appear in part 
from the document which follows — reproduced from the original. 

1882.] History of Witchcraft in Massachusetts. 183 

[Mass. Archives, cxxxv., 122-123.] 
In the House of Representatives, July 20th, 1703 

In answer to the petitions of Abigail Faulkner, and sundry of the 
Inhabitants of Andover, in the S$half of sundry persons in and late of s' 1 
Town, & elsewhere, who in the year 1692 were Indicted, accused, and 
Condemned, & many of them executed for the crime of Felany by witch- 
craft. And whereas it is Conceived by many worthy and pious Persons 
that the Evidence given against [many of] the s* 1 Condemned persons 
was weak and insufficient, as to Taking away the liv s of sundry so 
condemned, &e." Wherefore it is thought meet and it is hereby 

Ordered, That a Bill be drawn up for Preventing the like Procedure 
for the future, and that no Spectre Evidence may be hereafter accounted 
valid, or sufficient to take away the life or good name of any Person or 
Persons within this Province, and that the Infamy, and Reproach, cast 
on the names, and Posterity of the s' 1 accused, and condemned Persons 
may in some measure be Roll'd away. 

Sent up for concurrence 

Jam 8 . Converse, Speaker. 

(Endorsed) Order for bringing in a bill to reverse the attainder of 
Abig :l . Faulkner, &c" of witchcraft. 

The document thus sent to the Council did not receive its sanction 
■without some modifications. The words " many of" inserted above in 
brackets appear as an addition to the original written in the margin by 
the Secretary of the Council — Addington : and instead of the resolution 
'* ordered" etc in the paper as it emanated from the House, the follow- 
ing was substituted, appealing in the handwriting of Governor Dudley 
himself, on a separate paper, viz. : 

Ordered, " That a bill be brought in to acquit Mary (sic) Falkner and 
the other present petitioners severally of the penaltys to which they are 
lyable upon the said Convictions and Judgments in the said Courts and 
Estate them in their just Credit and reputation as if no such Judgment 
had been had. # 

" In Council, July 21"', 1703, agreed to. Die pdict. Agreed to." 

The records indicate that this action originated with the Council, but 
this document shows that it was founded on the previous motion of the 
House. The latter branch agreed to the order of the Council on the 
same day, 21 July, 1703, and the bill was read a first and second time 
on the 22d, and on the 23d a third time and passed and sent down for 
concurrence. On the 27th, the Engrossed Bill for reversing the 
Attainders, &' . passed in the House of Representatives, was read and 
agreed to be enacted. Gouncil Records. 

This private act was the only law of the kind which can be found in 
all the legislation of Massachusetts. 

A few years later, the "cry of the oppressed" seems to have reached 
the ears of those in authority. Numerous petitions were sent in and in 
a sermon before the General Assembly, Nov. 3d, 1709, Cotton Mather 
himself delivered the following remarkable utterances: 


bnerican Antiquarian Society. 


lk In two or three too Memorable Days of Temptation that have been 
upon us, there have been Errors committed. You are always ready to 
Declare unto all the World, That you Disapprove those Errors. You are 
willing to inform all Mankind with your DECLARATIONS : 

That no man may be Persecuted, because he is Conscientiously not of the 
same Religious Opinions, with those that'ttre uppermost. 

And; That Persons are not to be jltdg'd confederates with Evil Spirits, 
meerly because the Evil Spirits do make Possessed People cry out upon them. 

Could any thing be proposed further, by way of Separation, [Besides 
the General Day of Humiliation, which was appointed and observed 
thro' the Province, to bewayl the Errors of our Dark time, some years 
ago:] You would be willing to hearken to it." 

The following document shows what was done, in the following year r 

[Mass. Archives: exxxv. 1G9.] 
To 'tf HonTd Gen, 11 Court Sitting. 

We whose names are subscribed, In Obedience to yo 1 Hon 13 Act at 
a Court, held y vlt of May 1710: for our Inserting y Names of y e 
seuerall psons who were Condemned for witchcraft in y year 1692. & 
of y damages they susteined by their prosecution. 

Being mett at Salem y 13"' Sep 1 . 1710. for y Ends aforesaid upon 
Examination of y Records of y seuerall psons Condemned: Humbly 
otter to yo 1 Hon rs . the Names as Follow to be Inserted for y B Reuersing 
of their Attainders : 

T S T 

Elizabeth How; Georg Jacob, Mary Easty, Mary 

A W S 

Parker, M l George Burroughs : Giles Core & his wife. 

s s s A 

Rebeccah Nurse. John Willard. Sarah Good. Martha Car- 


rier, Samuell Warded. John Procter: Sarah Wild 

s AT 

M' s Mary Bradbury. Abigail Falknor. Abigail Hobs. 

A aba 

Ami Foster. Rebeccah Earns, Dorcas Hoar. Mary Post 


Mary Lacey. 1 

Condemned & 
not Executed 

And haueing heard y" Seuerall Demaunds of y e Damages of y e afores 11 
psons & those in their behalf, & upon Conference haue soe Moderated 
their Respectiue demaunds y l we doubt not but y' they will be Readily 
Comply' 1 w lh by yo r Horns which Respectiue demaunds are as follow. 
Elizabeth How 12£ Georg Jacob'. 79£. Mary Easty. 20£. Mary Parker. 
8£. M r Georg Burroughs. 50£. Giles Core. & Martha Core his wife 
21£ Rebeccah Nurse 25£. John Willard 20£. Sarah Good. 30£ Martha 
Carrier. 7£ Gs. Samuell Wardell & Sarah his wife 36£ 15 s . John Procter, 
& Procter his wife 150£ Sarah Wild. 1I£. M 1S Mary Bradbury, 

20£ Abigail Ealkner 20£ Abigail Hobs. 10£. Ann Poster. 6£. 10 s . Rebecca 

'The letters above lines appear to refer to towns where the persons 
belonged: T, Topsfield ; S, Salem, and one Salisbury; A, Andover; 
W, Wells; B, Beverly. 

•1882.] History of Witchcraft in Massachusetts. 185 

Earns. 10£ Dorcas Hoar, 21 £ 17 6 . Mary Post. 8£ 14*. Mary Lacey. 8£ 10 1 
the whole amounting unto. 578 £ 12 H 

Yo' Hdu's most Humble Serv 1 * 

John Aprleton 
^0 Thomas Noyes 

John Burrill 
Neii : Jkwett 

Octo'. 23: 1711 Read, and accepted in the House of 
Representatives Sent up for Concurrence 

John Burrill Speaker 

Oct" 2G, 1711 

In Council Read and Concurred 

Is" : Addington Secr'y 

[On same paper, but stricken out.] 

Y 1 Acco'ofyo 1 Seruants. Charges £ 

3 dayes a peic ou' seines & horses 4.0.0 

Entertainment at Salem, M' Pratts: 1-3-0 

Majo r Sewals attendance & sending notifications to all con- 
cerned 1-0-0 


From this document it appears that a Committee was appointed early 
in 1710 on the subject. They met at Salem in September of that year 
and concluded their labors alter a session of three clays. Their report 
was not made to the same General Court by which they were appointed, 
but that of the next political year; when it was read and accepted in the 
House of Representatives, sent up and concurred in by the Council. No 
law was enacted in either of those years in accordance with the ideas 
suggested, and although some payments of money appear to have been 
made to various parties interested — it will hardly be maintained that 
judgments of attainder could be reversed by the simple acceptance of 
the report of a Committee by any legislative body or bodies whatever. 

The subsequent action of the legislature is indicated by the following 
collections from their journals which I have made with great care. 

Legislative Proceedings, etc. 

1717. 20 June. A Petition of -Philip English of Salem, praying Consid- 
eration and allowance for a great part of his Estate, taken from him (as 
was said) by lawful authority in the late sorrowful time of the Witch- 
craft. Sent down from the Board. Read there. Read. 
. 1717. 20 November. A Petition of Philip English, praying as entered 
the 20"' of June last, Read again, and Ordered, That Mr. Speaker IUirril, 

186 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

Mr. Isaiah Tay and Jonathan Remington, Esqrs; with such as the 
Honourable Board shall appoint, be a Committee to consider of the said 
Petition and all the Papers relating thereto, and report what they think 
proper to be done in answer thereto, to this Court at their next Session. 
Sent up for Concurrence. 

1718. 7"' February. The Petition of Philip English which was pass'd 
upon in this House the 20th of November las,*7 J Sent down from the 
Board pass'd on there, viz : In Council, Feb. 7, 1717. Ordered, That the 
Committee be continued, and that they make report as above at the 
Session of this Court in May next. Sent down for Concurrence. Read 
and Concurred. 

1718. July 3. The Petition of Philip English pass'd upon in this House 
the 7" 1 of February last. Sent down from the Board pass'd on there, 
viz: In Council, July 3, 1718. Ordered that the Committee on this 
Petition be continued, and that they make Report to this Court at their 
Session in Autumn next. Sent down for Concurrence. Bead and Con- 

1718. November 8. The Report of the Committee of both Houses, 
continued the 3' 1 of July last, on the Petition of Philip English. Sent 
down from the Board pass'd on there, and is as follows, viz. In obedi- 
ence to the Order within mentioned, having had several Meetings on the 
Affair at which the Petitioner, and sundry Evidences hare given their 
Attendance, & were heard & Examined, and the Petition, & the Papers 
relating thereto with the Representation of the Damage & Loss being 
duly consider'd, the Committee are humbly of Opinion, It is reasonable 
upon the whole that the Petitioner be allowed & paid out of the Publick 
Treasury Two Hundred Pounds in lull Satisfaction for what he may 
have sustained and suffered as set forth in his Petition, Account & 
Papers, which is humbly submitted by Thomas Pitch per Order of the 
Committee. In Council, Novemb. 8th, 1718. Read & Accepted. Sent 
down for Concurrence. 

1718. November 10. The Beport of the Committee on the Petition of 
Philip English, entered the 8"' Currant. Bead again. And Voted a 
Concurrence with the Board thereon. 

1718. November 11. An Accompt of the Expenses of the Committee 
on Mr. Philip English's Affair, amounting to l 1 12 s 2' 1 laid before the 
House for allowance. 

Resolved, that the Sum of Thirty Two Shillings and Two Pence be 
allowed and paid out of the Publick Treasury, to the Honourable Thomas 
Filch, Esq; Chair-man of tin? said Committee, to Discharge the said 
Accompt. Sent up for Concurrence. 

June 27. 1723. '• A Petition of Thomas Rich of Salem, only Surviving 
Child of Martha Corey, alias Martha Rich of Salem deceased, praying the 
Compassionate Consideration and Commisseration of this Court for the 
great Losses the Petitioner met with in the Year KJ92. for the Reasons 
in said Petition at large Enumerated, &c. Read, and Committed to the 
Committee for Petitions 

And Ordered, That Capt. Epes be added to the Committee for the 
Consideration of tins Petition." 

June 29. 1723. " On the Petition of Thomas Rich, The Committee 
reported, That in consideration of the Loss the Petitioner might sustain 
by be" 

_ ere by. 
Read and accepted. And accordingly, Res(dccd, That the Sum of Fifty 

1&B2.] Hwtorytof Witchcraft in MasmchuHetta. 


Pounds be allowed and paid out of the Publick Treasury to the Petitioner 
Thomas Bich, in full satisfaction for the Losses he may have sustained 
as at large set forth in the Petition. 

Sent up for Concurrence." 

The next sharp reminder of their neglected duty came from the pulpit. 

Kev. ISkael Loring, Pastor of ^-Church in Sudbury, in his Election 
Sermon, May 25th, 1737, on the Duty of an Apostatizing People to 
remember from whence they are fallen, and repent, and -do their first 
Works, revived the subject with boldness and vigor. Setting forth 
ways and means by which civil rulers may set forward the work of 
reformation among a people and promote the Interest of Religion, after 
referring to a growing neglect of public worship and increasing sin of 
drunkenness, he proceeds: — 

"There is one Thing more which I would recommend to the serious 
Consideration of this Great and General Court; and that is, Whether 
there is not a great Duty lying upon us, respecting the Transactions of 
the Year 1G92, when not only many Persons were taken oil' by the Hand 
of publick Justice for the supposed crime of Witchcraft; but their 
Estates also ruined, and their Families impoverished. None dispute the 
Integrity of those, who were then concerned to act and judge most in 
those matters. But it was a dark Day witli them; they walk'd in the 
Clouds, and could not clearly see their way, as to the Mystery of 
Iniquity then working. All orders of Persons have since seen Keasou 
to condemn the Pules of the whole Process as fallacious and insufficient 
to distinguish the Guilty from the Innocent. 1 

What the Sense even of our Predecessors, and those who were then 
upon the Stage of Action was, in relation to this Affair, may be in some 
measure learned from a Proclamation for a General Past, emitted Decemb. 
17, 1GUG, four Years after; in which is contained this Direction for 
publick Prayers, viz. ' that God would shew us what we know not, and 
help us wherein we have done amiss, to do so no more : And especially 
that whatever Mistakes on either Hand have been fallen into, either by 
the body of this People, or any order of Men, referring to the late 
Tragedy raised by Satan and his Instruments, thro' the awful Judgments 
of God: He would humble us therefor, and pardon all the Errors of his 
Servants and People that desire to love his Name; and be atoned to his 

'' Now tho' the loss. -of Parents cannot be made up to their surviving 
Posterity, yet their Estates may; And the Question is (if it be not 
beyond all Question) whether a Restitution is not due from the Publick 
to them, and we are not bound in Justice to make it. Hereby Infamy 
may be taken off from the Names and Memory of such as were Executed, 
and who it may be did not in the least deserve it; as well as a Reparation 
made to their children for the Injuries done them ; Ui.o remain to this 
Day among us in mean, low and abject circumstances. It is now 
something more than forty, Years since these sad Things were done 
among us; but length of time is no Argument that God is not at this 
Day, among other Things, contending with us for these; since he 
punished Israel with Famine three Years for a Sin of misguided zeal 
committed forty Years before that, 2 Sam. xxi. 1, 2." sermon, etc., pp. 

" l See the Kev. Mr. Hale's accurate and judicious Discourse concern- 
ing Witchcraft; shewing how Persons guilty of that Crime maybe 
convicted; and in which the Means used for their discovery are discussed 
both negatively and affirmatively, according to Scripture and Expe- 

188 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

Although the earnest words and suggestions of this pious clergyman 
do not appear to have aroused any active sympathy in the legislature 
whose members he addressed — a movement was set on foot in the 
following year, when a Committee of the House of Representatives was 
appointed — whose origin appears in the subjoined letter, and its 
enclosure : l 

The land-fever was perhaps at its height in that period of Massachu- 
setts history, and " granting a township " the most natural expression 
which the legislature could give of justice or gratitude or both. 

There is a singular coincidence to be noted here in considering the 
action of the legislature, and the movements of those who had intluence 
with the authorities. The proposition to make restitution to the victims 
of Witchcraft was instantly followed by an effort to reward the Mather 
family ; and it is difficult to avoid the reflection that the partisans of 
that family may have been stimulated to action by the proposal to do 
some justice, though late, to the memories of the sufferers, and to 
gratify their descendants by a substantial recognition. Certainly the 
names of the Mathers have been at all times inseparably connected 
with the history of the Witchcraft Delusions of Massachusetts. 

'This letter was found by William P. Upham, Esq., of Salem, among 
some miscellaneous papers tiled with the Town Records of that City. 
John Higginson was Town Clerk in 1738. Major Samuel Sewall and 
Mitchell Sewall were sons of Stephen Sewall, Clerk of the Courts in 
the Witchcraft trials. 

Boston Dec. 9, 1738. 

Inclosed is a vote of ye house passed yesterday I think unani- 
mously relating to ye Dark affair in 1(J!)2, they being very desirous of 
making restitution by Granting a Township or paying in money — ; & I am 
directed by ye Comittee to desire you two Gentlemen would immediate- 
ly look over those Records & give us an Ace 1 , who was ye Sufferers & by 
inquiring also who has Rec 1 . any money particularly how much Mr. 
English has Rec 1 . & whether considerable yet due to his heirs. We 
pray you would be speedy & earnest in your inquiries & give us an acc>. 
as soon as possible because we would fain have something done before 
ye Court rises — You will be not only doing a great good but very 
much oblige ye whole Court & particularly 

Vo 1 . numb. Serv 1 . 

Sam 1 . Sewall 
By order of ye Comittee. 
Mitchel Sewall ) - . rc , n 
& Jn>. Higginson \ E ^' CSalem.] 

[Enclosure:] In the House of Iiep ve * Dec. 8, 1738. 

On a motion made and seconded by divers Members Ordered that 
Maj.'' Sewall, Mr. Fairfield, Mr. Norton and Mr. Danforth be a Coin 1 " to 
get the best Information they can into the circumstances of the persons 
& families who suffered in the Calamity of the times in & about the year 
1GD2, and have not received any Restitution or Reparation for their 
Losses & Misfortunes; that the Committee lay the same before the 
Court as soon as may be. 


1882.] History of Witchcraft in Massachusetts. 


1738, December 12. A Memorial and Petition of the Reverend Mr. 
Samuel Mather of Bmton t Clerk, setting forth the publick and eminent 
Services of his venerable and honoured Grandfather and Father in the 
Cause and Interest of the Province in many Instances and on Divers 
Occasions, as particularly therein enumerated, both in civil and religious 
respects, praying; this Court would please to make him an allowance for 
the said Services, that so he the Memorialist may be excited and 
encouraged to Apologize for the Liberties of New England, and thereby 
will arise some standing and perpetual Memorial of the good deeds of 
his worthy Ancestors, and the Gratitude of their Country for them. 
Read and Ordered, that the Petition be considered on Friday the 15th 

December 20. The Petition was read again with another Petition of 
sundry others of the Descendants of the Petitioner's Grandfather 
presented the last Session, and Ordered, that John Head and Richard 
Saltonstal/ , Es<js. and Mr. Sumner, be a Committee to inquire into the 
Facts and Services therein mentioned, and Report what in their 
Opinion may be proper for the Court to do therein. 

December 29. John Head, Esq, from the Committee appointed the 
20th current on the Petition of the Rev. Mr. Samuel Mather, made the 
following Report : viz : 

The Committee upon the Petition of the Reverend Mr. Samuel 
Mather, considering that the Reverend Dr. Increase Mather not only 
served Ins particular Church as their Minister faithfully and the College 
as their President with Honour, but tin; Province as an Agent In 
procuring the present Charter, to the good acceptance of his Country; 
and that hi- Son the Rev. Dr. Cotton Mather and grandson the Peti- 
tioner his successor in the same Church and Ministry have not behaved 
themselves unworthy of such an Ancestor, and have never had one Foot 
of Land granted to either of them as we can learn, are therefore of 
Opinion that notwithstanding the Gratification of two hundred pounds 
given him as alledged it may be proper for this Court to grant a Farm 
of live hundred Acres of the unappropriated Lands of this Province to 
the Heirs of the said Dr. Increase Mather, as a Memorial of his personal 
Worth and publick Services, and report accordingly; which was read 
and the Question was put, Whether the lieport be accepted ? It passed in 
the Negative, and Ordered, that the Petition lie on the table. 

1739, 22 June. A Petition of the Rev. Mr. Samuel Mather, praying 
the Consideration of the Court on Account of the public and extraordi- 
nary Services of his Ancestors, as entered the 12th and 20th of December 
last; and a Petition of Maria Fijield. Elizabeth Byles, and others, Heirs 
of Dr. Increase Mather, praying the Consideration of the Court on 
account, of their Father's publick Services. 

Read, ami the question was put, Whether the Petitions shall be 
committed? It passed in the Negative. 

Then tin- Question was put, Whether any Grant shall be made the 
Petitioners ? It passed in the Negative, and Ordered, That the Petitions 
be dismissed. 

1738-9. January 2G. " Ordered, that Benjamin Browne, Esq. and 
Captain Timothy Johnson, be added to the Committee appointed the 
sixth current,' to get the best Information they could into the circum- 
stances of the Persons anil Families who suffered in the Calamity of the 
Times in and about 1092, and have not received any Restitution or 
Reparation for their Losses and Misfortunes." 

1739. June 30. On a motion made and seconded by divers members, 

'I have found no such proceeding at that date: perhaps this date was 
an error, as the committee was appointed on the 8th December. 

190 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

Ordered, That the Committee to consider the Case of the Sufferers in the 
troublesome Times Anno 1G92, be allowed till the next Fall Session to 
report thereon. 

1739-40. January 5. The Committee appointed by the House of 
Representatives to inquire and get the best Information they could into 
the Circumstances of the Persons and Families who suffered in the 
Calamity of the Times in or about the Year sixteen Hundred Ninety two, 
and have not received any Restitution or Reparation for their Losses 
and Misfortunes, &'-'. reported thereon. fJ 

Read and Ordered, That the Consideration ffliereof be referred to the 
next May Session, that the Committee may more fully inform themselves 
concerning that Affair. 

The matter does not seem to have been taken up at the May session, 
but at the third session of the same Legislature, Governor Belcher 
devoted a paragraph of his Speech to it, and added (for the tirst time) 
a reference to the sufferings of the Quakers as entitling them also to 
consideration in the way of Reparation and Restitution. 

Sabbati Die 22 Novembris, A. D. 1740, His Excellency's Speech was 
read, and is as follows, viz. 

(Extract.) ''This Legislature have often honoured themselves in a 
kind and generous Remembrance of such Families, and of the Posterities 
of such as have been sufferers, either in their Persons or Estates, lor, or 
by the Government, of which the publick Records will give you many 
Instances; 1 should therefore be glad, there might be a Committee 
appointed by this Court, to inquire into the Sufferings of the People 
called Quakers, in the early Days of this Country, as also, into the 
Descendants of such Families, as were in a manner ruined, in the 
mistaken Management of the terrible Affair, called Witchcraft.: I really 
think, there is something incumbent on this Government to be done, for 
retrieving the Estates, ami Reputations of the Posterities of the unhappy 
Families, that so suffered, and the doing it (tho' so long afterwards) 
would, doubtless, be acceptable to Almighty GOD, and would reflect 
Honour upon the present Legislature. 

Oi.dmix.ON, in the preface to the 2' 1 . Ed". (1741) of his British Empire 
in America, refers to this subject as follows: 

"The great Foible of the New England History is the Story of the 
Witches, which Mr. Neal has in no manner countenanced ; and yew- 
England must be no more charged with it, since the Assembly there 
have now under Consideration, by the recommendation of Governor 
Belcher, the Means of giving Satisfaction to the Posterity of the 
Sufferers, by a Mistake, as it is culled; as also to those of the Quakers, 
Fellow Sufferers by a Mistake alike fatal. This proceeding of Governor 
Belcher and the Assembly has set the Reputation of this Colony right, 
in the Opinion of all good Britons and good Protestants." p. ix. 

1740, December 5th. Voted, that Col. Brown, Mr. Fairfield and Capt. 
Johnson, with such as shall be joined by the Honorable Board, be a 
Committee to consider that Paragraph in his Excellency's Speech, 
relating to the People called Quakers* and the Affair called Witchcraft, 
and report what they judge proper for this Court to do thereon. Sent 
up for concurrence. 

1741. April 25. John Jeffries, Esq. brought down a vote of Council, 
viz: In Council, April 25th, 1741, Voted, That the Committee appointed 
the fifth of December last, to consider of that paragraph of His 

1882.] History of Witchcraft in Massachusetts. 


Excellency's Speech relating to the Quakers, and the affair called Witch- 
craft, do make their report at the next May Session. Sent down for 
Concurrence. Head ami Coneur'd. 

1741. July 28. Voted, That Mr, Gushing, Mr. Fairfield. Major Osgood, 
Capt. Cheeoers, ami Capt. Lawton, with such as shall be joined by the 
Honorable Board, be a Committee to enquire who were formerly 
Sufferers as (Junkers, or on Account of Witchcraft, and what Satisfaction 
has been made by this Court to sueh Sufferers, and report what in their 
Judgment may be proper to do thereon. Sent up for Concurrenee. 

1743. l,t June. Voted, That Capt. Choate, Mr. Gardner, and Col, 
Epes, with sueh as the Honorable Board shall appoint, be a Committee 
to inquire who were formerly Suffers, as Quakers, or on Account of 
Witchcraft ; and what satisfaction has been made by this Court to such 
Sufferers; and report what in their Judgment may be proper to do 
thereon. Sent up for Concurrence. 

1749. June 17. A Memorial of Thomas Newman, Alia lhdbrook, Juu. 
and Elias Thomas, Agents for their respective Relatives, the surviving 
Children and Grand-Children of George Burroughs, formerly of Falmouth, 
in the County of York, Clerk, deceased; representing the unparallel'd 
Persecutions and Sufferings of their said Ancestor, and praying some 
Recompenec for the great Losses sustained in that unhappy Affair.. 

Head and Ordered, That Mr. Speaker, [Joseph Dwighl, Esq.] Mr. 
Hubbard, Col. Choate, Mr. Daniel Tierce,, and Thomas Foster, Esq. with 
such as the Honourable Board shall join, be a Committee to take the 
case of the Memorialists under Consideration, and report what they 
judge proper for this Court to do thereon. Sent up for Concurrenee. 

" In Council, Head & Concurred & Samuel Dun-forth, John Quincy, 
Ezekiel Cheever, & John Otis, Esq" are joined in the affair." 

[Mass. Archives, exxxv., 172.] 

To His Honour Spenckk Phipps Esq". Lieutenant Governor and 
Commander in Chief in and over his Majesty's Province of the Massa- 
chusetts Bay in New England, and to the Honourable the Council and 
the Honourable the House of Representatives in General Court 

The Memorial of Thomas Newman, Abia Holbhook and Elias 
Thomas agents for their respective relatives, the surviving children and 
Grandchildren of George Burroughs formerly of Falmouth in the County 
of York and province aforesaid, Clerk, deceased. As a Supplement to 
the prayer of their Memorial and petition humbly presented to His 
Excellency Governor Shirley and the Honourable His Majesty's Council, 
and this Honourable House of Representatives, on the thirty first day 
of May last. 

Most humbly suggesteth: 

That their said Memorial and petition setting forth the awful and' 
miserable condition of the unhappy children and descendants of the 
Reverend M 1 . George Burroughs who as therein set forth had his blood 
sheil, and was one of the most deplorable victims cut off in the fatal 
catastrophe in the year 1(192. —Was by the Honourable Court referred to 
the Consideration of a Committee of both Houses in June last to report 
what might be proper for the Court to act thereupon, but so it seems it 
hath fell out that the Honourable M r . Danforth Chairman of the said 
Committee hath not as yet called them together so much as once to act 
thereon even to this day, as some of the Honourable Committee them- 
selves were pleased with real concern to signify to your said petitioners. 

Your Memorialists therefore most humbly supplicate (they having 
been put to great expense already) that their said Memorial and petition 
may be again brought forward, Read and Acted upon before the final 

11)2 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

Rising of this Court, that so a stop may be put to the cry of the long 
oppressed sufferers. 

And your Memorialists as in Duty bound shall ever pray &c. 

Thomas Newman 
Boston March 28. 1750. Aijia HOLBROOK J UN.' 

Elias Thomas 

In the House of Representatives March 28, 1750. Read and ordered 
that the Committee within referred to, be directed to sit forthwith, 
consider the petition to them committed and report as soon as may be. 

Sent up for concurrence 

Thomas Hubbaiu> Spk' pro Tempore. 

The entry on the Journal of the Hou.4j is varied in its mode of 
expression, as follows : 

1750. March 28. "Ordered, That the Committee of both Houses 
appointed in June last, to consider the Petition of Thomas Newman and 
others, be directed to sit forthwith, and report as soon as may be. Sent 
up for Concurrence." 

On the next day, March 29, 1750, it was further "Ordered, That Major 
Lawrence and Nathanael Oliver, Esqrs ; be of the Committee on the 
Petition of Tltomas Newman and others, in the Room of Joseph Dioight 
and John Choate, Esqrs. who are absent." 

But nothing was done and i4 the cry of the long oppiessed Sufferers " 
seems to have been stifled : at any rate it was heard no more in the high 
places of legislation. 


The Olmecas and the Tulfecas. 




By Philipp J- J- Valentini. 

(Translated from the German \$ Stephen Salisbury, Jr.) 

Sixty years ago the early history of the people of the Nile and the 
Euphrates was still shrouded in deep obscurity. To-day the veil is 
rent. We are now taught of their existence and achievements thou- 
sands of years before the period of written history. Active scientific 
research has won this victory. 

Interest has not been wanting, nor has labor been spared, to throw a 
similar light upon the condition and history of the early people that 
inhabited the table-lands of Mexico and Central America. For more 
than three hundred and tifty years, students have been endeavoring to 
solve the mysterious problem, and we might therefore reasonably suppose 
that the labor would not have been wholly in vain. Unfortunately, 
however, this seems to be the fact. The steps taken in this direction 
have -been slow and somewhat discouraging, and it is almost to be 
feared, that despite the activity which has been displayed during the last 
ten years in this ancient province of research, the wished-for goal may 
never be reached. The reasons must be strong, indeed, to lead us to so 
melancholy a conclusion. In the following pages we shall endeavor to 
bring them before our readers. 

If we consider the historical material offered to the investigator, it is 
as regards form almost identical in both Hemispheres. In each the 
written record, either modified or amplified by later writers, forms the 
main substance : in each also monumental inscriptions of various de- 
signs await translation or decipherment. But a difference exists m the 
character of the material which facilitates the work of the student of 
Eastern history and perplexes him in the study of Western arclneology. 
It is the ethnic discrepancy that causes the embarassment. The 
ancient East ha9 always been looked upon as our historic fatherland, and 
is so regarded to-day with more certainty than ever before. The Euro- 
pean, to us, is only a variously transformed exponent of generations, 
whose ancestry reaches back into Asia, for thousands of years. In this 
long course of time, it was Greece, Rome, and Judaea, that in written 
records and in a language quite familiar to the student have left to us a 
multitude of dates disclosing the process and vicissitudes of our 



194 American Antiquarian Society. ['Oct. 

political development. More or less we have always been aware of the 
revolutions that had taken place in the far East before the first Olympiad, 
what nations were foremost and had succeeded each other in the task 
of founding and destroying great empires, what grand deeds we should 
connect with the names of certain leaders and kings; and although 
much new material has been brought to light by finding keys to dead 
and lost languages, it is nevertheless true that by means of this discovery 
we merely obtained richer details, and in addition the very welcome 
assistance of a more accurate chronology. These helps, however, only 
interweave themselves into the substance of dates and events with 
which we were already acquainted. Thereto M, since through the 
industry of ancient historians the bridge was laid that leads us into the 
first stages of our historic genesis, and since our resources for research 
and study are so competent and reliable, it was but natural that the 
labor undertaken with the material for Indo-European history should 
have been crowned with success. 

The case is far different in regard to matters pertaining to the 
Western Hemisphere, and how difficult are the duties of the investigator 
into American prehistory ! When the Spaniards came to this continent 
they had no idea of its existence and isolation, nor of the multitude of 
different nations collected together here, nor of the peculiar state of 
civilization that some of them had reached. Likewise the natives of this 
great Western Hemisphere had lived in ignorance of an Eastern 
Continent. A mass of their historical traditions, reaching back into 
untold centuries, indeed existed, and were immediately collected by the 
missionaries from the lips of the natives themselves. But what correct 
estimation, what thorough understanding of the dates and the materials 
gathered could be expected from the minds of hearers so unprepared as 
the Spanish eonquerors were ? We must not forget that these researches 
were made either with the help of inexperienced interpreters or by the 
missionaries themselves, who were and remained but imperfect scholars 
in this new language to be used in their intercourse with the natives. 
Not only the whole structure of the language differed from theirs, but 
even the mode of expression puzzled them. Enquiries for actual proofs 
were answered by a reference to songs, whose heroic phraseology 
obscured the original statement of the events themselves, and when the 
painted annals were referred to, no guarantee for correct interpretation 
was furnished beyond the good faith and the doubtful learning of the 
native interpreters. A ready-made summary of historical materials did 
not exist. Each tribe cared only to preserve its own interesting events. 
Many tribes in their long migrations had lost their records, or they had 
been seized by victorious tribes and destroyed. Experiments to recon- 
struct the records from memory must necessarily have been defective. 
They invited fabrications, and either little attention was given to the 
important matter of designating the exact date of an event, or it was 
given only in round numbers, so that when computations were made 

1882.] The Olmecas ami the TuUecas, \ 195 

and could be compared with others, uncertain and contradictory results 
were reached. Wherever the Spanish investigator labored he found 
foreign material and groped in darkness. The names of persons and 
places had a foreign sound. Between the conqueror and the conquered 
all sympathy of races, all ethnic consanguinity was wanting, and this 
absence prevented any sure insight into the historical logic of events. 
The result is that a great mass of dates have been transmitted to us 
without proper connection, and the numberless gaps can not be tilled. 

Except for the wonderful similarity which early Mexican civilization 
bears to that of the ancient nations of the Eastern Hemisphere, only a 
small fraction of the workers, who in past and present times have so 
willingly given themselves to this study, could have been induced to 
undertake the labor. The theory has been advanced that the natives 
must be considered as a branch of the human family, which, coining 
from the far East, and having been driven out of its course, has finally 
settled ill these parts; and, indeed, there are many circumstances on 
which to base the theory. It has been the highest aim of the investi- 
gator to firmly establish this theory by positive and well-founded proofs, 
and both foolish and ingenious arguments have been brought forward 
for that purpose. An immense literature, grown up from the time of 
the conquest and continued till our day, bears testimony to the restless 
effort to unearth the secret. The hope seemed to dawn some time ago, 
on the discovery of the Lancia Alphabet, that by help of the key thus 
discovered a way might be found to decipher the stone hieroglyphics. 
And, indeed, the most authentic way to learn a nation's early history 
is to glean it from such monuments as are covered with the records 
of events that were sculptured by contemporaries. Therefore the 
hope arose of filling out the large gaps of the written history, and, if 
not obtaining direct information, at least of arriving at reasonable 
conclusions concerning the descent of a people, that had been brought to 
this new world and afterwards had been lost sight of. But even this 
cheering hope has been lost to us, and the so-called Landa Key has 
proved to be an ingenious contrivance of the Spanish missionaries, who 
wished to aid the natives in learning the sentences of the catechism by 
means of a picture-writing, which had formerly been quite familiar to 
them. So ardent was the desire to find out this great secret, that a few 
modern students forgot entirely, that the question whether the paintings 
and sculptures were to be explained phonetically or ideographically had 
been answered, nay practically solved, beyond all doubt, by the natives 
themselves immediately after the conquest, in favor of the latter method. 

With such lamentable prospects for final success it might seem 
advisable to bid a formal farewell to investigations in the prehistoric 
history of Mexico, rather than to trouble ourselves any more about it, 
without obtaining corresponding progress or profit. But it is easier to 
think and to say this than to follow the advice. A literature composed 
of thousands of volumes collected in the course of centuries can not be 


196 AiJititciin Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

annihilated, nor can it be treated with indifference. It is true that from 
its deficiencies and confusedness, the literature can offer us but little of 
certainty, but still the material is too voluminous and important to 
abandon it entirely for these reasons. 

It has always seemed to us that the right way to treat these matters 
should be to moderate our expectations, and to no longer demand of 
those sculptures a revelation of secrets that they are unable to yield, 
since they contain nothing of the sort. We should thereby lose a 
great incentive to investigation, but one very liable to lead us astray. 
If the materials were consulted solely on account of their own intrinsic 
value, they would win just as much in solidity as they had lost in 
exciting interest. Consulting the materials in this way, our first aim 
should be lo fix and determine the main epochs, a task that would 
be comparatively easy, and fur the moment •-Omit entirely the other 
minute chronological details. We should next enquire what is to be 
understood by the names frequently met with of the two most ancient 
nations, the Olmecas and the Tultecas — names so often used but so 
meaningless; and we should ascertain which of these two nations was 
the older, or whether both of them were contemporaneous and lived 
and acted side by side; which part of the country each of them 
inhabited ; whether in the course of time their frontiers became 
changed ; whether in their midst other mixed nationalities sprang up to 
form independent communities; whether the Olmecas and Tultecas 
were tribes which immigrated to Mexican soil, or whether they were 
aborigines with a marked difference between them as to race and 
language. If investigation should be carried on in this or a similar 
manner, the probable consequence would be that instead of shadowy 
nations and empires, which up to the present time have been prominent 
in historiography only as an expedient for designating certain nations 
once having an existence not hitherto understood, we should have 
condensed them into a more tangible historical body. A most oppressive 
nomenclature would thus be eliminated, and the history of these nations 
would be made more conformable to truth and more attractive for study 
and investigation. 

It is not the purpose of the writer to give a complete and exhaustive 
essay upon this subject, for it would require more time, more help from 
others and more talent than he has at command. He will in the follow- 
ing essay merely endeavor to ascertain what conclusions we are entitled 
to draw from the facts transmitted to us by the earliest and most 
reliable Spanish chroniclers, and with these points established, to 
investigate in what directions the wave of civilization, originating 
suddenly on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico, spread over the Western 
and Southern part of the interior; what active or passive part was 
taken by the various tribes which appeared under distinct names, though 
certainly very vaguely described up to that time, and into what chrono- 
logical frame this historical picture ought to be placed. 

1882.] The Olmecas and the Tultecan. \ 197 

In conformity to tlie limited space which the Publishing Committee 
of the Society allows to contributors, and mindful of the restriction 
that the writer has imposed on himself to make use of the early 
Spanish authorities exclusively, he hopes he will not be considered 
lacking in literary courtesy, if he does not allude to the many and 
important labors of his predecessors. 

From the written testimony before us, and from other corroborating 
circumstances, we find that the period in which dates can be given to 
the early history of Mexico is about thirteen hundred years. All that 
we know of this history will fall between the middle of the third and 
the sixteenth century, or more exactly between the years 232 and 1521 
of the Christian Era. The latter date rests on good authority : it was 
the year of the Spanish Conquest. The first and earlier date is con- 
structed from an examination of the chronological hieroglyphics on the 
Calendar Stone. Its credibility is supported by the date 245 A. I)., 
which we obtain from the Codex Chimalpopoca, 1 and from the Maya 
Katunes, which gives us the year 242 A. D.'-' 

*The successful collector and ardent student of American History, 
M. l'Abbe Brasseur de Bourbourg, during his residence in Mexico, had 
access to the archives of the College of San Gregorio in that city. In 
the library of this convent he found an ancient MS., there filed under 
the title : " History of the Kingdoms of Colhuacan and Mexico." It was 
written in the Nahuatl language, and with the assistance of the pro- 
fessor, Galicia Chimalpopoca, he translated it into the Spanish language. 
This translation has not yet appeared in print. But M. Brasseur makes 
list; of its contents very fully in his publications, ami lie in. forms us 
(see Historic des nat. civil, du Mexique, Vol. I., page 70) that the title- 
page of the above-named manuscript bears an inscription of the follow- 
ing tenor: " <; times 4 centuries, plus 1 century, plus 13 years, to-day the 
22d of May, 1558." The anonymous author by those terms appears to 
declare that the contents of this work embrace a certain historical 
period and such a number of years as would result from the solution of 
liis arithmetical proposition. Thus M. Brasseur understood it, and we 
agree with him. We must, however, differ from him in his adoption 
of a period of 100 years for a Nahuatl century. From a text writ- 
ten by an Indian chronicler, in his native language, and treating of 

of May, 1558, and thereby arrives at the date of the beginning of the 
history of Colhuacan and Mexico in the year i)55 before Christ. Through 
the introduction, however, of the cyclical figure 52 into this account, 

. a]].... 

1 Tecpatl). See "The Mexican Calendar Stone," Proceedings of Am. 
Ant. Society, Worcester, Mass., April 21, 1878. 

2 The Katunes of Maya History, Proceedings of Am. Ant. Society, 
Worcester, Mass., Oct. 21, 1879. 


lUft American Antiquarian Society. X [Oct. 

This entire period of about thirteen hundred years can naturally be 
divided into two distinct epochs. The one is that from 232-10G4 A. I)., 
which we may call the epocli of the Olmecas and Tultecas; the other 
from 1004-1321, the epoch of the Chichimecas. This latter epoch we 
shall leave entirely out of consideration. Its events are well authenti- 
cated, and a comparatively rich material is at the disposal of the 
historian. Not so, however, with the epocli that belonged to the 
Olmecas and the Tultecas, and which we intend to make the subject of 
our discussion. 

Like the early epochs of all nations, this also is full of uncertainties. 
No authentic record exists from which we may read a full account of such 
events as occurred during those eight centuries, and thereby gain an 
approximate idea of the political and social condition then existing on 
the table lands of Mexico. Tradition, and a ver^» slender one at best, 
by a few half-obliterated pencil strokes, and to the bewilderment of 
posterity, has kept alive the memory of those two nations to whose 
civilizing energy has been ascribed the clearing of the virgin forests, in 
order to make room for sumptuous temples and palaces. On reviewing 
the material, we have found this tradition best preserved by Sahagun and 
Torquemada. The llrst, as will be shown hereafter, dealt in original 
historical research, and the latter was a very circumspect compiler. We 
can not pass over a third writer, Alva de Ixtlilxochitl, whom it has been 
the custom to slight. Like Sahagun he has copied directly from the 
painted annals, and his reports, though open to criticism, must be 
respected. Here and there linguistics and 'topography will help us in 
securing important tints, which have been fading from the musty canvas 
of traditional lore. It is by no means our ambition to write the pages of 
a history of eight centuries which has been irredeemably lost, or to make 
a bold attempt to reconstruct it on the tottering pedestal of fragmentary 
material. We wish only to eliminate a variety of errors, which have become 
prevalent concerning those ancient civilizers, through the fantastic com- 
positions of various writers. We cherish the hope that by emphasizing 
certain features, whose recognition has been neglected, and which to us 
appear of paramount value, we may arrive at a better understanding of 
the particular direction and course which those nations took in occupy- 
ing and civilizing the large Mexican isthmus. 

One great error, which we shall try to correct, has been committed 
by modern writers in following too verbally the opinion formed and 
propagated by the Spanish chroniclers with regard to the chronological 
relation in which the Olmecas stood to the Tultecas. We found the 
former always considered as having been antecedent to the latter. 
The Olmecas are always termed " the first possessors of this country 
of New Spain." This expression has given rise to the opinion that the 
Olmecas were the very pioneers of civilization on the Mexican isthmus. 
Whether they were indigenous or immigrants from abroad was left 
in obscurity, but it was assumed as a fact that in later times a 


1882.] The.Olmecas and (he Tultecas. 199 

powerful and highly cultured tribe, the Tultecas, coming from the 
North, had invaded their country, seized upon their possessions, and 
■effaced their existence to such a degree as to erect thereon a large 
empire, embracing Mexico and the whole of Central America. These 
are opinions and statements for which no evidence appears in recorded 
tradition, and can not be accepted to Mich a broad extent. Based upon 
reasons to be explained in the following pages, we are compelled to 
modify such views considerably. It will be shown that although 
Olmecas and Tultecas present themselves as two different nations in 
later historical times, yet from the outset they were of the, same stock, 
the same creed, culture and training, and that when they set out in their 
work they started from the same place. Yet while one branch, which 
later appears under the name of Olmecas, directed their expeditionary 
steps toward the South and their efforts appear to have met with compara- 
tive success, another branch of the*fnain body, the later Tultecas, made 
the far North-west and its inhabitants, the savage Chichimecas, the 
province of their colonization. It was only after three centuries 
that a few families of the old stock — the lost brothers' tribe — 
being compelled to quit those Northern abodes and to wander 
South, succeeded in joining the Olmecas on the ancient spot of 
separation. Both were changed, of course, but not to such a degree as to 
fail in recognizing their common descent. The Tultecas did not invade 
the territory of the Olmecas by force ; they settled on a ground then wild 
and open to colonization, on the border of the Tezcucan layttna.s. They 
never founded an empire, never aimed at nor attained a supremacy over 
the Olmecas. Both were pacilic and contemporaneous co-workers in 
their perhaps unconscious task of civilization, during the long period 
from the sixth to the eleventh century. 

These are the preliminary outlines, and we shall try to explain only 
the most interesting details of the story in the discussion which follows. 

Mexican prehistory begins with the curious record, that a body of 
hold invaders made its appearance in the mountains of Tlascala and on 
the sources of the river Atoyac, where they had a hostile encounter 
with giants. The name of these giants is given as the Quiname or 
Quinaiuetin. They are described as a band of ruifians addicted to all 
kinds of vices. 1 The strangers, falling an easy prey to these fellows, were 
made slaves, and were subjected to the lowest drudgery. But at a feast 
the servants placed before their masters a beverage so sweet that they 
became intoxicated, and all of them were then massacred. So runs the 

l Fern. de Alva IxUilxochitl, Historla Chichimcca, in Kingsborough 
Coll., Vol. IX., pages 197 and 205, and id. Kelaciones Historicas, page 322. 
Veytia, in Kingsb. Coll., Vol. VIII., page 179. Las Casas, Hist. Apolo- 
getica, Tom. I., Cap. 175. Geronimo de Mendieta, Hist. Ecceles u (Icazbal- 
ceta, Mex., 1870;, page 96. Ooiedo, Vol. III., page 539. Dtego de Damn, 
Hist. Ant. de 1. N. Esp., Tom. I., Cap. 1, 2. Torquemada, Hist. Ind., 
Lib. I., Cap. 13, 14. Cod. Vaticanns, Kingsb. Coll., Vol. V., page 165, 
Spieg. d. 1. tavola VII. 


American Antiquarian Society, 


story when divested of the manifold additions which later writers had 
probably added. That this account has been preserved and has not 
shared the fate of many others of the greatest importance, which have 
been forgotten, may be explained as follows: The claim of conquest by 
their forefathers was one of the first victorious acts of a conquering; 
people, and the generations which followed saw in it the oldest legiti- 
mate title to the possession of the country which they had acquired. 
Through this introduction of the sweet liquor cup as a means of conquest, 
the story receives a peculiar American tinge. One is involuntarily 
reminded of the fact that cheating the indigenous redskin of his hunting 
grounds by ottering him the sweet bowl is not of recent invention on this 
hemisphere. It seems to stand on record '"as a time-honored practical 
device. If we incline to accept as true this part of the story, we can not 
say as much of the statement that the conquerors met with a race of 
giants in the highlands. Still, this fable seems to have been fully 
believed by the natives, and also later on by the Spaniards. Torquemada, 
about the year 1G05, mentions the event, and allows himself to speak 
with great latitude about the different races of giants in antiquity, and 
we may read in Bernal Diez 1 of the impression made upon him when the 
inhabitants of Cholula laid a thigh-bone before him, which as he 
measured it with his body was exactly his own height. We know 
sulliciently well what to think of such giants, in our own times, and that 
this metaphor is only an exaggerated mode of native expression. 
The invader, feeling himself unsafe in the new country, either tries to 
iind an excuse for his fear, or after'he becomes a victor he thus seeks to 
give a high sounding proof of his own valor. 

These giants of the Atoyac river were called by some Quiname, by 
others Quinametin. An old adage says that much lies in a name. The 
truth of this proverb finds striking confirmation in many .Mexican proper 
names, whose analysis contains an abundance of hints, without attention 
to which, difficult questions would have remained unanswered. Tor 
example, if we take the word Quiuame we recognize in its last syllable 
me, the plural form of a Nahnatl noun, which in the singular must have 
been Quinatl. If we take the second version of the word Qttinametin, 

l Bernal Diez, Hist, verdadera, d. 1. Conq., d. 1. N.Esp., Cap. 78: "And 
they (theTlaxcallans) said that their ancestors had told them, that in times 
past there lived amongst them in settlements, men and women of great 
size, with huge bones; and as they were wicked and of evil disposition,, 
\ they fought against (hem and killed them, and those who were left, died 
out. And that we might see what stature they were of, they brought a 
bone of one of them, and it was very big, and its height was that of a 
man of reasonable stature; it was a thigh bone, and I, Bernal Diez, 
measured myself against it, and it was as tall as I am, who am a man of 
reasonable stature; and they brought other pieces of bones like the lirst, 
but they were already rotted through by the earth, and we were all 
amazed to see those bones, and held that for certain that there hail been 
giants in that land; and our captain Cortes said to us, that it would be 
well to send the great bone to Castile that his Majesty might see it ; and 
so we sent it by the first messengers who went." 


1882.] The Olmecas and the Tultecas. 201 

we find in the last syllable tin, an additional Nahuatl plural, which 
belongs to a second grammatical scries of nouns. 1 But what was the 
meaning in the Nahuatl language of the nouns quinatl or qui name we can 
not find in the Dictionary, even if we look forth initial letters under g, or 
h, so nearly related to it. Remembering, however, the fact that Nahuatl 
and Maya are border languages, and that the theatre of the event chances 
to be located on the ancient border line of t he two nations, the inference is 
obvious that the word belongs to the Maya idiom. It is therefore an 
agreeable discovery to find the word uinac in one of the oldest Maya 
dialects, in the Maine, with the meaning of man or mankind, and again to 
find the same form in the Quiche dialect, while in the Maya proper it is 
uinic, and in the Huasteca inic* From this explanation, it will not be 
hazarding too much to conclude that the Nahuatl tribes coming from the 
North, found on the Atoyac river a race of men who called themselves 
uinac — man; and a race, therefore, doubtless of Maya origin. The 
terminology itself is explicit in the highest degree, ami recurs in 
numberless instances among the primitive tribes of America, in this 
case the fact itself is of great interest. The primitive Maya word uinic, 
combining with forms taken from the Nahuatl language, gives a certain 
sort of allusion to the first meeting of the two races. We may go even 
still further and take it as an evidence that Maya, at that remote epoch, 
was spoken on the plateau of Tlascala. from which to-day, however, it 
has entirely disappeared. 

Should our treatment of this topic find acceptance and give an inci- 
dental explanation to a presumably historical event, we are compelled to 
dislodge it from the place of honor which it has occupied by having 
hitherto figured at the head of early Mexican history. The Tultecas, 
who were the undisputed importers of the Nahuatl language, made their 
appearance not earlier than in the middle of the sixth century on the 
plateaux of Auahuac, and the three preceding centuries, as will be shown, 
are not devoid of data showing a steady and previous conquest of the 
Maya aborigines by another set of invading foreigners, the so-called 
Olmecas. As their civilizing influence was not only the primitive but 
was also the most powerful, we shall place them at the head of the list. 

Neither Cort&s nor any of his contemporaneous conquerors make 

'See Carochi, Arte Mexicana, Mexico, 1759, page 7, and Andre de 
Olmos, 1547, re-edited by Simeon (Kemi) Paris, 1875, page 35. 

8 Pr. D. G. Brinton, of Philadelphia, who has purchased the Berendt 
collection of ancient Maya literature, was so kind as to furnish us with 
this information, taken from the Maya vocabularies, at our request. 
Besides, we notice that the word uinac, with the aspirated alliteration of 
guinae, is found in places which we know were colonized by Maya 
people in later centuries. Thus in Honduras and Nicaragua, in the 
province of Chorotega (properly Choluteca) villages are found with the 
name of Oroco-guina, Paca-guina, Palaca-guina. That oi' the famous 
volcano of Cosi-guina is of the same derivation. 


202 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

mention in their reports, of a tribe or nation met with on their expe- 
ditions that bore this name. It was only through the antiquarian 
curiosity of the missionaries, that attention was called to the existence 
of remnants of such a people living on the pL teau of Tlascala, in 
scattered villages, and far off the main track which the Spaniards then 
took when landing in the port of Vera Cruz to reach the City of Mexico. 
They were found in thick clusters, forming a large national community, 
settled from remote times East of the Mexican plateaux, on the slopes 
of the Atlantic Coast, and in the vast South, in Yucatan, Tabasco and 
Guatemala, under names so different from each other that centuries have 
passed away ere the true character of their co-nationality has been 
brought to light. 1 By misconception they were termed by the natives 
"the first possessors of the country of New Spain." But how this 
came to pass and how the main part of colonization, generally attributed 
to the Tultecas, must in reality be ascribed to the Olinecas, is a fact 
which will form a part of our discussion and has never been explained. 

If we wish to be informed, which portico of the plateau of Tlascala 
the Olinecas still possessed at the epoch of Torquemada's history, the 
reader may find it quite clearly defined in the Mouarquia of this author. 2 
They had been compelled by the intrusion of invading Northern tribes 
to abandon the comfortable plains, and retire into the mountains South 
and North. In the Southern portion, besides other small Olmecan places, 
Torquemada enumerates the important towns of Huexotzinco, Huitzila- 
pan (the town of la Puebla de los Angeles and Orizaba.) The map shows 
us in what a strong and naturally well-defended region they lived. To 
the North the broad cross chain of the Sierra Matlalcueye protected 
them. Anyone coming from the East or from the const could only 
reach them through the passes of Orizaba. On the West they were 
safely separated from Anahuac by their nearness to Huetzotzinco, the 
pass which divides the volcanoes of Popocatepetl and Ixtaczihuatl. On 
the South the long chain of mountains traversing the Mexican Isthmus 
fixes the limits of the Tlascala high valley and furnishes them protection. 
In the northern corner, the Olinecas grouped themselves around Zaeat- 
lan, and also at the Southern slopes of the Sierra Madre and of the Sierra 
Metztitlan. Cortes, on his march from Tlascala to Anahuac, through 
the pass of Huextzinco, went through the territory of the Southern 
Olmecas, and saw there remnants of old walls which had again been 
imperfectly repaired in order to resist him. Later investigations reveal 
long extended defences through this whole Southern territory. When 
the Nahoas invaded this country from the North they found on 

'It is but fair to mention at (his place that through the industry of 
two scholars, the Mexican savant, Dr. Don Orozco y Berra, and the 
German, Dr. II. Berendt, the first steps were made, and mainly in the 
direction of linguistic research, which have led to the recognition of 
this ethnologic fact. 

-Torquemada (Juan de) Mouarquia de la Indias [written about the 
year 1590], Libro III., Cap. 8, ( J and 18. 

1882.] The Glmecm and the Tultecas. 203 

one of the high peaks of the Matlalcueye Mountains a stone statue, 
representing Tlaloc, the God of Rain, whose worship had been either 
long respected by them, or was tolerated from prudence and afterwards 
adopted. Also in the North, in the Sierra of Metztitlan, sculptures have 
been found which bear no relation to the religic u of the Nahoas and are 
of a different period, and Boturini 1 saw upoi a high rock of the 
mountain a tan (T) painted in blue with the color still well preserved, 
and at the right of it live small white balls. 

The Olmecas themselves still narrated with pride that they were the first 
colonists of these regions until the Tlascaltecas and the Teochichimecas 
came and took from them the best part of the land and forced them to leave 
the country. They still remembered their genealogy in a fragmentary 
way, and enumerated the names of their chiefs in succession, each of 
whom had reigned eighty years, as they reported. At the head of this 
list stands Omeacatl. If it could be ascertained that this name was 
merely corrupted from Olmecatl, it would give coniirmatory evidence of 
the conception we have formed concerning them, and which they them- 
selves seemed to have entertained. But their so-called forced migrations 
prove, on closer investigation, of no great extent. They only prove 
that the union of their settlements in the high plateau of Tlascala was 
interrupted about the year 1100 A. 1$ and the middle territory was 
occupied by the victorious Tlascaltecas (as we already know) until the 
time of the conquest. The Olmecas complained loudly that these 
invaders had occupied the best part of their laud, and had succeeded in 
driving many families to the North and South side of the middle zone of 
the high plateaux, while others were forced to retreat East and West, 
and a portion of them came back and accepted the new conditions. 
The chroniclers make no mention of a language peculiar to the Olmecas, 
and we know of no catechism or vocabulary attributed to them. They 
seem to have accepted the Nahoa idiom of the Tlascaltecas, but to have 
spoken it with a foreign dialect that was strange to the Tlascaltecas, and 
also to the Mexicans of Anahuac. For this reason those of them who 
had settled in the North around Zacatlan were called by the natives 
Tenimes, Stutterers, a name which is preserved in a part of the 
Sierra Madre by the designation Sierra de Tenamitic. Those living on 
the Southern mountains of Tlascala were called Populucas, a name 
which recurs in other places, and which the Nahoas understood as 
designating a foreign people who had amalgamated with them. 

An interpretation of the name Olmeca has been attempted by Busch- 
mann, in whose correct studies and investigations we can always place 
much conildence. He has great doubts as to the word being of Nahuatl 

^Boturini, Idea d. u. nueva Ilistoria General, page 50, Madrid, 1746. 
This tau is not a Nahuatl but a Maya symbol for one of their Calendar- 
days. It doubtless performs this function on the Palenque slabs, on 
account of' tin: number of bars and points that stand by it. 

204 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

origin. " If it is Nahuatl," he says, " the word Olmecatl must contain 
in its first syllables the name of the place Olmau, while mecatl is the 
ending for those names and places which end in man. Those, however, 
who prefer Huimeca, which is the orthography employed by Torquemada, 
can not fail to recognize in the root the word olli or hulq. rubber." That 
the Nahoas should have called the Olmecas a Rubber ^ ':oplq can not 
surprise us more than the designation they gave to other neighboring 
tribes, as the Zapotecas and the Xicalancas. They named, the inhabit- 
ants from the chief products found in their territories, or which they 
procured from them. The xicara is a tree gourd from which the natives 
even at the present time make their drinking vessels, ami their utensils 
for washing and for the kitchen. The zapote is a soft apple from which 
meal is produced to be used in case of a bad harvest of corn, in making 
a variety of tortilla much liked by the natives. The hule, on the con- 
trary, is the thickened juice of Castiloa edulis, which among natives so 
much given to ornamental finery was used to fasten feathers to their 
diadems, helmets and cassocks, and to light the tires in their vessels 
containing copal used at their sacrificial cercmionies. To explain the 
name Hulineca from the large production and use of this valuable 
sap, is at least very reasonable, but has the appearance of an after- 
thought. It will be preferable to derive the j^brd from Oloman, for this 
is the proper name of one of the four principal leaders of the conquering 
immigrants, as we shall see hereafter, with whose tribe the Nahoas 
probably first came in contact, and they may have named the neighbor- 
ing settlements from it. 1 Buschmann's purely linguistic conjecture 
thus receives from the discovery of the name Oloman a valuable 
historical confirmation. 

The present extent of the high plateau of Tlascala, however, seems 
to have been but a small portion of the ancient territory of the Olmecas. 
Without contradiction from any source, Sahaguir, in a broader and 
more antiquarian sense, describes the whole of the coast of the Gulf of 
Mexico, from Tampico Southward to the Laguna de Terminos, as the 
old territory of the Olmecas, which his contemporaries, the Nahoas, 
indicated to him by that name. They informed him that the Northern 
part of this territory was still known among Nahoa natives by the name 
Olmeca- Vilztoti, while the Southern portion bore the name Olmeca- 
Xicalanca. He does not say what tribe dwelt between these two 
territories. He cared to collect only what the natives knew and had 
preserved about the Olmecas, whom they recognized as the most ancient 
people, and, indeed, their notions about those things seem to have been 

'Oloman recurs repeatedly itt Popol-Vuh as being one of the most 
ancient chieftains of the Quiche (Maya) tribe. He is mentioned 
together with Tepeu, Cohah, Quenech and Ahau. In the Katunes of 
Maya History, § 1, he seems to appear under the name " Holon-Chan- 
Tepeuh and his followers." Proceedings Am. Ant. Soc, Oct. 1879. 

u Sahagun (Hist. d. 1. Conquista d. 1. Nueva Espaiia in Kingsbor. 
Coll., Vol. VII., Lib. III., Cap. XIX., § 12, and the end of § 14. 


The Olmecas and tltv Tultewi 



exceedingly vague. Let us therefore supplement this omission by stilting 
that on the coast similar changes of occupation had occurred as on the 
high plateaux. While there the Tlascaltecas had broken the unity of 
the Olmecas, a new tribe of Nahoa descent had shifted towards the 
coast and divided the Olmecas who resided on the seaboard into a 
Northern and a Southern portion. This tribe was known as the 
Totonacas. Their chief town was Cempoalla, au3 they were the tirst 
to salute Cortes as the long-expected deliverer Quetzalcohuatl, and who 
drew his attention to " the riches of Colhua and Mexico." They enabled 
him by their friendly offices to penetrate to Anahuac, and protected him 
later in his retreat to the coast. 

Let us now turn to what Sahagun reports concerning the territory of 
the old Olmeca-Viztoti, which was known to his contempararies by the 
name Huasteca or Cuexteca. Inhabiting both sides of the river Panuco, 
they extended downwards to near the Tecolutla river. On the Western 
side they bordered on the limits of tribes not particularly described, and on 
the East were the waters of the Gulf of Mexico, where the alluvium from 
the rivers had formed the great bayous of Tampico, Tamiagua and Tuspan, 
Of the ruins which are left there only the great teocalli, the pyramids of 
Papantla and Misantla are known. B~Jt this district has hardly been 
explored at all. Besides other reasons to be hereafter stated, we have 
the following grounds for believing that it is here we must look for the 
so-called Tamounchan, very often mentioned in historical accounts as the 
supposed starting point of prehistoric civilization. The names of 
places in no part of Central America and Mexico begin with Tarn, 
while alone near the mouth of the river Panuco and the Laguna of 
Tamiagua we find such names in great abundance. 1 (See map.) It is 
true the word Tamoanchan does not appear on our maps, but the 
similarity of sound induces us to associate it with the others, and to ask 
the question what was really the meaning of the tarn so frequently 
recurring in the language of the Huastecas. Of this the grammar and 
vocabulary of Father Tapia Zenteno, 2 which appeared in Mexico in the 
year 1767, affords us information, and we find that tarn may mean both a 
canoe, and a son when his mother calls him. But if used in connection 
with the names of places, it is equivalent to there are, and Zenteno gives 
a variety of examples. Now, if the second syllable oan expresses the local 
adverb where, according to Zenteno's vocabulary (page 45), and the last 
syllable chan or tzan means a serpent, we have a pure Iluastecan word 
which means the place where serpents live. We can safely change the word 
serpent for priest or sorcerer, as according to the use of the Central 
American languages either interpretation would be correct. If people 

'As we had no room to write them out on the map, they shall be 
enumerated here |n full: Tainaulipa, Tampico, Tamesin, Tamiagua, 
Tampazquin, Tampacan, Tamuy, Tainpaol, Tamguyo, and probably 
many more of the kind, not written on the map of V. A. Malte Brum in 
Brasseur's Hist. d. Nat. Civ. du Mexique. 

'^Carlos de Tapia Zenteno, Noticia sobre la Huasteca, Mexico, 1707. 

20(> American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

speak of snakes they always add a description of the particular kind 
they wish to indicate. 

The language of the Iluastecas is one of the many dialects which 
belong to the great Maya stock. We have seen above that while the 
Tenimes of the Olmecas in the Northern valley of Tlascala learned and- 
spoke the Nahua idiom, but never were able to reach that elegance 
with which it was spoken at Tezcuco, the portion of the Olmecas living 
beyond the mountains of Tlascala and residing on the A i. antic slopes 
and in the Huasteca proper had preserved their parent idiom, the 
Maya. 1 The Nahoas and these Iluastecas did not understand each 
other. The civilized Mexicans politely called the Huastecas "tohueyo, 
our neighbors," but the common people are said to have called them by 
various bad names. They ridiculed their teeth, which they used to lile 
to a point and to color black, and found fault with the red and yellow 
color of their hair and with their indecency in not wearing a maxtli. 
But they were held to be very rich. The women wove cotton into the 
finest fabrics. They made holes in their noses and ears and suspended 
therefrom green stones set in gold rings. Their arms and feet they 
ornamented with ruffles made of feathers, and around their necks and 
heads they wore frills in the form of fans. -From this description of 
Sahagun,'-' we might believe that he had taken his information, not from 
the lips of the natives but from some of the many sculptures of the 
Maya race, from Huasteca to Yucatan, itia'd as far as Palenque and 
Copan. Sahagun also mentions this fact, that the Huastecas cut off the 
heads from captive and fallen foes, as we see often in those sculptures 
where a head hangs from I he richly ornamented girdle of a victor. J while 
in regard to their Totonacan neighbors, he informs us (1. c. § 9) that 
they lived in a more civilized way, probably on account of their kinship 
to the Nahoa stock. These Totonacas, like the Huastecas, had strikingly 
low foreheads, but they shaved them artistically, and their faces being 
much longer gave them a better appearance. They made use of mirrors 
and never neglected to put on a maxtli under the huipil, which was woven 
like a net. They also delighted to ornament themselves with gold and 
feathers, which, as they were worn by men of a whiter color, more 
strongly built and having nobler countenances than their neighbors! 
gave them a splendid appearance. One part of the Totonacas spoke the 
Otomi, another the Nahoa, and a third part the Huasteca dialect, which 

l C. Hermann Jierendt, Remarks on the Centres of Ancient Civiliza- 
tion in C. America; Address before the Amer. Geogr. Society of New 
York, July 10th, 187G, page 10. 

-B. <1. SaMyuri, Lib. X., Cap. H, parrafo 10. 

•'Stone statues of this description are exhibited in the rooms of the 
New York Historical Society. For heads cut off and hanging down 
from the girdle,,. see illustration given by J. Lloyd Stephens, Central 
America, etc., Vol. II. , page i3f>3, and Ph. J. J. Valentin!, Two Mex. 
Chalchihuites, page 13, Proceedings Am. Ant. Soc, April, 1881. 




The Olmeeas and the Tultecas. 


remark designates plainly the territory of such tribes as they had 

TheOlmeca-Xiealancas are said to have lived South of the Totonaeas. 1 
The chroniclers add nothing regarding them except that the name 
Xicalanca still survives in two places on the coast of the Gulf, the one 
in the neighborhood of Vera Cruz, the other upon one of the islands 
lying near the Laguna de Terininos. The first had been a market very 
much resorted to; the other is still somewhat fivnuented to-day for the 
same purpose. At the time of the conquest, territory of this 
Southern part from the Totonaeas downwards beyond Tabasco was 
variously designated. The Mexicans called the coast from Vera Cruz to 
the mouths of the river Alvarado Chalchihuecan (the land of green 
mussels). From here to the mouths of the Guatzacoalco the coast was 
called Anahuac-Xicalaaco (Xicalanco by the water). Then followed the 
present territory of Tabasco with the name Nonohualco (the land of 
Nonohual). The interior of the country directly West bore the name 
Cuetlachtlan (the land of wolves'-). It is important to note that 
Mexican traditon designates the whole of these Atlantic slopes and 
coast as the land of the early Olmeeas. The reason is probably because 
about the year 1100 the highlands of Mexico were overrun by several 
Nahoa tribes, and the former inhabitants were driven slowly towards 
the coast, as we have already seen in the case of the Totonaeas who 
stopped only at the sea. Other Nahoas, more adventurous, spread 
themselves further, and we^have strong historical proof of their 
appearance and occupation in Yucatan at this same period. 3 

When, therefore, the name of the Olmeeas appears in the early 
Mexican records of the Nahoas, we must not hesitate to recognize in 
them that people East of Anahuac who spread along the Atlantic slopes 
and South of it through Yucatan, Tabasco and the Whole of Guatemala, 
and whom we designate to-day by the collective name of Maya. The 
Nahoas never attempted to bring them into subjection, for although we 
find the Northern highlands of Tlascala and the coast of the Totonaeas 
occupied by Nahoas, and their language still spoken, their success was 
achieved slowly, and with qualifications, in a long period of years, begin- 
ing with the year 10G4. Before this epoch, the Olmeeas. when hard 
pressed, retired to the Northern mountains of Tlascala or returned after the 
lapse of years to places on the plain which had remained unoccupied, and 

l Feniando de Alva Jxtlilxochitl, Relaciones Historicas, Tom. I. 
in Kingsbor. Coll., Vol. IX. Las Casus, Ilistoria Apologetica, T 
Cap. 123. Juan de Torquemada, Monarq. Indiana, Tom. 1, Cap. 

Tom. III., Cap. 8, Madrid 
gen. d. 1. Indias, Cap. (1(1, 
Coll., Vol. II., plate 91. 
Tom. 1, Cap. 12. 

2 See the map. 

J Fh. J. J. Vale/Uini, Katunea 
Ant. Society, Worcester, Mass. 

1013. Francisco Lopez de Goinara, 
Zaragoza, 1552. Codex Valicauits. K 
Mar. Veijtia, in Kingsbor. Coll., Vo 

of Maya History, Proceeding 
Oct., 1879, page 44. 

, Cap. 1, 
om. Ill, 
23, and 
1. VIII., 

of Am. 

208 /hnefican Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

which Acosta, Torqueniada and others have designated as Yancuictlapan- 
Huapalcalco, Texoloc and liuexotzlnco. Here they began peacefully to 
n)ingle with the Nahoas and to construct that peculiar dialect, which the 
Spaniards were unable to decide, whether it was more nearly related to the 
Nahuatl, or to the Olmeca. The Olmecas, therefore, as primitive owners 
of the soil, were those who taught the needy immigrating Nahoas the 
secrets of their country. Nowhere can we detect any evidence that the 
Nahoas or Mayas, impelled by mutual hatred or religious ;eal, had ever 
sought to exterminate each other. Land for settlements ana for agricul- 
tural purposes could be obtained in abundance. Covetous encroachments 
of the poorer immigrants against the possessors of the soil, and alterca- 
tions and violence on the border-land no doubt existed. It was only after 
the year 1064 that serious troubles began to affect them, of which it is 
not our purpose to speak here. If the ancient Nahoas, well known to us 
under the name of Tultecas, had really brought with them from their 
Northern homes the worship of the sun, we see on the other hand the 
worship of the ancient and venerable Tlaloc, the God of Clouds and 
Rain, of the Mayas preserved among them. This worship was also 
continued by the fanatical Aztecs, of whom we read that they had built 
for him a chapel, with his statue inside, on the platform of the large 
Pyramid near to that of their own God IJuitzilopochtli. 

We may add that as at the time of the Conquest those Mayas who had 
settled in companies on the Pacific Coast from Nicaragua as far down as 
Nicoya were also designated by the pime of Olmecas. 1 It is stated that 
they had been expelled from Cholula and driven there about the year 1100. 
This statement will be continued when we examine the vocabulary col- 
lected in Nicaragua by the historian Oviedo, in 1530. It shows a strong 
intermixture of Maya and Nahuatl words, the latter imported by ;i party 
of Mexicans, who about the year 1350 made a sudden appearance and 
settled in the midst of the Olmecas along the shores of the Lake of 
Nicaragua. By this invasion this new Olmecan ground was divided into 
two portions, the Northern called Choluteca, and the Southern Nicoya, 
both names being still preserved. Oviedo' 2 spells it Chorotega, and 
observes sagaciously that the invaders spoke a different language from 
the former settlers, however, without stating the descent of these two 
colonists, or the events that had caused them to settle at such a 
distance from their original home. As a proof that Maya was spoken by 
these invading Olmecas, we may mention the following fact: Gil 
Gonzalez de Avila, the first conqueror of Nicaragua, reported to the 
Crown of Spain that the cacique of Nicoya had furnished him with a 
messenger, to tell the cacique of Nicaragua that all the Calachuni in his 
country were already converted to Christ. In Calachuni we must 
certainly recognize the halach uinic or the holy men of the Maya 

l Juan de Torqueinada, Monarquia Indiana, Lib. III., Cap. 3i). 
•U-. F. de Oviedo y Valdes, Ilistoria Gen. y Nat. d. las Indias, Tonio IV. , 

18&2.] The Olmecax and the TuUecas. 209 

language. Thus, very probably, all the sculptures discovered by 
E. G. Squier 1 upon the islands of the Nicaraguan Lake derive their 
origin from those Cholutecan Olmeeas, an opinion which is highly 
corroborated by the similarity to those found in Iluasteca, Yucatan 
and Mexico in general. 


It appears like a contradiction when we propose to treat of TuUecas^ 
and declare at the very commencement that strict v speaking no naiion 
of TuUecas, nor empire, nor language of that name ever existed. Had 
their existence been a fact, there would have undoubtedly remained a 
collection of families in some corner of Central America and Mexico, 
which would look back with pride to the works of their forefathers, and 
which would have called their new home, however circumscribed its 
limits, Tulteca, and themselves the TuUecas; if so great an empire as is 
pretended had ever been destroyed. The missionaries would have 
traced them, and we should now meet their languages in grammars, 
catechisms and vocabularies. But of such records no vestiges remain. 
The contradiction, however, will be removed if we remind the reader of 
the fact that a tribe came from the North to Anahuac about the year GOO 
A. D., and settled near the lakes of Tenochtitlan and Tezcuco, gaining 
some prominence on this central spot; and if its language had only 
been preserved we should therein possess material in their idiom, different 
from that of the Olmccan-Maya, from which to draw sure inferences as 
to their preeminent intelligence, their high social civilization and their 
skill in all practical works appertaining to art and luxury. What we 
intend to emphasize, is our protest against the general opinion that 
this tribe ever called itself TuUecas, and that the people and tribes 
among whom it settled ever called it by that name. 

It is not difficult to understand what contributed to the promulgation 
and final adoption of this name in history, when we consult the rich 
material left us by the chroniclers. Alva de Ixtlilxochitl, a Spanish half- 
breed, who was descended on his mother's side from the noble house of 
Tezcuco, was the author of two voluminous works,'- in which he has 
described the history of his mother's people from the time of " the 
Great Deluge to the Spanish Conquest." Understanding their language, 
and possessing besides the complete annals of his people and knowing 
how to explain in fitting words their historical pictures, he felt a praise- 
worthy ambition to protect his race against the poor and distigurating 
scribbling of the Spanish missionaries, and to present himself as an 
authority in his people's history, more competent and more fully informed 
than they were. We will not discuss here wherein he also often fell into 

X E. G. Squier, Nicaragua, its People, Scenery, Monuments, etc. ; 
2 vols., New York, 1852. 

*Fem. de Aloa Ixtlilxochitl, Uelaciones Historicas ; Id.- Ilistoria 
Chichimeca; both in Kingsbor. Coll., Vol. IX. 

210 American Antiejuaritin Society. [Oct. 

error, and wherein we must set him clown as a very confused cliro- 
nologist. The great value of his work, for our purpose, consists in the 
supposition that among the pictured annals which he had before his 
eyes when he wrote, a sheet must have existed upon which the Exodus 
of the "Tultec Knights " (as he calls them) from the North to Anahuac 
with corresponding chronological signs was pictured, and that he 
describes to us their halting places, step by step, in a most circum- 
stantial manner. It is to be regretted that this sheet, as veil as all the 
others from which he worked, has been lost. The governm »nt of New 
Spain ordered these drawings with his MSS. to be given up, and forbade 
their printing and publication. Boturini (about 1700) rescued them 
from the archives, but he also was forced to give them up, and they were 
handed over to Veytia 1 for inspection and criticism. He examined 
the pictures and the text of Ixtlilxoehitl, and his labors were afterwards 
published. But the pictures themselves have disappeared, and some 
traces indicate that they found their way to France, while others denote 
that they were carried to England. The strongest proof that Ixtlilxoehitl 
possessed pictures of that kind, rests on his own description of the 
Tultec Exodus. It is detailed so accurately that any one who has 
obtained a sufficient familiarity with Mexican picture-writing, might 
almost feel enabled to undertake a reconstruction of the sheet from 
Ixtlilxochitl's text. 

We can not refrain from giving this text, though in greatly abridged 

" In a town, Tlachicatzin, in the aSSL'rritory Hue-Tlapallan, two chiefs 
named Chalcatzin and Tlacamitzin rose against the laws and existing 
order of things in the year 1 Tecpatl 2 (equivalent to the year 544 B. C). 
Punished with exile, they some time later tried their fortunes in war. 
But linally they found themselves obliged to fly and leave the country, 
and upon their way reaching the settlements of Tlaxiculiacan and 
uniting with the troops of related families living there, together 
they arrived at the settlement of Tlapallanconco. Here they husbanded 
their strength for three years, and after holding a council with 
five other chiefs, they decided to migrate still farther, because their 
enemies were too near to them. Their astrologer, Iluematzin 
(the man with the long hand) had told them of a far-distant land 
in the East where once the Quinametin had lived, who had been 
exterminated a long time ago, and whose territory was now without 
inhabitants and ready for occupancy. It was thought best to leave at 
Tlapallanconco some representatives, and then move onward. After a 

l Mar. Fern, de Veytia y Echeverria, Historia del Orijen, d. 1. Gentes, 
etc., in Kingsbor. Coll., Vol. VIII. 

2 This date 1 Tecpatl is well warranted, both by estimation and com- 
putation, as -being equivalent to 544 after Christ. The name 1 Tecpatl 
itself stands in Mexican chronology for every first year of the great 
period of 52 years. The then succeeding smaller epochs of 13 years 
(Tlapilli) begin with the years 1 Calli, 1 Tochtli and 1 Acatl. 


American Antiquarian Society. 


This description of the march is as clear as any of that time can be 
expected to be. With the exception of a few of the halting places, all 
other localities can be traced with certainty upon almost any good 
Mexican map. 1 Here and there Ixtlilxochitl's manner of spelling 
differs from the modern. For the nominal seat of the rebels, which 
the author calls Tlachicatzin, we do not need to look, because it was not 
the name of a place but of a person, and signifies " the Lord of the place 
where the Ball House stands." The mysterious Tlapallan of the North, 
we should place, from circumstances before mentioned, in the neighbor- 
hood of Culiacan, that is in the present state of Siualoa. The hiero- 
glyphic symbols designating their halts, the number ^ *' years of their 
stay, the number of years passed in going from place to place, the foot- 
prints marking the connecting lines, the hieroglyphic symbols for the 
names of individuals, the settlements they left on their march, and the 
chronological marks for the epoch of 13 years ( Tlapilli), must have all 
been spread before the Indian writer on that pictured sheet. His other- 
wise too dry description, he endeavored to enliven by interspersing 
phrases of their heroic poetry. In the ensuing enumeration of the chiefs 
who reigned at Tollan (all of them being preserved in the other 
chronicles and works, with modttcations which change nothing in the 
substance), Ixtlilxochitl makes a statement which has been much 
ridiculed. A law, he says, had been passed by the tribe that a chief 
should not be allowed to reign more than 52 years. A better under- 
standing of this seemingly impracticable rule will probably be reached, 
by considering it as sanctioning an^old or introducing a new division of 
time, by which, as is well-known, the space of 52 years was regarded as 
a cycle. " Then Huematzin died,' so we read, "on reaching the great 
age of 300 years. But before hi^-death he had nevertheless completed 
the Teoamochtli, a book which contained the laws, the astrology, the 
division of time, the sacred rites and the whole science of his people." 
A perfect copy of the Teoamochtli (book of the gods) has not indeed 
been preserved. The so-called Dresden Codex, the Codex Tro, the 
Codex Vaticanus and others, are only fragments of similar compositions 
describing their ritual compositions. But the real existence of such a 
pictured Pandect-like collection can not be doubted in the least. Less 
credible appears the story of the prolonged life of Huematzin, the man 
with the great hand. But we shall not be mistaken, if we consider the 
statement of the death of Huematzin at 300 years of age, as a 
metaphor to be interpreted, that at the time of the settlement at 
Tullan, the reign of the priesthood came to an end and a new secular 
reign b,egan. The mentioned period of 300 years still remains of 
interest. If we should count this period back from the foundation of 
Tullan (048—300=348) we have the year 34b B. C, but if we venture to 
count back from the time of the exodus from Iluetlapallan, we should have 

Mexico, 1880. 


The Ohnecas and the Tultecas, 


(544 — 300 = 244) the year 244 B. C. This is about the middle of the 
third century, at winch time, according to other calculations (sec above) 
the beginning of an era of the Mexican nations seems to have fallen. 

Alva de Ixtlilxochitl says, that IJuematzin also left prophecies of the 
good and bad fortune which his Tribe would meet, and that they all took 
place even to the smallest details. We must not wonder at that, for 
they were after constructions, which later generations of his tribe have 
attributed to him out of respect. 

Only a short time afterwards the settlers at Tullan received an 
addition of men of a similar language, religion and race. They also 
came from the neighborhood of Culiacan; they had, however, taken a 
shorter and more direct road thence through A| ichoacan and Auahuac, 
and they had spent only 40 years in this migration. They were the 
so-called Mixcohuas, with whom Brasseur first made us acquainted by 
his translation from the Codex Chimalpopoca, written in the Nahuatl 
idiom. As to the substance of this work, it surpasses in completeues. 
and importance every other work of its kind, and a new critical transla- 
tion which is in preparation, promises the student more correct material 
than he ever had before without probably varying the leading features. 
This tribe of Nahoas came also to seek land for a settlement. From 
the «account before us, suggestions can be gathered that they had put 
themselves in communication with their co-nationalists at Tullan, and 
that they had made and ratified a treaty with them on the plains of 
Teotihuacan, by which they were allowed to oecupy the plateau of 
Anahuacwith its lakes, and settle at Quanhtitlan, but chiefly at Colhuacan. 
These Mixcohuas outlived their brother-tribe at Tullan for many cen- 
turies. The latter was already dispersed in the year 1004, while their 
brethren at Colhuacan resisted the invasion of the Ohichirnecas, in the 
tenth and eleventh centuries. It is narrated that in the year 1370 the 
ruler oi' Colhuacan gave a chief of his own blood to the recentiy-arrived 
tribe of the Aztecs, at their own request. These inhabitants of Colhua- 
can were always noted for speaking the Nahuatl tongue with the greatest 
elegance, and for having been the founders of the beautiful town of 
Tezcuco. When Cortes on landing inquired who ruled in the highlands, 
he was answered : The Mexicans and the Colhuas. Neither Cortes, nor 
any of his generals who advanced still farther heard of Tullan, or of the 
Tultecas, evidently because the tribe as such had become extinct live 
centuries before, and portions of it had already been absorbed into other 

After all, Alva de Ixtlilxochitl was not incorrect in regarding Tullan 
and its ancient inhabitants as a prehistoric people, and in calling them 
Tultecas. He was well acquainted with their palaces and temples, 
which then were in ruins, for he often refers to them as being memor- 
able and splendid antiquities, and it must have been well known to him 
that his tribe (for he was a Colhuan) did not found ami inhabit those 
ancient towns which extended as far as Yucatan, Chiapas and Guatemala, 



214 American Antiquarian Soviet//. [Oct. 

since lie does not intimate that his tribe had ever gloried in having 
erected such buildings as there exist, or had spread itself over such a 
large extent of territory. Hence we can readily understand, why 
Ixtlilxochitl should have attributed all this work to that ancient tribe of 
Tullan, which had long ago passed from existence. He must also have 
been acquainted with the appellation Tultecatl, so common among his 
own people, signifying a man skilled in all arts and handicrafts. He 
therefore had an inducement to state his impression, that these Tultecatl 
had been the early colonists and builders of the cities then in ruins. 
We have no objection to the derivation of the word tultecatl from 
Tullan. It seems everywhere the custom of the villagers, to look up to 
those living in the capital or chief town, as men o * large experience in 
arts, and to apply such designation in a wider sense also to persons and 
things. But as we can not prove that Tullan was the only or principal 
cradle of art and science, from which place they spread through the 
country, we have no right to speak of the architecture of the Tultecas 
or of their great empire, for, in respect to art treasures the highlands of 
Mexico make only a poor display, while the majority of them are found 
in Yucatan, Tabasco and Chiapas, in fact in such territories as were 
inhabited by the Mayas, and which were occupied by the Nahoas only at 
a very late date (1100-1200 A. D.), and at a time long after the stones 
composing these edifices had been placed in position, and had already 
• begun to crumble away. 

Thus far we have made ourselves acquainted with the theories 
regarding the prehistoric Olmecas and Tultecas, which were entertained 
at the time of the Conquest; we have grouped their settlements terri- 
torially and linguistically, pid have endeavored to give a correct 
chronological sequence to their movements. Now we will undertake 
another task which springs naturally from the subject, viz : to discover 
what our authorities will allo/v us to fix upon (1) as the points of depart- 
ure, (2) the line of inarch, and (3) the final resting places of the ancient 
tribes of Olmecas and Tultecas. Some of these questions have already 
been partially answered. But it still remains for us to discover in regard 
to the Tultecas, whence they came into that territory, from which Alva 
de Ixtlilxochitl, without any prior historical statement, describes their 
descent to Tullan. It is not possible that a people making use of a 
language so perfect and expressive could have come into sudden 
existence over night, like the mushroom, in the darkness of Culiacan. 
Such a people must of necessity date from the past, and possess a rich 
history. But no traces of such development and actual occupation can 
be found in the neighborhood«of Culiacan. The attempt has been made 
to represent the buildings of the Zuhis and the Cliff Dwellers as the first 
essays of an architecture, which we admire so much in its higher 
perfection in the ruined palaces of Mexico, and particularly in those of 
Yucatan. To believe in such a salto mortale would not be possible for 
anyone, who has made himself at all familiar with the first principles of 

1882.] The Olmeca* and the Ticltecas. 215 

architecture and tectonics. It is not easy to comprehend, indeed it is 
impossible to understand, how a people accustomed to erect high-storied 
buildings with windows in them, and who instead of entering from the 
ground floor by doors, climbed to the higher stories by ladders and 
descended again the same way, could arrive in the progress of time and 
architectural development to build houses of one story only on pyramidal 
mounds, and to make them without windows but always provided with 
doors, and to roof this story with a remarkably massive platform. 
The protoplasm of Tultec architecture can hardly have originated in the 
head of a ZuHi or of a Cliff dweller. It is ditlicult also to comprehend 
that the Tultecas should have made settlements so far Northward as the 
Zuni live. Had this been the case, among the many heads of animals 
found among Mexican hieroglyphics, we should^ have detected at least 
one of them resembling the characteristic buffalo, but we do not meet 
with the slightest trace of it. Therefore, deeming it preposterous 
to place the cradle of the Tultecas in the far North, we will no longer 
dwell on this hypothesis, but we will, on the contrary, endeavor to 
show, that according to the best indications the Tultecas must have 
lirst started from the East, and in particular from the coast of 
the Mexican Gulf, and thence have migrated in a North-westerly 
direction not very much farther North than Culiacan. As regards 
the Olmecas, whom we have learned from traditon landed at 
Panuco on the Gulf Coast, we will endeavor to answer this fur- 
ther question, how these 'magicians (for with this name the savage 
Maya Indians always designated them) could step by step establish 
themselves along the Gulf Coast as far as Golfo Dulce and Copan, and 
could impress upon the intervening territory and people, a civilization 
whose origin and character is still so enigmatical a problem to the 
modern student. '" 

We will begin with the lirst acts of the Olmecas on the Panuco coast, 
the coast of Tain, as we may call it. Three authorities are at our 
-disposal for this purpose — Sahaguu, the Codex Chimalpopoca and the 
Popul Vuh. In the first two we find stated the ideas entertained by the 
Nahoa writers regarding the Tultecas, and in the third the ideas 
entertained by the Maya writers respecting the Olmecas. As to the 
Codex Chimalpopoca and the Popul Vuh, the accounts given agree only 
iu their lirst chapters. They inform us how, after many fruitless 
attempts, man was created, or as we should state it iu modern prose, 
divested of poetical phraseology, how the rude savage was led step by 
step to civilization. Then follow in both works the account of certain 
catastrophes caused by atmospheric changes and volcanic eruptions 
which hindered but did not entirely put an end to the civilization already 
well advanced, and left a portion of the inhabitants unharmed to carry 
on the work. From this point these two authorities are at variance. 
The Nahoa (Codex Chimalpopoca) is occupied with the early history of 
the tribe, which is set down iu fixed chronological sequence from the year 



American Antiquarian Society. 


5 ( JG A. D. to the time of the Conquest (1521 A. !).)• Our attention is- 
turried immediately after the narration of physical convulsions to the 
consideration of particular localities, such as Anahuac and Teotihuacan. 
Another Nahoa tribe, not the Tultee tribe of Ixtlilxochitl, but one which 
afterwards came from the North and which is called the Mixcohuas, 
from the name of its leader, is described to us as celebrating in 
Teotihuacan a great religious ceremony, probably in connection with 
its neighbors from Tullan. The Maya chronicle (the Popul Vuh), on 
the oilier hand, goes on to state that the leader Gueumatz remained for 
a long time at Tamoanclian enduring great privations, until he secured 
provisions for his people and guides for his further progress in countries 
yet unknown to him, at Paxil and Cayala (which localities we shall 
endeavor to designate hereafter). From here we «,re abruptly trans- 
ferred by the author to Camuhibal and Xibalba, localities which, in spite 
of the obscurity which surrounds them, can be sufficiently well ascer- 
tained from the statement that great deeds were enacted there " in the 
Seven Caverns." From here they were frightened away and wandered for 
a long time with their god Tohil at their head, suffering; great hardships 
and privations, till we are able to locate them on their arrival at Guate- 
mala. We can follow them to-day on their route by the names of the places 
Mixtan, Cavistan and Avilitz, which they passed through, accompanied 
by a tribe called the Yaqui. 1 The whole narration is of loose coherence, 
without any chronological statement of time. Only a few circumstantial 
indications of historical dates can be elicited from this Maya authority 
(the Popul Vuh). The described migration hardly falls in the early 
epochs of Tultecan and Colhua wanderings. Our impression is that it 
rather occurred in the epoch of the eleventh and twelfth century, and 
that the Quiche tribe, whose fate and exploits the author of the Popul 
Vuh narrates, broke up from the North of Culiacan at about the same 
epoch when the seven Chichimecan hordes began to invade Anahuac, 
but that tiie Quiches went farther South and finally settled in Guatemala. 
While the Maya and thji'Nahuatl authorities may differ somewhat from 
each other in regard to the earliest events of their history, the substance 
of their narrations is strikingly identical, and it is only when passing to 
the narration of later events, that each of these authors endeavors to 
give an account of his own tribe. The inference, therefore, is easily 
suggested that both people may originally have sprung from the 
same source, and that at a later time they may have separated from 
each other and each followed its own fortunes by a different path. 
'* When they again encountered each other after the lapse of centuries, 
each of them may have been so entirely changed that recognition was 
difficult, if not entirely impossible. After what has been stated such an 
hypothesis is reasonably justified, and should not be instantly rejected. 
But from what follows it will be seen that there are positive grounds for 
advancing this hypothesis to the rank of a fact. 

'The Nahoa people appear in the chronicles of the Quiche and 
Cacchiquels always under the name of Yaqui. 



1882..] The Ohnecas and the Tultecas. , 217 

To secure this fact, we must now refer to our third source of informa- 
tion, to the report which Sahagun has left us regarding the prehistoric 
Mexicans. Sahagun is often quoted, and extracts from his Works have 
'been made by most modern writers upon this subject. We are therefore 
astonished to find, that certain statements which corroborate the views 
"we have advanced above, have hitherto escaped the attention of the 
readers of these records. As we intend to submit this chapter of 
Sahagun to close inspection it will be desirable to translate the text as 
literally as possible, o.raittiug only certain of the longer passages. 


..... Numberless years ago the first settlers came in ships and 
landed at a Northern port, which from that cause was called Panutla, 
now Pautlan. These travellers, having the snow-covered mountains and 
the volcanoes always in sight, began their je irney with a priest at their 
head, who carried their God before them, and in this way they finally 
•came down as far as Guatemala. 

Still their first settlement was Tamoanchan, where they remained for 
a long time under the constant direction of their Priests and Sooth- 
sayers, the Amoaxagues, who understood how to prepare their pictured 
annals. Though they all had travelled together, they (the Priests) 
separated themselves from them and carried away all the pictured 
annals, in which their sacred rites and acts had been described. But 
before they left they made the following statements to those that 
remained behind : " Know that your God lays upon you the command to 
remain in this country. He makes you lords and proprietors of it. 
Your God will return from whence he came and we will accompany 

Of all those wise men only four remained behind. They were 
Oxomogo, Cipaclonal, Tlaltecuic and Suchicoaco. When they were 
alone they held counsel among themselves and said: A time will come 
when there must be light and when our community will need laws for its 
guidance. But how shall we govern this people while their God is 
absent'/ They Jave taken away our Books; what can we do without 
the advice of Astrology and the interpretation of dreams? At once they 
set to work and made a reckoning of the days and nights and of the 
Division of Time, and this reckoning lias always been observed, so long 
as the Tultecas, the Mexicans, the Tecpanecas and all the Chichimecas 
possessed a government. Only it is not possible to discover distinctly 
from this reckoning how long they remained at Tamoanchan ; but it was 
well known that this had been stated in the Books that had been burned 
in the reign of the King Itzcohuatl. 

From Tamoanchan they then went to a town called Teotiuacan, and 
here they took steps for the election of a leader. Then they built tombs 
and mounds for the Sun and Moon, and though it is not easv to believe 

l Sahagun, Libro X., Cap. 19, parrafo 14. 

218 American Antiquctvian Society. [Oct. 

that all this had been done by the hand of man, it is nevertheless true, 
because they were a giant race. This we see clearly to-day on the great 
mountainous hill of Cholula, which was erected with lime and bricks of 
adobe. The town was named Teotiuacan, because Teutl was there, 
which signified God. 

While they all remained at Tamoanchan, some of the families left and 
settled iu a province called to-day Olmeca-Vitztoti, and we know that 
they practiced, all kinds of abominations and witchcraft in the most 
ancient times, because their chief, the Olmeca-Vitztoti, had made a 
compact with the Devil and received his name iu consequence. Of him 
it is narrated :..... And there was a Cuexteco who was the 
leader of the Guaxtecas, who drank live glasses of wine, whereby he lost 
his reason; he kicked away his mantle, and because of his shame-he tied 
to Panotlan with all his vassals and with those who spoke his language. 
But the others remained at the place which we -all to-day Toveime, in 
their own language Toompahan and in romance "our neighbors." The 
modern name of the Guaxtecas is derived from that of their chief. . . 
(A detailed narration of his sorceries follows). 

After order and good government had been maintained for a long time 
at Tamoanchan, they removed their settlement faraway to a place called 
Sumiltepec. Here the Lords, the Elders and the Priests came together 
and held a council, and said that their God had declared that they should 
no longer remain at Sumiltepec, but that they must wander farther 
away and discover new territory, and for that reason the young and old, 
the men and the women, set out again upon their wandering, proceeding 
at first very slowly, until they came to Teotiuacan, where they elected 
those who should lead and rule over them; and so every chief accom- 
panied those who spoke his language, and each division (cuadrilla) 
carried at its head the God that belonged to it. The Tultecas always 
went first; then came the Otomies. When these with their leader had 
reached Coatepec, they went no farther with the others, for from this 
point their chief led them to the mountains where he wished them to 
make a settlement, and this is the reason why they always made their 
sacrifices upon mountain heights and began to build their dwellings 
upon the declivities. But the Tultecas, the Mexicans and the Nahoas,' 
and all the others, went on their way over the plains and the high, cold, 
desert places (paramos) that they might discover new lands, and each 
family was preceded by its God as a recognized leader. No tradition, 
however, remains behind of the length of time they wandered in tins way. 
At length they came to a valley surrounded by high hills, where they 
rested themselves and wept over the many hardships and griefs they 
endured, for they suffered hunger and great thirst. \\\ this valley there 
were seven caverns, which they selected for their places of worship, 
and here they sacrificed ever afterwards, according to their custom. 
The memory and the reckoning of all the time that they remained there 
are alike entirely lost. 



The Ohnecas and (he Tultecas. 


While now the Tultecas with the others remained there, it is reported 
that their God spoke to them in particular (que Su Dios les hablo a parte) 
and commanded them to return back to the same place from whence 
they came, and not to remain there any longer. When the Tultecas 
heard this, they inaugurated sacrificial rites in the seven caverns before 
their departure, and afterwards they all arrived at Tollantzinco, from 
whence they moved at a later time to Xicotitlan, which to-day is called 

In later years the Michoaques, with their leader Amimitl, returned 
from that place and settled towards the setting of the sun, where they 
still dwell to-day. Little by little the Nahoas came back, whom we 
to-day call Tecpanecas. The Acoloaques, the Huxotzineas and the 
Tlascaltecas came back also. Each of these families came here by itself 
where Mexico now stands. And finally came also the Mexicans them- 
selves, who had remained behind, for to them likewise their God had 
said *****" jTor that reason all t.-e natives of that country 
are in the. habit of saying that they had been bi jught up in those Seven 
Caverns, and that from them they had migrated down to their present 
abodes. But that is not true, for they did not move away, but only went 
thither that they might bring their offerings from there at the time when 
they (the Tultecas) dwelt in that valley." . . . (Then follows a short 
sketch of the Aztecs, of whom we already know, and an explanation to 
the effect that all those nations which came from the North called them- 
selves Chichimecas, as also those which inhabited the plateaux and had 
been assimilated with them.) " All these Chichimecas," says Sahagun, 
u spoke the Nahuatl language, yet with notable differences of dialect. 
On the other hand, the nations which dwelt in the East, as the Olineca- 
Vixtoti and Nonohualca, did not call themselves Chichimecas." 

It will not be out of place to add a few explanations to this account of 

What portion of our globe had been the home of those lauded at 
Panuco? The answer to this question lias been the object of long-con- 
tinued speculation. Thus much is certain : they must have come from a 
highly civilized country, ilence no reasonable ground can be alleged for 
placing its source in the North of our Continent. Were we to allow our 
views to be guided by circumstantial evidence (since no other is at hand) 
it is the antique civilization of Western Asia which affords most points 
of similarity to that of ancient Mexico. But by what fate these 
foreigners were driven away from so distant a home, what means of 
locomotion they employed and by what routes they chanced to enter the 
Panuco river, it will be impossible ever to ascertain. On all such interest- 
ing points tradition is absolutely silent. We only read the statement 
that their first appearance was in canoes, and at the month of the said 
river; and that some time later, one part of them started for the North- 
west of Culiacan, and another part for the South of Yucatan. We can 
not fairly presume that they would have come from either of these 

220 American Antiquarian Society, [Oct. 

regions .simply to return thither. We must therefore rather conclude 
that they came from the North or the East. In the North our eyes meet 
with the vast half of our continent, destitute at that time of any traces 
of that peculiar kind of civilization, which these foreigners so rapidly 
established in Central America. On the East lay the boundless waters 
of* the Gulf and the Atlantic Ocean. If they came by this route, the 
rushing waves have long since buried the secrets of their path behind 
the furrowing keels of their barks. 

Nor do we gain any information in regard to the number of those that 
arrived. It is difficult to believe that they arrived in large numbers, 
but quite the reverse. If they were wise men, who possessed- a knowl- 
edge of the stars, who could calculate periods of time and were acquainted 
with worldly arts, then indeed but a small number of them would be 
required to overawe the rude savages, to change them first into servants 
and afterwards into willing followers, who would accompany them like 
sons of the same family on their later migrations, to subdue their neigh- 
bors and afterwards to conquer more distant tribes k 

It is not probable that the site of Tamoanchan was any longer recog- 
nized at the time of the Conquest. We have already stated that the word 
in the Huasteca language signifies "the place where the serpents live." 
But the ruined pyramids of Tuzpan and Papantla, as well as those of 
Mizantla, furnish hints where we may look for the forgotten place. 
These very names are not original in the Huasteca or Maya language. 
They were given by the Nahoas, probably by the Totonca tribe. In the 
language of the Huastecas this kind of pyramidal construction was 
called Paxil 1 (templo, cue, baluarte) and Cayalha is the first place 
mentioned in the Popul Vuh, where the leader of those who landed 
found the first ear of maize. Cayala in Maya signifies water of the fishes. 

The departure of the leader for the South, carrying the Books of the 
Council and the Gods, apparently for further colonization, and the state 
of abandonment in which the deserted settlers found themselves, are 
dramatically described. The tale is evidently gathered by Sahagun from 
the lips of the Indians, and we accept it without hesitation or comment on 
its intrinsic credibility. It is however not reported in the Popol-Vuh. 
The Popol-Vuh'- at this point enlarges on events which concern the Maya 
tribe. We now learn from Sahagun how the deserted band, the future 
Tultecas, endeavored to shape their destiny. They organized themselves 
into an independent body. They reconstructed from memory the Book 
of the Council and also the traditional calendar, probably preserving- 
its fundamental features. They gained in number and in strength, so as 
to send a colony to the mountains of Huasteca. Still further to the 
West they discovered the beautiful plain of Teotihuacan, inhabited by 
Otomies, anil there laid the foundations for a central sanctuary. We find 
them also busied at Sumiltepec. If we might venture to change this 

'See Zenteno, Noticia de la leugua Huasteca, vocabulary appendix. 
'-'Popol-Vuh, ed. Brasseur, Paris, 1861, page 215. 


The Qlmecas and tJte Tultecas, 


word into Samiltepec, supposing a very probable error of print or of 
composition, we should receive from such correction a hint where to look 
for this place, which can no longer be found on any map. Samilli, or 
more correctly xamilli, signifies "brick" and tepee "mountain." We 
might then recognize the Pyramid of Cholula in this mountain of bricks, 
to which they transferred their residence from Tamoanchan, and when 
we read farther on, that from this place they moved very " leisurely" to 
Teotihuacan, the discovery and fixing of that locality which is so near 
Cholula, is rendered more certain. In this description of their gaining 
Ground on the high plateaux of the West, we obtain a glimpse of the 
manner in which these foreign colonists, taking the shortest course 
from the coast, were able to reach the highlands, and obtain a very strong 
confirmation of their special agency in establishing those central points 
of civilization always recognized as prehistoric, to-wit : Cholula 1 and 

Their restless leaders did not give the people time to settle in 
Xamiltepec. They led them onward to Teotihuacan, where the whole 
force was put in marching order, and as the author states, separated 
according to the languages spoken by the tribes. Of such tribes, how- 
ever, the Otomit'S alone are mentioned. This tribe, tenaciously clinging 
to the soil of its forefathers, seems to have been left at home as unfitted 
for distant expeditions. Yet we may fairly suppose that some of 
those tribes, with which the adventurers had come in contact on their 
line of operation between Tamoanchan and Teotihuacan, may have been 
induced by force or by persuasion, and by anticipations of good luck, to 
join in the novel enterprise. 

The Tultecas, we read, marched always at the head of the column. 
This is the first mention of them we have in the account. It might 
almost seem fromthe statement that these Tultecas had joined themselves 
to those leaders for the first time at Teotihuacan. This may indeed 
have been the case, when we consider that the foreign immigrants had 
some time before established this sanctuary, and that friends must have 
been living there, who took an interest in this movement of their 
co-nationals, and had furnished them provisions, guides and addition to 
their numbers. Possibly also the settlers in Teotihuacan had for these 
very reasons claimed the leadership, and should we not be ready to 
believe that they had at that time adopted the name of Tultecas, we may 
suppose that Sahagun only followed the tradition according to which the 
first tribe which returned back from the North, about the year 544 A. D., 
in order to settle at Tollan, was usually designated as the Tultecas. 
Whether we are right or not, the distinct statement, that the said tribe 
of Tultecas, with another from Tamoanchan, jointly undertook an 
expedition from Teotihuacan, directed towards the North for further 
exploration, is very interesting. 

'Head on these explorations Braiitz Mayer, Mexico, as it was. and as 
it is; New York: Wiley & Putnam, 1844, page 240. 


222 American Antiquarian Society, [Oct. 

Led by that tribe they wandered in a Northerly direction, suffering 
much from hunger and thirst, through lonesome wilds, over high and 
cold tracts, till they arrived at a deep valley where they found shelter in 
seven caverns. A shorter or more graphic description of the wanderings 
of a national caravan, self-reliant and aggressive, moving over the high 
plateaux of Guanajuato, Zacatecas, Guadalajara, Durango and Cinaloa, 
can scarcely be given. Nothing is more strongly emphasized in all the 
traditions of these people than their stern combats with Nature. They 
never chose to give a moving description of bloody encounters with 
formidable enemies, but they chiefly recount the thirst, the hunger, and 
especially the cold which they had to endure, and how they struggled 
against these three enemies and finally overcame them with the help of 
their astute priests, whom they classed with their Gods. 

Where the valley with the seven caverns was situated, how long they 
remained there, and how widely they dispersed after they had grown 
strong, and what wild tribes they subjected, on these points Sahagun, as 
well as all other native and Spanish chroniclers, are silent. One thing 
only, already mentioned, is communicated by the chroi >cler Ixtlilxochitl : 
that two of theTultec chiefs rebelled, retired to Culiacan and afterwards 
wandered Southwards to Tullan. Culiacan is the only place lying in a 
Northerly direction to which we can follow their wanderings and 
settlements with historical accuracy. Even from this information alone 
we gain much, for we obtain the direction of their North-western line of 
inarch ami a distinct locality from whence they may have spread in 
different directions. In the valley of Tuitan, in Zacatecas, we come 
upon a great extent of ruins, called La Quemada, which recent investiga- 
tions have so far failed to adequately describe. Higher up we meet the 
very suggestive names Durango and Chihuahua, and in their Southern 
boundary we find a tribe speaking an idiom, Sabaibo, 1 which to-day 
bears the same name, and has a strong resemblance to Chihuahua and 
Xibalba. It will be difficult for us now to discover the grounds upon 
which the Spaniards gave two of the names above mentioned to those 
two provinces. But we have the linguistic license to change the modern 
name Durango into the Nahuatl form of pronunciation, which would be 
Tulanco, meaning " in Tula." We must here remark that the Nahoas as 
well as the Mayas always designated Tula-' as the cradle of their race, 

'Carta Etnografica tie Mexico, por el Lie. M. Orozco y Berra : Mexico, 

-There has been much trilling in finding the true etymology of this 
name. Edw. IS. Taylor, J ' Anahuac," London, 1861, changes it into the 
Asiatic Turan. The Mexican historians spell it Tullan or Tollan, 
deriving it evidently from the word till, which means reed, in accord- 
ance with its hieroglyphic coat of arms, as represented in the Codex 
Meildoza by a bundle of reeds. The anonymous author of the Katunes 
changes Tulan to Tulapan. We must take care not to give too much 
credit to the tendency, which all nations have shown, to explain by means 
of their own idiom topographical names and sounds transmitted to them 


The Ohuecas and the Tultecas, 


therefore both of them in remote times must have dwelt in common in 
Tula. Both of them speak also of a valley with seven eaves, Chico- 
mosto.c in Naliuatl and Wukub-pek in Maya, In like manner we have 

by the earlier inhabitants. We think Tulan to be best explained by the 
Maya language, in which tul means abundance, and the aftix a the pre- 
position in ; hence "in the land of abundance." It is in this sense that 
Tulan is always mentioned in the chronicles and heroic songs oi' the 
Maya Quiches and Cakchiqueles, as the land in which they found repose, 
a home and happiness. In these songs, record is also made of tour such 
Tulans. The one lay towards the rising of the sun, hence toward 
the Eastern Ocean, and perhaps Tula, halfway between Tampico and 
S. Luis tie 1'otosi, a second at the setting of the sun. Now if this 
second Tulan in some of tht'se songs appears in combination with 
Xibalba also, and is designated as t lie Tulan of the Seven Caves, to 
which '-their Gods had brought them from the Tulan of the East," we 
can not help inferring from tins observation, that we have here in sub- 
stance before us, the same tale and tradition, which Father Sahagun had 
gathered among the Nahoas. The Tamoanchan of the one is the first 
and Eastern Tulan of the other, and the Chieomoztoc is the second 
Tulan. It was but natural that in Sahagun's narration, thcNahoa should 
give the leadership to their cognate tribe, the Tultccas, whilst the Quiche 
should bring into prominence such deeds as were performed by their 
ancient cognates, the Huastecas ; and we must not forget that the foreign 
conquerors, their leaders, were only few in number, and that the Huas- 
teca or other Maya natives, who had become their disciples, formed the 
stock of the colonists, who were carried away to settle among the 
Chichimecas. Being educated to a higher standard of culture, they had 
gradually assimilated to their teachers, and had thereby become able to 
transplant the nobler modes of life into the distant South of Guatemala 
in later centuries, where they were found at the time of the Conquest 
divided into the three nations, the Quiche, Cakchiquel and Xutigil. 
By the third Tulan probably the proper Tultecan city of Tullan is 
meant, 13 miles North of the city of Mexico; and the fourth. Tullan, 
" where God is," seems to have been situated in Chiapas, near Guatemala; 
this suggestion being given by the author of the chronicle, who com- 
plains that " the Zot/iles had prohibited his people from entering that 
sanctuary." The Zotziles and T/.endales are to-day two powerful Maya 
tribes, and occupy the central portion of Chiapas, from which the rapid 
waters of the Tabasco and Uzumazinta rivers roll down to the Gulf of 
Mexico, - and in which the ruined sanctuaries of Palenque and Ocosingo 
were discovered. Now, if the Maya-speaking people gave their 
principal migratory stations the name of Tulan, it seems as if the 
Nahoas had given theirs that of Tlapallan. Hue-hue tlapallan, to be 
translated the most ancient Tlapallan, could be located at Tamoan- 
chan, the place where the Calendar was made or reeomposed after 
the departure; of the Cods with the Book of Council. Hue-Tlapallan, 
ancient Tlapallan, could be identified with the country surrounding 
Culiacan, and by Tlapallan, without any prefix, we know that Chiapas 
was meant, the land to which Quetzalcohuatl resorted, and which Cortes 
was shown on his expedition to Honduras. He crossed this. Tlapallan 
on a road that led only a few miles distant from Palenque. , The trans- 
lation of the Nahuatl word Tlapallan is "Land of the Varied Colors." 
Therefore the meaning of the words Tulan and Tlapallan appears to 
give the relies of similar ideas. Though those wandering colonists, in 
reality, must have been sufferers wherever they halted and settled, the 
past, in imagination, presented itself always in the brilliancy of a 
Golden Age. 

224 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

no difficulty in recognizing the name Chibaiba, so often mentioned in the 
Popol Vuh as the most ancient abode of elouds and darkness, where the 
ancestors of the Maya-Quiches astonished the barbarians in Chihuahua, 
or perhaps the modern Zohaibo, with their magic arts. Even Zuivan, 
which Maya authorities always place after the word Tula, should be 
added to this group of nomenclatures, all of which, in spite of their 
various spelling, indicate the same district. To this group also Cibola 
belongs, one of the seven cities sought for by Coronado. But we have 
strong grounds for doubting that the migration of the Quiches from 
Chibaiba down to Guatemala occurred at the epoch of the wandering of 
the Tultecas. The Quiches seem to hav.e remained in the North lor a 
Ions time, and then to have joined the great invasion of the Chichimecas, 
which took place in the tenth or the eleventh century. As to the return 
of the Tultecas, we refer to the quoted statements from Ixtlilxocliitl's 

We have something to say further, in regard to the sources of this 
information. They are as authentic as we could desire. Sahagun tells 
us in the prologue of his work how he obtained Ms facts. He took up 
his residence at Tepeopulco, a large Indian villag t near Tezcuco, and 
with the help of their chief, who had become a Christian, and who was 
there called Don Diego Mendoza, he brought together about a dozen 
Indians well acquainted with the early history of their country. To 
these he added four of his own so-called grammatical parishioners, and 
handed them a plan and disposition of the subjects of which he wished to 
treat. It was the business of the older Indians to extract the meaning 
from the original painted annals, and to set in order the various state- 
ments of the text near their appropriate symbols, and at the same tin^e 
the four grammaticians obtained from the Indians an understanding of 
the meaning of the pictures ami translated it into the Nahuatl language. 
Sahagun then translated this text into Spanish. From this results the 
formality of diction in the chapters on early history as compared with 
what follows and was of Sahagun's own composition. None of the other 
historians have employed such a methodical system of learning their 
secrets from the Indians themselves. Although the manuscript of 
Sahagun was first published by Bustainante at Mexico in 1820, and after- 
wards republished by Kingsborough at London, the facts contained in it 
were already known in the sixteenth century. The Superior of his order 
took the MSS. away from Sahagun, and Duran, Tobar, Acosta. Torque- 
mada and other authors, have drawn facts from them. Torquemada 
confesses this frankly. We were therefore induced to select Sahagun as 
our best authority, and taking his text for a foundation, to locate the 
first germs of the so-called Tultec race, not at the North, but at a landing- 
place on the coast of the Mexican Gulf. 

It only remains for us to endeavor to follow the march of that troop of 
wise men, who separated themselves from the small colony at Tamoan- 
chan, taking the holy books with them, and directing those whom they left 

im-2.] The Olmecm and the Ttdttms. 225> 

behind to await their return. In regard to the direction they went and 
about their fate nothing in particular is said. No Nahoa writer, as wo be- 
lieve, lias ever taken up this subject. Were it not for the single document 
written by an anonymous Maya author, we should be entirely in the dark 
with regard to the deeds performed by those Wise Men. The Katunes of 
Maya History, which we have quoted on various occasions, although 
very much abridged, aiford us an insight into the gradual colonization 
and the settlements formed by the invaders. A synchronous history of 
the two consanguineous tribes, after their separation in Tamoanchan, 
eould be restored in chrouologieal sequence to a certain extent, from the 
middle of the third to the eleventh century. To do this is not our present 
task. We only wish to draw attention to certain points, that may become 
of importance, when the task of penetrating deeper into that mysterious 
epoch of American prehistory is undertaken. 

When we inspect, on the map, the Atlantic coast-line, from Panuco 
Southwards to Honduras, we observe the openings of four large gulfs. 
There is first the double Gulf of Tampico, then that of Los Terminos, 
also called Xicalanco; the third is the Gulf of Bacalar, or Chetuinal, 
and the fourth the Golfo Dulce,, with its gre. t inland-lake of Itzabal. 
Beginning at Tanuco and ending at Itzabal, the whole coast and adjacent 
interior is ancient Maya ground and territory. As far as the invasions 
of the Nahoas, about the eleventh century, had made them acquainted 
with that country, they had called the inhabitants of it Olmecas. . It is 
from the lips of Columbus that we hear for the first time the name 
fl Maya. He picked it up at a point in the neighborhood of the Golfo 
| Dulce, on his fourth voyage. 1 It is not without significance that 

tradition always designates three of the above-named gulfs, the Laguna 
de los Terminos, that of Bacalar and that of Panuco as the landing- 
places of the early settlers, and the following considerations will become 
interesting in the highest degree. Directly in the neighborhood of those 
gulfs we meet with ruins of the greatest importance. In the plain 
South of Panuco lie those of Papantla and Misantla. On the Laguna de 
los Terminos, overlooking it from a height, stand those of Palenque. 
On the gulf of Bacalar we find the ruins of Yumpeten (Island of the 
Lord). On the fourth gulf, that of Itzabal or Golfo Dulce, of which 
however tradition makes no mention, we find the large ruins of (Juiriyua 
and Copan. The character of those ruins is everywhere the same— a 
truncated pyramid, approached by a flight of steps (teocalli in Nahuatl 
and Ku in Maya) either isolated or surrounded by other constructions 
This leads us to infer that the same people who landed at Panuco, and 
who built their teocalli in Anahuac, Zacatecas, and elsewhere, might also 
have made the constructions which exist from Panuco Southwards to 

'This interesting incident is reported by P. Martyr de Angleria, 
Ocean. Decadae, iii. , Lib. IV., from which we extract only the following 
passage: " In magno illo tractu regiones sunt duae ; Taya haee, Maya 
ilia liorhmatiir." 

22l) American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

the Golt'o Dulce. And we can well suppose that, landing from their 
canoos and leaving a colony at Tamoanchan, the Wise Men may have 
navigated the coasts, taking advantage of the protecting bays, and have 
taken possession of the elevated and healthy headlands, and that after- 
wards they pursued the ir work by colonization farther into the interior. 
Should the above list of constructions of a similar character, erected 
in localities having the same natural conditions, and situated upon the 
same coast, not oiler sufficient evidence of the course of the early 
Central American colonization, and proof that Tamoanchan was the 
place from which it started, we can strengthen the argument by the 
following additional facts. We turn again to Sahagun, who calls the 
people living on the coast between Panuco and Tabasco, Olmeca. Begin- 
ning with Panuco and the lluasteca province he enumerates them in this 
order: Olmeca-Vixtoti, Ohneca-Anahuac and Olmeca-Nonohualco. Of 
the lirst Olmecas he tells us tit length of their reputation as sorcerers. 
They could change themselves into all possible forms of animals, such 
its serpents, tigers, eagles and wolves. If we analyze the name Vixtoti, 
we find in the lirst syllable a primitive word that recurs in all Maya 
dialects with such variations as linguistic usage nermits. Itz, uitz, 
■quix, means a sorcerer. 1 The savage Mayas, surprised by these arts, 
had good reason to give the new comers such a title. The second 
syllable of Vixtoti is the Nahuatl word teuctli, meaning a lord or sire, 
corrupted into toti by the natives, and by the Spaniards into leule. As 
far as we know the word vix does not appear in any connection with 
persons or localities that belong to the Olmeea-Anahuae, or that of the 
Olmeca-Nonohualco, but it reappears again in the Peninsula of Yucatan. 
There we find the famous Chichen-Itza and Itzamal, places recognized 
as centres of civilization. It is also worttiy of note, that the Maya 
annals report the name Of the invaders who landed atBacalar, as having 
been the Itzaes, and that they came from Tulapan and belonged to the 
house of Nonoalco. So also the Spanish chroniclers of Yucatan, repeat- 
ing the traditions of the people, state that it was Itzamna, who in primi- 
tive times organized and civilized the country.- Analyzing the Maya 
word Itzamna we find it composed of Itza, sorcerer, and na, house, and 
we shall do well to correct the prevailing idea that Itzamna was a person, 
and adopt the more probable supposition that the natives wished to 

'In the language of Chiapas it is Hix ; in Quiche and Caxchiquel, 
Yitz and itz; in Maya proper lo (pronounced ids) ; in lluasteca Chix 
and Iluitz. Zeuteno quotes as an example: Iluitz-ata, Gods-house." 

2 Las Casern, in his Historia Apologetica, Cap. 123, gathered his 
information, as we suppose, among the Tzendales and Zotziles. He 
spells lzona and in another place Atc,amma, by which the important 
syllable Hi is secured, which was dropped by later writers, so that 
Itzamna was cut down to the less suggestive form of Zamua. Also 
Cogolludo, Historia de Yucatan, lib. iv., Cap. 3, and ^Landa, Relaciou 
d. 1. Cosas de Yucatan, ed. Brasseur, Paris, 1864, § 5, page 30, and § 35, 
and page 216. The analysis of the name would give Itzaob-na, House, 
and if nh is accented, Mother of the Izaes. 


The Olmecas and the TuUecas. 


indicate thereby the dwelling of the Itza colony, which had settled in 
their country. As early as the eleventh century, multitudes of Nahoas 

as. ft *Ds: \ 





■had penetrated into Yucatan and had settled at Mayapan, and we read in 
the Katunes, that lVoni the neighboring mountains of Tabasco a tribe 
named Vitzes came 'o assist their clansmen, and were instrumental in 
destroying the seat of the tyrants. We may recognize in them the brother 
tribe of Quiche, the etymology of which name appears to have been derived 
in this way. Finally we lind this word in the form Itzabal (Itzaob-al — 
sous of the Itzaes) applied to a locality, and a laguna at the foot of the 
plateau of Copan, to-day the inland lake of Golfo Dulce. 

If we now condense the information already given we shall arrive at 
the following conclusions; 

The nationality of the men who landed at Panuco can not be ascer- 
tained. They came in canoes, very probably from a Northerly direction, 
and under this assumption they must have travelled or sailed very near 
the coast of Tamaulipas, or higher up along the South-western curve of 
the Gulf of Mexico. Soon after their arrival, this force separated. A 
part of it followed the direction of the coast towards the South and 
became instrumental in civilizing the Maya tribes of Central America. 
At such places, where in later times, the Nahoas came in immediate 
contact with the Mayas, they gave them the name of " Olmecas" By 

228 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

what name, however, the other Maya tribes of Yucatan, Chiapas and 
Guatemala were called by the Nahoas is unknown to us. The other 
portion, for whom we will retain the name Tultecas, ascended the high- 
lands towards the West. There they came in contact with the Quina- 
metiu upon the mountains, and lower down upon tin; plains of Tlaseala 
they found tribes that very probably also spoke the Maya language. An 
inundation surprised them, a pyramid was built at Cholula for protec- 
tion, and it served also as a temple. After they had become convinced 
of the subjection anil obedience of these Mnyas, they penetrated into 
the neighboring lands of the Otomi tribe, where they selected the plain 
of Teotihuaean as the central point of their civilization. Holding these 
strong positions in the rear, they fearlessly penetrated farther towards 
the North through barren tracts of country to the neighborhood of the 
so-called Chiehimecas. After they hail lived and worked among them 
for the space of about 250 years, a dissension broke out among their old 
leaders, and in consequence of it, two families left the country, deter- 
mined to join their Southern parent colony. They arrived at its oldest 
settlement at Huexotla (the City of Willows) the Huastec Tamland, 
where a future dwelling place in Tulla is assigned them. Some decades 
afterwards another family of their tribe, the Mixci^iua, followed them 
from Culiacan. They formed a settlement at Culhua« an upon the lake of 
Mexico. Both these families may be considered as the promoters of 
civilization among the Chichhncca and Otomi tribes. In the languages 
of the neighboring tribes, these Tultecas and Mixcohuas appear under 
different names. We lind that the Totonacas called them Colli tuts, 
probably from the name of their capital on the lake of Anahuac, and 
from that still older place Culiacan. The Maya Quiches speak of them 
as Yaqais, but their other name, Nahoas r ' (those who know), seems to 
have originated with the Chiehimecas, who, being their former pupils 
and speaking the same language, desired to express thereby the great 
ascendency in art and science, which their former conquerors had always 
held among them. It is curious to note that this epithet is analogous to 
that which the uncivilized Mayas gave to their conquerors and teachers 
when they called them Itzaea (magicians or wise men). 

The language which the pioneers of civilization had brought with them 
from their distant Fatherland, seems to have merged entirely into that 
of the tribes with which they came in contact. We can not fairly sup- 
pose that the Tultecas import eel the Nahoa language and dill'used it 
among the Chiehimecas, nor that the Itzaes imported the Maya language 
into Yucatan anil Central America. They must ha ve found these languages 
in those countries in which they settled as conquerors. A single American 
Indian may have the ambition to learn a foreign language, but he will 
retain his mother tongue, and so will the American Indians en masse. 
Whilst the Maya language has made no territorial conquest, nay rather 
has lost its ancient extension, the Nahuatl can boast of having made a 
victorious inarch from the North down to the table-lands of Mexico and 


The Ohnecas and the Tultecas, 



Tlascala and sent its branches farther South through Central America. 
This may have been owing to the uncommon pliability of its gram- 
matical structure,, and its rich treasury of expressive words. The 
Spanish missionaries learned it easily and preferred it. They, as 
well as various other modern students, pretend that the Nahoa 
vocabulary is intermingled with a large amount of Aryan and even 
of Greco-Italian primitive roots and words, which apply to important 
ideas and inanimate things, as expressions for the forces of nature, 
worship, the succession of the seasons, astronomy, the family, the 
parts of the human body, household utensils, artistic wares, the 
animals common to both hemispheres, the words for teaching, braiding, 
buying, etc. These alleged resemblances, however, have never been 
investigated by any correct method; yet that they should not have been 
detected in the vocabulary of the Mayas, but in that of the Nahoas, will 
claim the attention of the student, for if these statements are correct 
our Nahoa-Tultecas may be viewed in a new light. The reader will 
remember that the-Tultecas represented that portion of the adventurers 
lauded in Panuco, who were deserted by their leaders and left without 
their book of council, and were thus compelled to re-write it. When 
we consider that the Itza-Maya calendar coincides in its minor divisions 
of time with that of the Tolteca-Nahoa, but widely diners from it in 
its division of the longer periods, this circumstance, combined with 
the observations made with regard to the linguistic stock of the Nahoa 
language, involuntarily leads to the supposition of certain diiierences 


280 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

either in creed or in nationality, that may have existed among the mem- 
bers of the invading party, and which therefore gave rise first to 
dissensions, then to separations, and later on to the peculiar dis- 
crepancies observed between Maya and Tultec culture. If there is any 
germ of truth in those conjectures, no effort ought to be spared to 
develope it. Each new avenue that promises to lead in the direction of 
lifting the veil which shrouds the history of early Mexican colonization 
is worth the labor of investigation. 

The discovery that a writer of so original and accurate research as 
Sahagun has enabled us to assign a definite locality to the hitherto 
apocryphal Tultecas, is a great advantage. After the link had been 
found by which to connect the first appearance of this tribe on the 
Eastern shore of the Gulf of Mexico with their later appearance and 
operations at Culiacan and the Seven Caverns, much of the mist in 
which the Tultecas have thus far been condemned to a shadowy exist- 
ence has been successfully removed. We can say the same of the 
Olmecas and the Itzaes. Beginning with their separation at Tamoanchan 
we have been able, by consulting local tradition, to designate the various 
localities along the coast of Mexico and Yucatan as far as the Golfo 
s Dulce, which region they had selected for planting their colonies. 

With the light of this information the historical material on early 
Mexican colonization, thus far apparently so loosely connected and so 
full of contradictions, becomes at once more comprehensible and har- 
monious. Many of the details which were not understood in the state- 
ments of the Spanish chroniclers can now be assigned to their proper 
place; but the self-imposed restraints laid upon us from the beginning 
will not allow us to undertake this further task. 

1882.] An Ancient Document. 231 


By Edward G. Porter. 

During a recent visit to the North of England, I obtained access to 
some interesting original manuscripts at Durham, through the kindness 
of the Rev. Canon Green will, F.K.S., the accomplished librarian of the 
Cathedral Library, and author of the well-known work on British 

Among the early miscellaneous charters belonging to the Dean and 
Chapter, there is one (No. 1472) which appears to be the earliest 
document in existence relating to the house of Washington. It is a 
parchment indenture, with seal attached, containing the terms of a 
marriage settlement, and evidently belongs t? the time of King John, 
(circa 1200. ) Other Washington documents { re held of about the year 
1380 and later, but this one has never been mentioned by any of the 
writers upon the Washington family. It is supposed to have come into 
the hands of the Prior and Convent of Durham for safe custody with a 
number of deeds belonging to the family of Claxton of Horden in the 
County of Durham. A reduced fac-simile is herewith presented, 
showing the abbreviated Latin of the period, which is almost unintel- 
ligible to ordinary eyes, but winch with care can be deciphered as 
follows : 

C ( H ) I R G R A V H V M . 

Sciant omnes hoc Scriptum visuri vel audituri quod haec conventio 
facta est inter Thomam de Diuclestone et Walterum de Weissingtone 
generum suum de ilia carrucata terra; in Villa de Milleburne quam habet 
in liberum inaritagium cum Diana sorore pnefati Thonue quod si ipse 
Walterus vol heretics ipsius Walteri procreati a Diana ipsain terrain de 
Milleburne in dominico habuerint quieti erunt de multura: sin autem et 
aliquibus illam tiadiderint ad lirinam tenentes ipsius Walteri etheredum 
suorum dabunt muliuram sicut homines prad'ati Thoime vol suorum 
heredum faciunt. llis testibus : Otuelo de insula, Roberto de Neuham, 
Roberto de Fenwic, Matheo de Witefeld, Wilhelmo de Fandona, Johaune 
de Tirtlingtoue, Johanne de Brentingham, Galfrido hlio Galfridi, 
Reginaldo Basset, Roberto tilio Thomas, Jordano Hayrun, Wilhelmino 
de Latona, Ricardo Schireburne et multis aliis. 

232 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 



Know all men who shall see or hear this writing that the fallowing 
agreement is, made between Thomas of Diucjeston (Dilston) and Walter 
of Weissington (Washington,) his brother-in-law, in regard to a certain 
carrueate 1 of land in the vill of Milleburne* which lie holds by virtue of 
his free marriage with Diana, sister of said Thomas, to wit, that if said 
Walter, or the heirs of said Walter, born of Diana, shall hold said land at 
Milleburne in demesne 3 , they shall be free from multure 1 . But if they 
shall let it out to others to farm, then the tenants of said Walter and of 
his heirs shall pay the same multure as do the rest of the men of said 
Thomas or of his heirs. 

Witnessed by Otwell of Insula, Robert of Neuham, Robert of Fenwic, 
Mathew of Whitefleld, William of Fandon, John of Tirtlington, John of 
Brentingham. Alfred son of Alfred, Reginald Basset, Robert son of 
Thomas, Jordan Hay run, William of Latona, Richard of Schireburne 
and many others. — 

A large round seal is attached to the parchment, containing a lion 
passant, and, for the legend, the words -f S I G I (L L) W A L T E R I 
F I L (I . I) WILLI D E W E S S I G T (ON) — Seal of Walter 
Son of William of Wessigton (Washington — This chirograph, with 
Walter's seal was given to Thomas, and its counterpart with Thomas's 
seal was given to Walter. Copies of seals similar to both of them, and 
of the same period, may be seen at Durham. 6 

The special interest which this venerable document has to us lies in 
the fact that it takes us back nearly two centuries beyond any original 
Washington documents hitherto quoted, and brings us face to face with 
Walter, son of AVilliam, the first man in English history who bore the 
honored name of Washington. For it is well known that the progeni- 
tor of this famous house was William dc IIertburn, u a powerful knight 

1 Carrueate (sometimes spelled carucate) means plough land, i. e. as 
much as a plough could cultivate; an uncertain measure, generally 
understood to be about 120 acres. 

2 On the Tyne in the parish of Newburn above Newcastle. 

:i Demesne land was that which was held in the lord's own hand 
(Dominico) and cultivated by himself and his villeins. 

4 Multure (multura), was the tax, or proportion of grain paid to the 
lord's mill when the corn was ground there, all persons .within the 
manor being obliged to grind there. 

5 It is worth mentioning in this connection that the earliest seal of 
the family of Amaudeville, well known in County Durham, is the same 
as the one here given, and their later arms were two bars and three 
stars, just like the Washingtons', showing a close family relation. 

6 Two places in the original palatinate of Durham bear the name of 
Hartburn, one near Morpeth in Northumberland, and the other near 


1882.] An Ancient Document. 233 

of Norman blood, who, according- to the Bold en Book, 1 purchased A.D. 
1183, the manor and village of Wessyiigton for the sum of four pounds 
with the added engagement to attend the Bishop with two greyhounds 
on grand hunts, and furnish a man-at-arms when needed. With the 
purchase of the new manor, William gave up the name of Hertburn and 
took that of Wessyiigton, according to the custom of the time. In 
regard to the location of this place, there is happily no doubt whatever, 
for the name of Washington has clung to it down to the present time. 
It is situated just north of the river Wear, about ten miles from Dur- 
ham, near Lambton Castle, the fine seat of the Earl of Durham, and 
about half way between Newcastle and Sunderland. It is accessible by 
the old line of the North Eastern R. R., which has a small station here 
called Washington, now chiefly known in the collier)' interest. The 
country between the Wear and the Tyne is Hat and smoky, and .seldom 
visited by travellers. - 

Like most early English names, that of Washington has passed 
through various changes, among which may be mentioned the follow- 
ing : Wessington, Wessyiigton, Wessigton, Wessynton, Weissigton, 
Weissington, Quessington,. Whessyngton, Whesshynton, Wassington, 
Wasshington, Washington.' 1 

The estate remained in the hands of the De Wessyngtons until about 
the year 1400. Various members of the family appear in the history of 
Durham * in the list of knights engaged in battle or tournament, or in 
ecclesiastic orders. Gradually they dropped 'the De before the name. 
Some of them established themselves in other parts of England, as in 
Lincolnshire and Northamptonshire, where they became numerous and 
influential. The pedigree, as traced by Baker and Sir Isaac Heard, 
claims George Washington, lirst President of the United States, as the 
ninth in descent from John Washington of Whitfield in Lancashire 
(temp. Richard III., ) who was directly descended from William the first 
lord of the Wessyiigton manor, and father of Walter, whose seal is 
attached to this ancient document. 

1 am aware that the late Col. Chester of London, was confident that 
he had detected a serious error in the existing pedigree, so far as relates 
to the Washiugtons of Sulgrave, but that does not in the least vitiate 
the connection between George Washington and the De Wessyiigton 

1 A survey record of Durham lands, made by Bishop Hugh de Pudsey, 
nephew of King Stephen, and called Bolden from the name of the lirst 
parish in the alphabetical order. 

2 The Newcastle Society of Antiquaries have developed several inter- 
esting points of historic ami archaeological Importance in this 
region, as e. g. specimens of tine Saxon architecture at Monkwearmouth 
and Jarrow, the home of the venerable Bede. 

3 The name is pure Saxon, meaning the town on the marshy meadow, 
ami was known before the conquest. It is mentioned in a Saxon 
charter as granted by King Edgar in ( J73 to Thorney Abbey. 

4 See Surtees and Hutchinson. 


234 American Antiquarian Society. [(Jet. 

family of Durham, which remains undisputed. In an interview which 
I had with Col. Chester three years ago, he examined with deep interest 
my copy of this chirograph and the notes which here accompany it, 
saying that they were in accord with his own theory and that it was his 
intention to pursue the subject further, and obtain, if possible, the few 
missing links in the later genealogy, the material for which he had long 
been collecting. It is much to be desired that some one who is equal to 
the task will take up the work where Col. Chester has left it, and obtain 
the necessary documentary evidence in proof of an exact and ample 
pedigree of the illustrious house of Washington. 

J-' 1 

assail; aSMB 



Copper Implements from Mexico. 



By F. W r . Putnam. 
There is no doubt that at the time of the conquest copper and tin, as 
well as gold anil silver, were extensively used by the Mexicans. Cortez 
not only mentions the fact in his letters, but states that with the assist- 
ance of the Mexicans he was enabled to secure of the two former 
metals enough to cast several bronze cannon, and he and Berilin Diez 
both give us to understand that the Mexicans were already acquainted 
with bronze. Cortez also includes lead in the list of articles which he 
saw for sale or exchange. Dr. Valentini has entered at considerable 
length upon a discussion of the evidence in support of these statements, 
and I can not do better than refer to his valuable article in the 
Proceedings of this Society for April, 1879, for a critical review of that 
part of the subject. He has however made the suggestion that the laton 
•of the Mexicans was a natural mixture ; but as this is stated to have been 
a copper alloy containing a mixture of either tin. silver or gold, it must 
•be regarded as an artificial combination The rare ore, snlphuret of 
tin, which is a natural combination of sulphur 30, tin 27, copper 30 and 
iron 13, according to Dana, occurs only in Cornwall; and, in this 
connection, we must remember that the bronze chisel, of which an 
analysis is given in the Anales del Museo de Mexico, Vol. 2, p. 117 (as 
quoted by Evans, Ancient Bronze Implements, p. 1GG), contained 97.87 
parts of copper and 2.13 of tin. 

In relation to the methods by which the Mexicans obtained their 
copper I can nnd nothing of importance, a id, in fact, even very little 
about the character and distribution of he ores in the country. 
Whitney states that copper is found scattered through Mexico to a 
considerable extent, consisting of vitreous and red oxide ores, with 
native copper in a limited quantity; but as there can be no doubt in 
relation to the knowledge which the Mexicans had of tin, which they 
must have obtained by smelting the ore, there is no reason why they 
should not also have smelted copper. 

Notwithstanding the former abundance of copper implements and 
ornaments, and the discovery of many large deposits since the time of 
the conquest, their present rarity in collections, both in and out of 
Mexico, shows how few have escaped the melting pot, to which so 
many important works in the liner metals have been consigned during 
the past three and a half centuries. It is therefore of importance that 
•descriptions should be given of all that come to notice, and as Dr. 
Valentini regretted that he had not seen a single specimen of a copper 
or bronze implement from Mexico at the time he wrote his article, the 
following abstract from an extended account l of copper implements 
and ornaments from North and South America may prove of interest to 
the members of this Society. 

Fifteenth Report of the Peabody Museum, Cambridge, 18S2. 


American Antiquarian Society. 


The first copper implement from Mexico of which I hud personal 
knowledge, was obtained by Dr. Edward rainier in 1878 while making 
explorations for the Peabody Museum. In a small tumulus, about 
three miles from Venis Meieis in the state of San Luis Potosi, which 
was evidently the site of an ancient dwelling, Dr. Palmer found a small 
copper axe associated with several terra-cotta images, ornaments and 
spindle-whorls so common throughout the country, three vessels of 
pottery, a stone ornament, a number of obsidian Hakes, a crystal of 
quart * two grinding stones and a stone mortar. 

The axe is wedge-shaped, with a Hat head which is three-eighths of an 
inch in thickness and seven-eighths in width, gradually becoming wider 
and thinner to its cutting edge, where it is an inch and three-quarters 
wide. It is, judging from its red color and softness, of pure copper. 
Over its whole surface are unmistakable signs that it was wrought by 
hammering, either from a mass of native copper or from a short bar of 
cast metal. In compactness and homogeneity it is like the other copper 
axes we have from Mexico, and decidedly different from those 1 have 
described from the United States. If is this fact which suggests that 
the implement was wrought from a block of the metal about two inches 

Fig. 1. 

Copper Axe; a, broad surface, b, edpe, shOWliiff thickness. From a Tumulus 
In Sun Luia i'otost. (I'eabody Museum, No. 18117.) 

long which had been formed by casting. A small cavity and slight 
fracture on the head of the axe also have the appearance of a Haw in 
casting the metal. There is, however, no doubt that its present shape 
was produced by hammering. During this process the edges were 
expanded and have only been partially hammered down, as can be dis- 
tinctly seen by the hammer marks on the still existing ridges. The cut- 

1 882. J Copper Implements from Mexico. '2'M 

ting edge is slightly rounded as shown in tig. 1, a, and was formed by 
working on both sides as sho>vn in fig. 1, b. About a third of the edge 
is much battered by use, and taken altogether, this little wedge-shaped 
axe looks as if it had done considerable service for its former owner. 

I can recall only two figures of Mexican axes of this shape : — the 
one on the left of the three axes from Yucatan, reproduced from the 
Dresden Codex, in eut 8 of Dr. Valentini's article, which is represented 
us set in a slightly curved handle; and fig. 58 of Mr. LSquicr's paper on 
American Copper Implements, in the Smithsonian Contributions, Vol. 
II., copied from a Mexican painting. 

In August, 1881, a number of copper axes, all of nearly the same 
size and of one pattern, were found near Tlacolula, Oaxaca, but the 
circumstances relating to. the discovery I have been unable to learn. 
Soon after they were found, Mr. Frederick Ober was travelling in 
the country, and six of them were given to him by the owner, who 
prized them simply on account of their being pure copper, as he had 
discovered by slightly tiling one side and cutting a small piece oil' the 
blade of each. Some of them had been cleaned of the green carbonate 
of copper with which they were covered, by scraping and filing, but 
others were fortunately left untouched, except, as above stated, on the 
edge of the blade. Four of the six specimens brought home by Mr. Ober 
were obtained for the Peabody Museum. A short time afterwards Mr. 
Alexander Agassiz was travelling in Mexico and met with two axes of 
the same lot, which are filed and cut in the same way as the Ober speci- 
mens, but are otherwise uninjured and are still covered with a coating 
of green carbonate and have a slight patina. These specimens Mr. 
Agassiz presented to the Museum with a number of other interesting 
objects which he obtained during his travels from Yucatan to the city 
of Mexico. Mr Stephen Salisbury, jr., lias also received three axes 
from the same lot, from Mr. L. II. Ayme, and has kindly let me have 
them for comparison with the others. I have, therefore, the opportu^ 
nity of studying nine specimens of this important lot of axes which are 
of the shape most commonly represented in the ancient Mexican picture- 
writings, where they are shown as set in wooden handles which are 
usually curved. This method of mounting the implement in an eye 
near the end of the handle shows them to be axes beyond question. 
They are also represented without handles in the pictures illustrating 
the tribute of different towns to the controlling power. IJoth of these 
forms of representing axes can be seen in cuts 1 to 6 of Dr. Valentini's 
article to which I have several times referred. They also resemble the 
axe from Quilapan, figured by Dn Paix, but are not quite as broad, and 
are a little longer. 

As already stated, these nine axes are all of the same general pattern 
and nearly of the same size. The smallest of the lot is represented of 
full size in fig. 2, of which fig. b is a section. No two are of exactly 
the same dimensions, but when placed in a series the variations from 
one to the other are very slight. The largest is slightly less than five and 
three-quarters inches long and a little over two and a half inches wide, 
measured from point to* point across the rounded blade. The smallest 


American Antiquarian Society. 


is slightly more than live inches in length and is two and a quarter 
inches in width across the blade. The gradations between these two 
extremes are best illustrated by the series of outlines given in fig. 3. 
In width at the flat but-cnd, or head, there is still less variation, that 
toeing three-quarters of an inch in some, and not quite seven-eighths of 

Fig. 2. 

Copper Axe; a, broad surface, b, section. From Oaxaca. 
(IVabody Museum. No. 26023.) 

an inch in others. In thickness in the central part they vary from one- 
quarter to three-eighths of an inch. 


topper Implements from JSJexico. 


The principal varia- 
tion in thickness is at 
the extreme end or head 
of the axe, winch in 
one of the two pre- 
sented by Mr. Agassiz, 
and also one of Mr. 
Salisbury's specimens, 
is a full quarter of an 
inch in thickness, 
while all the others are 
about two-thirds as 
thick. In all, this end 
is considerably thinner 
than the central portion 
as will be seen by look- 
ing at the section given 
in'tig. 2, b. In all but 
the Agassiz specimen 
with the thickest end, 
which has the lateral 
edges slightly rounded 
off, the edges and the 
broad surfaces are fiat 
and smooth. F r o m 
these remarks it will be 
seen that while the va- 
riations between the 
nine specimens are 
so s 1 i g h t that they 
can be said to be all 
of one pattern a n d 
of about the same size, 
they are yet sullicient 
to show that they were 
not all made in one and 
the same mould. To 
exemplify this I have 
introduced fig. 3, which 
shows the outlines of 
the nine s p e c i m e n s 
placed one over the 
other. They m i g h t , 
however, have I) e e n 
rough cast in two or 
three moulds of nearly 
the same size and then 
finished with the ham- 
mer, as were the an- 
cient bronze imple- 
ments of Europe ; but 
it seems more likely 
that if any casting was 
done it was simply in 
the form of bars about 
five inches long, three- 
quarters of an inch 
wide and a quarter of 
an inch thick, and that 

Fig. 3. 

Outlines of nine Copper Axes from Oaxaca, to 
Individual variations produced by hammer 

show tli 


240 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

from such bars the axes were wrought entirely by the aid of the hammer. 
That they were hammered there is not the slightest doubt, as the fold- 
ings of the copper where it expanded along the edges can be traced 
here and there, on all the specimens, although such expansions have been 
carefully hammered down. In one of Mr. Salisbury's specimens which 
has a thinner blade than any of the others, there are fractures at the 
two points of the blade which were unquestionably caused by the great 
expansion of the metal while making the thin blade with a hammer. 
Another of Mr. Salisbury's specimens has the but-end considerably bat- 
tered as if from long use. 

An analysis made for me by Prof. S. P. Sharpies, has proved that 
one specimen was of pure copper, and as the color and hardness of the 
others are the same as the one analyzed, there can be little doubt that 
they are all of pure metal, and we must either believe that they were 
made from rough cast bars or from compact masses of native copper. 
The smooth compact surface of these specimens is entirely unlike the 
laminated and granulated surface of the copper axes from the United 
States of which [ have given figures and descriptions in the Report of 
the Peabody Museum. 

Captain Dii Paix gives a figure of natural size (Kingsborough, Vol. 
iv., PI. i , 25, tig. 75,) of a copper implement four and a quarter inches 
long, by live and three-quarters in width, from point to point of rounded 
blade. Of this he makes the following statement (Kiugsb., Vol. vi., p. 
440). '• In Zoch-s & town in the vicinity of Oaxaca, I was shown a cop- 
per implement, in the house of an Indian laborer named Pasqual Barto- 
lano, who a short time before my arrival [1806] discovered, when 
ploughing his field, twenty-three dozen of these tools, contained in two 
large earthen pots, in very good preservation; they are all of cast 
metal, and of similar form; they only difer from each other a little in 
length but appear to be of equal thickmss." He then states that the 
use of these instruments was unknown. Afterwards he was led from a 
picture which he saw at Mitla to believe they were the blades of hoes. 1 

The T-shaped pieces of copper mentioned by several early writers as 
native coins were very likely such copper blades, and Mi". Bancroft, in 
his Native Paces of the Pacific Slates, Vol iv., p. 383, alluding to the 
specimens described by Du Paix, considers them as used for money, and 
further adds that In; has a precisely similar article from one of the 
Mexican ruins. As regular articles of tribute or as implements in con- 
stant demand, these implements would unquestionably have a standard 

'Du Paix also gives a figure of a round chisel flattened at its circular 
cutting edge, which he obtained near the city of Oaxaca. (Kingsb., 
Vol. iv., PI. i., 25, fig. 77. and text Vol. iv., p. 446). On the same plate 
he also represents a polished mass of copper pyrites which has had two 
holes bored into it as if for its attachment to some other object. This 
is interesting as indicating the kind of ore which may have been smelted 
and also from its resemblance to a similar ornament of sulphuret of iron 
in the Peabody Museum from Peru. Du Paix also mentions (p. 457) that 
while at Mitla he obtained Several copper implements of various sizes 
and shapes. 



Copper Implements from Mexico. 


value among a people so far advanced in the arts as the ancient Mexi- 
cans; but I fully agree with Dr. Valentini in his conclusion that objects 
of this character were not manufactured for the purpose of serving as 

Mr. Ober, while at Teotitlan del Valle, a town between Oaxaca and 
Mitla, in 1881, had a similar copper implement given to him, and was 
told that it was found, with many others like it, buried in a large earthen 
jar. This specimen I obtained for the Peabody Museum, and it is rep- 
resented of one-quarter size (one-half diameter) in tig. 4. 

It is six and a quarter inches long and live and three-quarters wide, 
from point to point of the circular blade. It was evidently cut from a 
sheet of copper about a sixteenth of an inch thick, and the blade has 
been made thinner by hammering, until a thin bat not a sharp cutting 
edge was produced. That the implement was cut from a sheet of copper 
is shown by the slight irregularities or notches made by the cutting tool 
along the concave or upper margins of the blade, from each point inward. 
Above this part, for the whole length on both sides and across the top, 
the copper has been evenly hammered so as to form a considerable ridge 
bordering the Hat surface of each side of the implement. This has 
resulted in widening the edge to about an eighth of an inch, around 
what may be called the shank. Tins part of the implement is one and 

Fig. 4. 

Copper " Hoe," Y z . From Teotitliui del Valle. (Peabody Museum, No. 26024.) 

three-fourths inches wide where it merges into the blade, and one and 
three-eighths at its end. 

242 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct* 

Wore it not that the semicircular edge of the blade is too blunt to 
answer for cutting purposes it would be natural to call the implement a 
knife, to be held in the hand. The figure given by Du Paix represents 
the borders of the shank turned over in the same manner as in our 
specimen, which is. not the case in the copies of the figure given by 
Squier, and particularly so in the one given by Valentini, which repre- 
sents this part as rounded. As already stated, Du Paix finally con- 
eluded that implements of tins character were hoes, and possibly 
they may have been so used. They could easily have been fastened to 
the end of a pole, and in soft ground would serve very well as hoes. 
The circular edge in our specimen, if examined with a lens, shows many 
little abrasions and a high polish, as if from long use. It has also 
several notches, and the two points of the blade are folded over as if 
by rough usage, leading to the conclusion that Du Paix lias probably 
correctly designated this implement as one for agricultural purposes. 
Another indication that the implement was fastened to a handle is- 
a slight indentation of the central portion of the shauk, as if there 
had been a strain at that point which has caused the copper to bend 
a little. 

, This blade is made of pure copper, so far as can be judged from its- 
color and hardness, and it has the appearance of copper which had been 
cast in a thin sheet and then hammered. At one point there is a place 
where a portion of the metal has been hammered down, which lias the 
appearance of a Haw in the casting, although if the implement were 
made from a mass of native copper a similar appearance would result 
from the compression of a ragged edge of the metal. When found this 
interesting copper implement was coated by a green carbonate which 
has been partly removed. 

In Mr. Salisbury's collection thei \ are two implements of this 
character which were lately sent him from Oaxaca by Mr. L. II. Ayin6, 
and probably came from the same lot as the specimen in the Museum 
obtained by Mr. Ober. One of these varies but slightly from the one 
represented in tig. 4. It has a little shorter and broader shank and the 
curve of the blade is not quite as long. One of the tips of the blade 
was broken oil", probably while in use, and the other was folded over and 
so nearly detached that it fell oil' during my examination and was taken 
to the Chemical Laboratory for analysis, which proved it to be pure 
copper. This specimen is live and three-quarters inches long and the 
same in width across the blade, allowing for the broken points, and is 
one and a half inches wide at the end of the shank. Its surface is 
pretty well covered by a green carbonate of copper in more or less 
extended blotches. Like the Museum specimen, both of Mr. Salisbury's 
exhibit the slight indentures on their shanks as if they had once been 
held fast in handles, and they also have evident signs of wear along 
their edges. 

The other specimen belonging to Mr. Salisbury is of particular 
interest as it still more closely resembles the one figured by Du Paix. 




Copper Implement* from Mexico. 


It is only four and one-half inches long, and "the blade, which is not 
nearly as deep as in the others, is six inches in width, allowing for the 
broken point on one side. The end of the shank is not hammered so as 
to form a ridge on both sides, as in the others, and is two indies in 
width; the hammered sides have edges three-sixteenths of an inch in 
width in the centre, formed by hammering the thin edge of the copper 
so that it projects on both sides. This widened edge extends slightly 
along the curve of the blade where it joins the shank, but does not 
continue to the end of the shank. The variation in these details from 
the Museum specimen can best be understood by comparing figures 4 and 
5,' representing the implements of one-half diameter. 


Copper " Hoe" from Ouxuca, % 

Salisbury's Collection.) 

Nearly the whole surface of this ipecimen has been changed to a red 
oxide of copper, over which, particularly on the blade, is a coating of 
green carbonate which in several places has a decided patina. By 
reversing this ligureso as to look at it with the curved blade uppermost, 
its resemblance to the letter T is very marked, and in that position 
the implement will answer for " the thin copper coins shaped like the 
Greek Tau," as stated by the old writers. 

Since the above was communicated to the Society. I have had the 
opportunity of studying three more of the copper implements with 
semilunar blades. These Avere given to Dr. Valentini by Mr. Simon 
Stevens, of New York, to whom they had been sent by a friend in 
Mexico. Dr. Valentini has kindly given the smallest specimen of the 
lot to the Peabody Museum and has permitted me to study the others. 
As these three specimens vary considerably in size and shape from those 
already described, although they are of the same general character, I 
have thought it advisable to aive figures of all three with a few words 


American Antiquarian Society. 


of description. The surfaces of all are more or less changed to a red 
oxide, covered in places with green carbonate of copper. On the small- 
est there are many little granulations and irregularities, as though the 
carbonate of copper had formed over some substance with which the 
implement was in contact at the time of burial. On the largest, the 
outline of the blade of another in contact with it during the long time 
which has elapsed since they were buried can be distinctly traced. In 
shape these three specimens are very much alike, varying but little from 
each other except in size, but as will be seen by the figures they are not 
only smaller than those described above, but have proportionately nar- 
rower blades and shanks. The rounded "points " of the blades are also 
relatively longer, and they are in every respect more delicate implements. 
The figures represent them of one-quarter their full size, or one-half 
diameter, so they can be compared directly with the figures 4 and 5. 
The shank of each narrows slightly from bottom to top, and both edges 
have been hammered so as to make a slight rim or flange on both sur- 
faces, as described in the larger specimens. This flange also extends 
along the back, or concave, portion of the blade, nearly to the points, 
thus adding to the strength of the thin and slender blade-portion. 

Fig. 6. 

Copper "Scraper" from Mexico. Y % . 
( Dr. Valeutini's Collection.) 

The specimen represented by Fig. 6 measures 4| inches from top of 
shank to edge of blade ; and the blade from point to point, allowing for 


Copper Implements from Mexico. 


the broken ends, is about 6 inches long. The saine measurements taken 
on the specimen represented by iig. 7, are 4| and 5.j inches; tig. 8, 4§ 
and 54 inches. 

The small size of these specimens and their slender blades with long 
points, are features which are opposed to the supposition of l)u Paix that 
they were hoes, and also to my belief expressed on page 242 that they 
may have been agricultural implements of some sort. Dr. Valentini has 
pointed this out to me, and he gives several reasons in support of his 
view that they were the blades of knives which were to be sharpened on 


Copper "Scraper" from Mexico. %. 
(Dr. Valentinl'a Collection.) 

their semilunar edges and provided with wooden handles. Such knives 
he thinks the Mexicans must have been supplied with. In support of 
this theory I may state that there are several small bronze knives, with 
semilunar blades, of very nearly the same shape in the Pcabody Museum, 
which came from Peru. In opposition to this, however, is the fact that 
all the Mexican specimens have been used for other purposes than cut- 
ting instruments. The semilunar edges of all are seen to be dull and 
rounded when examined with a lens, as if they had been used as 
scrapers, and they have many little indentations and irregularities, us 
shown in some of the figures, which are evidence of considerable and 





Members of tho AmerieaiV AntiquariaQ Society have felt the*' 
need of such an Index to their Proceedings and other Publica-- 
tions as mig^t enable them to j'efer' to topics therein treated, j. 
"A Partial Index" has been prepared by Mr, Stephen Salisbury^ 
-; *. Jr.', and ft -full Table of Coutents of the "Arclneologia ^Lmerio^a^^ 
u Proceedings, " and separately published pamphlets, u has been 
made by Mi% Nathaniel Paine, with the price's of such as are 
for sale' by the Society.. This Partial Index and Table of Con^ 
tents is now in press, will be bound in cloth,and may be obtained' 
from the , Library by sending, one dollar, to defray the cost of - 
publication. .,, /. ; >-.. %> , . 

Copies of the First Volume v New Series, of Proceedings of 

the Ameqcan Antiquarian Society, bound in .cloth, may be had' 

at the Library in exchange, for the unbound numbers, title-pagej 

**i •, " and index, for 75 cents. .• 'V^ ' '< 

Vol. II. 

New Series. 

Part 3. 



gtmmatt §mtipariim $uiti§ 



APRIL 25, 1883. 




31 1 Main Street. 

18 83. 




, ; . ■-,>■■' : , ■ Pagb. 

• '. i ■ , - • . \j ' . j i ' . • : • ■ 

proceedings at the meeting . -. t ' . . . . . . . . . , . . . . 247 

Report op the Council ................ 251 

Report on the Library ... . . ., r . ,.'.. t ,.,.,,.. .... 270 

Donors and Donations > :i: t ..... . . . ... , . , , . . 283 

Report of the Treasurer . ...... ............ 294 

Action of the Council on the Death of Isaac Davis, LL.D. . 299 
Gleanings from the Sources of the History of the Second 

Parish, Worcester. Massachusetts . 301 

The Journey of Moncacht-Ape I, .......... . . . . . 321 


and Misconceptions of two Writers of over sixty 

years ago ' . 349 

' \ ' ' ' '■'. 
Notes upon Ancient Soap-st\ne Quarries, Worked for the 

manufacture of Cooking Utensils .'..., .;.; 364 

Index to Vol- II. ..... , ;..'.;'. , .' "J . . . ... . . . . . 3G7 



■:■■ > 



Proceedings at Semi-Annual Meeting. 247 



The President, Hon. Stephen Salisbury, LL.D.,in the 

The record of the last meeting was read and approved. 

The following members were present (the names being 
arranged in order of seniority of membership) : George E. 
Ellis, Edward E. Hale, Charles Deane, Dwight Foster, 
George F. Hoar, Edward Jarvis, John R. Bartlett, Andrew 
P, Peabody, George Chandler, Thomas C. Amory, Nathan- 
iel Paine, Stephen Salisbury, Jr., P. Emory Aldrich, 
Samuel A. Green, Elijah B. Stoddard, George S. Paine, 
Edward L. Davis, Wilbam A. Smith, James F. Ilunnewell, 
Egbqrt C. Smyth, Join L). Washburn, Robert C. Waters- 
ton, George H. Preble, Thomas W. Higginson, Edward H. 
Hall, Albert H. Hoyt, William R. Huntington, Edward G. 
Porter, Reuben A. Guild, Charles C. Smith, Hamilton B. 
Staples, Edmund M. Barton, Charles Devens, Thomas L. 
Nelson, Lucius R. Paige, Charles A. Chase, Samuel S. 
Green, Justin Winsor, Henry W. Haynes, Edward 
I. Thomas, Horatio Rogers, Frederick W. Putnam, Solomon 
Lincoln, Andrew MeF. Davis. 

John D. Washburn read the report of the Council. 

Mr. Edmund M. Barton, Librarian, and Nathaniel 
Paine, Esq., Treasurer, read their semi-annual reports. 




24<s American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

On motion of Rev. George K. Ellis, D.I)., these reports 
were accepted and referred to the Committee of Publication. 

Referring to that portion of the Council's report which 
spoke of the deficiencies in the various departments of the 
Library, Dr. Ellis commented briefly on the tendency of 
libraries at the present day, through the very fact of their 
multitude-, to become fragmentary and incomplete in 
character. Without making a motion to that effect, he 
expressed the hope that the author of that report would 
consider the subject of a system of exchange which should 
recognize the specialties of each library, to the end that in 
each of the great libraries some one or more departments 
should be substantially complete. 

Rev. Lucius R. Paige, D.D., seconding the motion for 
the acceptance of the report of the Council, referred briefly 
to his personal associations with Rev. Georges Allen. 

The Recording Secretary communicated from the Coun- 
cil a draft from the record of that bod}', relating to its action 
on the occasion of the deaths, within twenty-four hours of 
each other, of Rev. George Allen and Hon. Isaac Davis, 
and the paper was referred to the Committee of Publica- 

The Recording Secretary communicated from the Coun- 
cil their recommendation of Rev. Cyrus Hamlin, D.D., of 
Middlebury, Vermont, as a candidate for membership, and 
he was, by ballot, unanimously elected. 

Mr. Samuel S. Green presented a paper called " Glean- 
ings from the Sources of History of the Second Parish of 

Rev. Edwakd E. Hale, D.D., moved that the thanks of 
the Society be presented to Mr. Green and the paper 
referred to the Committee of Publication, which motion 
prevailed. Dr. Hale also said a few words in reference to 
the third article of the Massachusetts Bill of Rights, which, 

*The remarks of the President, and the Resolutions of the Couneil 
will be found following the Report of the Couneil. 

1883.] Proceedings at Semi-Annval Meeting. 249 

he took occasion to state (correcting a past error in another 
place), was drawn by the Rev. Noah Alden, a Baptist 
minister of Bellinghani. 

Andrew McF. Davis, Esq., read a paper on the travels 
of an Indian, Moncacht-Ape, reviewing' a recent article in 
the Itevue d'Anthropologie. The thanks of the Society 
were voted to Mr. Davis for the paper, which was referred 
to the Committee of Publication, on motion of Justin 
YVinsou, Esq. 

Mr. Frederick W. Putnam made a short communication 
on the use of metals by the mound builders. He showed by 
specimens which he exhibited that the mound builders of the 
Ohio valley made use of native copper, native silver, native 
gold, and native or meteoric iron, all of which were formed 
into ornaments simply by hammering. Ornaments made of 
all these metals, obtained from altar-mounds in the Little 
Miami Valley, Ohio, were exhibited. Mr. Putnam dwelt 
on the interest attached to the discovery of masses of me- 
teoric iron and of Ornaments made from it. This was the first 
time that iron had been found in the mounds, and it was of 
importance to note that in this instance it was iron of 
meteoric origin, which had been worked in the same way 
as other native metals, simply by hammering. The finding 
of a small quantity of native gold, which had been ham- 
mered into a thin sheet and used to cover one of the copper 
ornaments, was of particular interest, as it was the first in- 
stance of the kind, and the very small amount of gold found 
showed that its use was exceptional. These specimens 
will be described and figured in the memoir now being pre- 
pared by Mr. Putnam and Dr. Metz to be published by the 
Peabody Museum. 

Mr. Putnam also read a paper, entitled Iron from the 
Ohio Mounds ; a review of the statements and misconceptions 
of two writers of over sixty years ago. On motion of Prof. 
Henry W. Haynes, the paper was referred to the Com- 
mittee of Publication, with the thanks of the Society. 

250 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Prof. Haynes presented a brief paper entitled "Notes 
upon ancient soap-stone quarries worked for the manufac- 
ture of cooking utensils." The thanks of the Society 
were presented to Prof. Haynes on motion of the Record- 
ing Secretary, and the paper was referred to the Com- 
mittee of Publication. 

The meeting was then dissolved. 


JRecordi/ifj Secretary. 

1883.] Report of the Council. 251 


At a special meeting of the Council, held at the Society's 
Hall on the 30th day of March, 18.83, a committee was 
appointed, in accordance with long established usage under 
the by-laws of the Society, to examine the Library and 
prepare the report of the Council. 

The examination of the Library by this committee has 
usually been somewhat perfunctory in its character. The 
reports and statements of the Librarian as to the additions 
to the Library and its present condition have usually been 
received by the committee and a summary of them embodied 
in the Council's report. In April, 1873, however, the com- 
mittee through its chairman, our faithful Treasurer, reported 
that they had made an actual physical examination of the 
library, that they had actually counted all the books in the 
upper hall, ante-rooms and lower hall, and also many of 
the unbound pamphlets ; that the others had been estimated 
with sufficient care to enable the committee to report the 
whole number of volumes in the Library with substantial 
accuracy. This] number was, as the result of the examina- 
tion, reported to be something more than fifty-three thou- 
sand. It has increased steadily ever since, and the increase 
for each six months has been reported by the Librarian at 
the stated meetings of the Society. The present number, 
by computation based on these semi-annual reports, may 
be safely stated at about eighty thousand* 

Mr. Paine, in that methodical and statistical report, called 
attention to the various classes of collections in the library ; 



252 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

its manuscripts, its books, its bibles, its newspapers, its 
cabinets and its duplicates. Under tbese respective head- 
ings he gave an excellent idea of the character of our re- 
sources and, to a considerable extent also, of their complete- 
ness. There has been some increase since in each of the 
departments, as well as in the aggregate, and as a whole, the 
library has made much progress in the decade just closed. 
The work of cataloguing, so essential to its effective working 
power, has been steadily, though not rapidly, progressing. 
Probably two or three years more will be needed for the 
completion of this work, but that already done has proved 
of great utility to all who have occasion to consult our 

We have occasion at this time to report the first additions 
to the library under the provisions of the will of Joseph J. 
Cooke of Providence. The clause of the will in which the 
bequest to the Society is included is as follows : — 

" I give and bequeath to the Redwood Library and Athe- 
neum of the City of Newport, and the Atheneum and Brown 
University and the Rhode Island Historical Society and the 
Providence Public Library, all of the City of Providence 
and all in the State of Rhode Island, to the Worcester An- 
tiquarian Society of Worcester, the Library of Harvard 
University, the Historical Genealogical Society of Boston, 
all of Massachusetts, to Yale College of New Haven, and 
to Trinity College of Hartford, all of Connecticut, the sum 
of five thousand dollars each, provided that the same shall 
be used in payment of bills of any books which may be sold 
to them by auction by-! my executors or their successors, at 
any sale thereof, but not otherwise." 

The Society was represented at the auction sale of a por- 
tion of Mr. Cooke's library, in March last, and the Librarian's 
report gives some account of the results of that sale. 

The administration of the library has been satisfactory. 
The office of Librarian has continued, as ever since the death 
of Mr. Haven, in commission, two members of the council 
constituting the library committee. Mr. Barton and Mr. 

1888.] Report of llm Council. 253 

Colton have been diligent in their respective offices, and the 
work of arranging hooks, effecting valuable exchanges, and 
giving intelligent aid to those who have desired to make use 
of our collections, whether members of the Society or not, 
has been prosecuted with vigor and courtesy. The Council 
have recently thought it proper, in view of Mr. Barton's 
faithful services as Assistant-Librarian (under which title he 
has performed most of the practical duties of the office of 
Librarian since Mr. Haven's lamented death), to elect him to 
the office, to the practical administration of which he has 
proved himself sufficient, and his report to-day is made 
under the new and well-earned designation. 

The library building and rooms have been kept in thorough 
repair and excellent order. The additions made to them 
recently through the munificence of our President, have 
made possible new arrangements for study and for access to 
books and manuscripts, which were in the highest degree 
desirable. It is proper that our members who live at a dis- 
tance, and who have not visited the library for the last few 
years, should be informed that there are few places in the 
country where studies of an antiquarian and historical char- 
acter can be so agreeably carried on as within our walls. 
Bright sunny alcoves, a temperature comfortable even in the 
extremes of winter, a distribution of books and pamphlets 
within convenient reach, with intelligent and cheerful guides 
to the more obscure, make this a place in which it is a 
pleasure to labor as an employe of the Society in its cor- 
porate capacity, or as a general servant in the household of 
liberal studies 

The utility and security of the library building, regarded 
as a mere depository, are not to be .overlooked, or under- 
valued. . The precautions against loss by tire or other 
casualty are abundant, and it is almost impossible that any 
serious loss should be sustained. Hence the Council renew 
the appeal so often made before in reports of the Librarian 
and in their own, that our members will bear this custodial 

254 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

office of the library constantly in mind, and intrust to its 
safe keeping all such materials of history as may be in their 
possession or control. In private keeping they are liable to 
waste or destruction from a multitude of cause- which do 
not exist here. And materials, of little apparent value as 
they lie scattered here and there in the attics or waste places 
of individual homes, may prove and in some instances have 
proved of almost inestimable worth, when arrayed and 
grouped in their natural association here. 

But the talent buried in the earth earned nothing, vastly 
better though it was to bury it there than to ca.^t it into the 
sea. ' 4 jSridlus ari/ento color est avavis abdito tervis." As 
a depository our library building meets all the requirements 
of the Examining Committee, or of the Society. As a 
bright and pleasant workshop it elicited our unstinted com- 
mendation ; when, however, we examined into the efficiency 
and completeness of the tools and machinery for carrying on 
actual work, the results of this examination were less 
satisfactory. The tools and machinery, though very abun- 
dant and very useful up to a certain point, yet lacked 
completeness in every department. There is no subject 
which can be exhausted here. Though this may perhaps 
be literally true of every library in the world, yet there 
are gaps in every class of our collections which ought, 
in justice to our claims and professions, to be tilled ; and 
they cannot be tilled from the present resources of the 
Society. We run for luck, in the popular phrase. Occa- 
sionally in some package of books given will be found (as 
has been intimatid) just what is invaluable in forming 
the missing link of an important chain. By the favorable 
chance of exchange a gap is sometimes tilled. But in the 
absence of chances like these, we go on in incompleteness 
indefinitely. Increase in bulk Ave have to report (nay, it 
may go to the limit of unwieldiness) , but not steady, orderly, 
symmetrical growth. The cause of this deficiency is obvious. 
We have been the recipients of books, and not of money 

1883.] Report of the Council. 255 

for the purchase of hooks. Our gratitude is not, therefore, 
the less to the givers who gave what they had to give. To 
the founder of this institution, whose collection was in truth 
both the foundation and the corner-stone of all, that grati- 
tude has always been lively and abundant. And so, in 
proper degree, to all later givers. We desire tin* continu- 
ance and increased measure of such gifts in the interest of 
historical learning in general, and particularly in the interest 
of our own institution. Hut the great want developed by 
this examination is that of money tor a purchasing fund, that 
we may not be dependent on the chance of donations, nor 
even limited by the necessity of expending a certain sum at 
the sale of a certain library, grateful as we have twice had 
occasion to be within a short time for this privilege ; but 
that we may avail ourselves of the open market as pur- 
chasers, buying whenever and wherever what we need most, 
is for sale. The importance of a provision of this kind, 
to make one at least of our departments as nearly complete 
as the lot of humanity will admit, cannot be over-stated. 
What we need is a gift of money, devoted to no specified 
purchase, but with the question of its proper application 
left wholly to the discretion of the Council, saving only the 
general condition that it shall be devoted to the purchase 
of books. 

To illustrate our necessity, take a single department 
which fell under the observation of the Committee of the 
Council. We justly pride ourselves on our collection 
of local histories. It is an excellent one, and the gift 
of money by our liberal and eminent associate, the late 
Judge Thomas, helped to make it what it is. But it is 
probably less comprehensive than that of the New England 
Historic, Genealogical Society and is, to say the least, 
rivalled in completeness by two or three others within the 
limits of this State. To the fulness of one or more of 
those collections we have had the pleasure of contributing, 
but it is not an unreasonable ambition that our own should 

256 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

not only stand among the best, but attain an actual and 
undisputed preeminence. 

It is distinctly understood that the writer of the report 
of the Council, and not the Council as a whole, is respon- 
sible for the individual views expressed therein. The 
present writer accepts the responsibility of farther inquiry 
as to how far the Society is coming short of the high ideal 
which it ought in some way to attain, and in danger of 
losing its position of leadership among the great institutions 
of the kind in our country. It has had and still has 
influence and power. Yet we cannot look complacently 
on and congratulate one another at each stated meeting on 
the success of the Society in its chosen fields, when newer 
associations are outstripping ours in the race of acquisition, 
of usefulness, of influence. To satisfy the aspiration of an 
honorable mind it must lead in something. To lose a posi- 
tion of actual leadership is, to those who have once main- 
tained it, misfortune if not disgrace, and the satisfactions 
of respectable mediocrity are paltry. We have a great and 
aggressive name. Our enterprise assumes to lay hold of 
the resources, and claims the cooperation and allegiance of 
a continent. Rev. William Jcnks, in his first anniversary 
address preached in King's Chapel, Boston, October 23, 1813, 
said, with sententious complacency, k * Your name embraces 
a continent." How, if proudly claiming to be national, we 
should prove in the end provincial? Is there real danger 
of this, and how shall it be met and obviated? 

Doubtless the opportunities of the Society were great in 
its early days to establish itself on national foundations and 
gain an influence and a name. It would be mere common- 
place to state how small the national domain was in 1812 
compared to its present vast expanse. Moreover, there 
was no competition in this field, or next to none. The 
Society was an isolated peak, conspicuous in its solitude, and 
not merely one of a lofty chain. Isaiah Thomas said in 
1813, kk Anions the numerous societies formed in the United 


1888.] Report of the Council. 257 

States for the promotion of literature, the useful and tine 
arts, and other valuable purposes, it appeared that one more 
might be added, which could also be truly beneficial, not 
only to the present, but particularly to future generations — 
a society not conlined to local purposes — not intended for 
the particular advantage of any one State or section of the 
union, or for the benefit of a few individuals — one whose 
members may be found in every part of our western 
continent and its adjacent islands, and who are citizens of 
all parts of this quarter of the world." It was a noble 
conception, for that earl} 7 : day, that of thus appropriating in 
the right of intellectual eminent domain the territory of 
the republic, and claiming the allegiance of its educated 
citizens. Nor were the considerations wholly fanciful, 
though the}' sound so quaintly now, which led to the 
establishment of the headquarters of the Society, not in one 
of the great sea-board cities, centres of population where 
the number of educated persons was large from whom 
support and cooperation in carrying on the Society's work 
might be looked for, but in a small country town. Mr. 
Thomas says, in the same account in 1813 (and the occur- 
rences of those days were adding a sanction to the sugges- 
tion), "For the better preservation from the destruction so 
often experienced in large towns and cities by tire, as well 
as from the ravages of an enemy, to which seaports in par- 
ticular are so much exposed in time of war, it is universally 
agreed that for a place of deposit for articles intended to be 
preserved for ages, and of which many, if destroyed or 
carried away, could never be replaced by others of the like 
kind, an inland situation is to be preferred ; this considera- 
tion alone was judged sufficient for placing the Library and 
Museum of this Society forty miles distant from the near- 
est branch of the sea, in the town of Worcester, Massachu- 
setts, on the great road from all the Southern and Western 
States to Boston, the capital of New England." These con- 
siderations might be less potent were the Society's head- 

258 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

quarters to be established anew. The security of our treas- 
ures would perhaps be greater in Boston or New York than 
it then seemed likely to be, and in ease of successful inva- 
sion, our admirable railroad facilities would render it now a 
comparatively easy and agreeable excursion for the enemy 
to visit Worcester. Thus we lose the compensating advan- 
tage for the loss of a larger constituency of educated and 
earnest men grouped around the treasure-house of the 
Society, and cooperating in daily labors for its advance- 
ment. And it is, after all, on the labor of resident mem- 
bers that the prosperity of the institution, as a working- 
power, must primarily depend. Say what we will in our 
reports and other publications as to the dut} r of distant 
members, it will be true for the future, especially now that 
eveiy State has its own institution devoted to the promotion 
of archaeological research, that the men in each of those 
States who arc most valuable associates, will be found 
devoting their best energies to their home institution. 

It is reluctantly conceded, then, that this Society cannot 
probably long maintain its ancient prestige in the broad 
Held of American Archaeology. Yet must it claim and main- 
tain a leadership in something. It must make vigorous 
and distinct growth in some direction, or its power and 
influence will surely decline ; of these it may be said, as 
says the poet of the tender passion of love, " Tis its nature 
to advance or die." The momentum ancient prestige 
imparts is great; the reputation eminent past service has 
earned is great : but these will not last forever unless we 
avail ourselves of other springs of influence and invoke the 
aid of new energies. 

A year and a half ago there died a man who had made 
the reputation and influence of this Society the objects of 
forty years of scholarly toil. \Ye have not undertaken in 
all respects to fill his place. His office was called the 
Librarian's. He was so much more than that, as hardly to 
seem in his later years of service, and in the popular sense 

1883.] 'Report of the Council 25£ 

of the term, a librarian at all. As' such his place has been 
tilled, and adequately tilled. But the strict line of duty of 
the pains-taking librarian in so large an institution as ours, 
and the faithful discharge of it, may well till the measure of 
an honorable ambition for a useful life. We want, in addi- 
tion, not instead, the devoted service of a man of high 
education, of intellectual power and leadership, somewhat 
known alread} r , and with promise of growth and develop- 
ment. The title by which his office shall be known is im- 
material — Director, Superintendent, Regent, Censor, Rector. 
By whatever name known, his office must be to maintain, by 
his scholarship, his intellectual presence and dignity, his 
love of and devotion to the studies of this Society, his high 
personal character, and his relations to scholars, the standards 
of influence and authority which Mr. Haven set up. Com- 
petent to represent the Society at the gatherings and 
conventions of scholars abroad, he must have the qualities 
of personal magnetism which make personal association and 
cooperation agreeable, and receive scholars at the library 
with a scholar's welcome. 

Such a man would not be willing to undertake for us the 
manual duties of a librarian, pure and simple. Those 
duties, in vieAV of the size of the library at present, 
are sufficient for the two gentlemen who now so satis- 
factorily discharge them. And Mr. Haven would never 
have undertaken them in their present extent. Not only 
was he an exceptional, almost unique, man, but the circum- 
stances of his life were exceptional also. He came to the 
library when it was of infantine proportions, himself a 
young man, a little older than the library itself. He grew 
with it and, pari passu, its material and his intellectual 
growth proceeded. So that in a greater measure than 
would at tirst be noticed, each threw light upon the other, 
and shone with a lustre not wholly its own. And surely it 
is not too much to say that without the aid of Mr. Haven's, 
personality and peculiar powers and devotion (suppose,, 

2(50 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

that is to say, that the Society had relied for its standing 
and influence on the aggregate of its deposits and the two 
stated meetings of each year), this institution would have 
had hardly more than a local reputation, certainly one 
wholly incommensurate with the pretensions of its name. 

Not perhaps exactly such a man, yet some man giving 
every promise of success and distinction in this held can 
somewhere he found, approached, brought into the service 
of the Society , for that service is most attractive. The ques- 
tion is simpl}' one of pecuniary means, and to a Society 
which has for forty years given such proof of disposition 
and power, the means ought not to be long wanting. 
There is nothing visionary about this. Wealth abounds. 
Capital is pulling down its barns and building greater. 
Possible Maecenases have built palaces in our cities and 
villas by the sea, and Horaces in abundance, even if now 
mute and in some sense inglorious, are ready, with their 
support, cooperation and encouragement, to write and 
sing. There would seem few fitter objects to-day, within 
the realm of learning and scholarship, to bring to the atten- 
tion of rich and liberal men, than the endowment of this 
Society with what might be termed a ''Rector's Fund" of 
fifty, sixty or seventy-live thousand dollars, the income of 
which, with some small measure of private resources, would 
enable a genuine and enthusiastic man of high qualifications, 
to devote himself to maintaining, even extending, the reputa- 
tion of the Society for high attainments in broad and liberal 
studies, as well as for the safe keeping and orderly arrange- 
ment of articles deposited in its vaults and alcoves. 

Failing in this (if in so honorable and necessary an attempt 
the possibility of failure can be contemplated), and in addi- 
tion to this provision if obtained, we must secure a sum of 
twenty or twenty-five thousand dollars for the purpose of 
maintaining some one or more of our departments at the 
highest point of excellence. Thus, after all, what we want 
is money. Although " there needs no ghost, come from the 





1883.] Report of the Council. 261 

grave, to tell us that," let Isaiah Thomas add his testimony. 
*' It is almost needless to observe (he says in October, 1813), 
that a Society of this kind cannot be supported with any 
degree of respectability or usefulness without funds ; dona- 
tions, legacies, contributions and royal patronage are the 
support of those in Europe, and have raised them to a state 
of eminence, and it is not doubted that there are persons in 
America who are as public spirited as those in Europe." 

The man who could announce a sentiment like this at that 
early period of our country's history, and give practical evi- 
dence of his sincerity by the gift of a large percentage of 
his property, could not fail to believe, with the writer of 
this report, that at this day a fund of seventy-seven 
thousand dollars is utterly inadequate to support this 
Society, to use his own words, "with any degree of 
respectability;" and that we must, in some way, carry into 
actual accomplishment one or the other of the objects 
herein set forth, or be content as time passes, to lapse 
into a sluggish and pretentious, even though still barely 
respectable, mediocrity. 

The writer has expressed the foregoing views on his own 
responsibility, because he has had some reason to believe 
that had they been some time since thus proclaimed, a part 
at least of the wants indicated might have been supplied 
from a source, now alas ! no longer available, and in the 
hope that they may attract the notice, and receive the 
practical approval, of some generous patrons of sound 
learning, lie has set forth the minimum of oui needs, as 
they have impressed themselves on his mind. 

Reference has been made on an earlier page of this 
report, to the collection of local histories in the Society's 
library, on which we justly pride ourselves, but which is 
less complete than it should be. Yet to no institution is 
completeness in this department more essential than to this, 
whose studies have so close a relation to the etfects of the 
system of town organization and government, socially, 

2(52 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

commercially and politically, upon the whole country. 
The studies incident to our membership lie naturally in 
that direction, and the opportunities afforded here for 
following them out, ought to be practically unlimited. To 
what valuable end these special studies have been pursued 
may be seen in Chief Justice Parker's " Origin, organiza- 
tion and inHuenee of the Towns of New England," Justice 
Gray's learned dissertation in the note to Commonwealth 
vs. Roxbury, Volume i) of Gray's Reports, the reports of 
the Council in April and October, 1 ^70, by Judge Henry 
Chapin and the Hon. Richard Frothmghain, respectively, 
in Mr. Frothingham's other writings, and later, in the ad- 
mirable papers of our associate, Prof. Herbert B. Adams. 
The subject of the influence of the town organizations and 
the town meeting on New England history and government, 
in whatever manner treated, is full of interest, and can 
never lose its charm. It connects itself with the framework 
of our government, and the intelligent observer, whatever 
may be his opinion as to the birthplace of the theory of 
town governments, will hardly deny that in this country, and 
especially in New England, that theory has been developed 
in practice with the fullest and most successful results. 

But this report must not linger in this Held of inquiry 
or dwell on the political influences which have emanated from 
our towns. Space only remains to illustrate from the losses 
this Society has sustained during the past month, the con- 
tributions of the towns of New England to the social and 
commercial strength of the community at large. Till with- 
in the period of six weeks, not a single member of the- 
Society had died since the annual meeting. Had this 
remarkable exemption continued, this report would have 
comprised a brief review of the Memorial of the late 
Abbott Lawrence, so admirably prepared by Hamilton 
Andrews Hill, Esq., who presented a copy to the library, 
for which the Council duly returned their thanks. Mr. 
Lawrence was a member and friend of this Society, and a 

1883.] Report of the Council 263 

worthy representative here, as in the world at large, of his 
native town of Groton. 

But, long before the preparation of this report was begun, 
on the 7th day of .March, 1883, Nathaniel Thayer, A.M., 
died in Boston. He was born on the 11th of September, 
1808, in Lancaster, a town lying in the same valley as 
Groton, and rivalling it in the picturesque beauty of its 
scenery, the fascinating characteristics of its history, and 
the high character and honorable distinction of its sons. He 
came of a most reputable New England ancestry, and his 
family had long had a strong hold on the University, and 
honorable place on her catalogues. His father was the 
Rev. Nathaniel Thayer, I). I)., whose ministry in Lancaster 
covered almost the period of half a century. Dr. Thayer 
was graduated at Harvard in 1781). A most attractive 
picture is drawn of him in the Life of Timothy Pickering, as 
a young and earnest man beginning his Christian ministry in 
the picturesque valley of Wyoming, one of the most beau- 
tiful and in some sense classic spots in America. From 
that valley he soon went to the valley of the Nashua and 
entered at Lancaster on his life's ministry. His father was 
the Rev. Ebenezer Thayer, who was graduated at Harvard 
in the class of 1753, and was a tutor there while Timothy 
Pickering was in college, as a memorandum by Pickering's 
own hand relates. His father in turn was Nathaniel Thayer, 
whose brother, Rev. Ebenezer Thayer, was graduated in 
the class of 1708. 

The writer's memory just reaches back to the last days of 
Dr. Thayer's ministry in Lancaster, and faintly recalls his 
countenance, so full of grace and heavenly benediction. 
His son Nathaniel received only the education of the acade- 
my of his native town, the instructions of his father, and 
the influences (so much of an education in themselves) of a 
reiined and cultivated New England home. He early left 
Lancaster, to enter upon commercial life with his brother 
John Eliot Thayer, who had established himself in a pros- 

2()4 • American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

perous business in Boston. The successes of these brothers 
in carrying out the purposes of their business lives, rival the 
suggestions of romance, and constitute not only a material 
but an intellectual triumph. They were based on almost 
unerring prophecies of the future growth and greatness of 
the country. They had 

" The faith, the vigor bold to dwell 
On doubts that drive the coward back," 

and, those doubts resolved, they threw themselves into the 
boldest action. They pushed the highways of a nation's 
future commerce across the waste and into the wilderness, 
and, undismayed by the prophecies of the timorous, con- 
quering obstacles, and even stimulated by unexpected diffi- 
culty, their irrepressible enterprise went "'sounding on a 
dim and perilous way." The financial results of their 
sagacity and bold fidelity to its teachings need not be dwelt 
on here. We do not here pay court or tribute to material 
wealth, or refer to it save as the result and illustration of 
intellectual power. Not less familiar are the ways in which 
that wealth was used for the amelioration of private dis- 
tress, and the promotion of great public charities. In 
humble homes, not less than in stately mansions, was this 
benevolent presence a familiar visitor. lie walked with 
the widow and the fatherless in secret and unpretentious 
sympathy, and stood by the bed of suffering whenever the 
voice of early friendship, even though long unheard never 
forgotten, called him to its side. His life, so far as he 
could choose its external demonstrations, was as unostenta- 
tious as that of any one of his boyhood's companions who 
had never < 4 grasped the skirts of happy chance." He 
made no undue assumptions, for himself, based on the 
possession of vast material wealth, and his modesty of 
expression on subjects not directly within the range of his 
own pursuits was proverbial. Those expressive words of 
Cicero in the Orator, admirably describe this marked fea- 
ture of his character: "'Est siimma lavs non extulisse 


1883.] Report of the Council. 265 

se in potentate, non fuisse insolentem in pecunia^ non se 
praetulisse aliis propter abundantiam fortunue, ut oj)es et 
copiae non superbiae videantur ac libidini, sed bonitati 
uc moderationifctcultatem et mater him" 

Mr. Thayer was for several years a member of the Cor- 
poration of Harvard University, which conferred upon him 
in 1866 the Honorary degree of Master of Arts. lie was 
also a member of the Massachusetts Historical Society 
and of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. 

On the 31st of March, 1883, the Rev. George Allen, who 
was born in the town of Worcester on the 1st of February, 
1792, died in the city of Worcester. He was educated at 
Leicester Academy and Yale College, where he graduated 
in 1813, and studied theology at Union College. His active 
ministry was mainly conlined to the town of Sln-ewsbur}', 
though for more than a score of years, after failing health 
and sight compelled his retirement from the pulpit, he was 
the chaplain of the Lunatic Hospital in Worcester. He 
was elected a member of this Society in 1860, but for 
reasons discreditable neither to himself nor the Society 
he declined membership, though lie was always a warm 
friend, taking more practical interest in its welfare than 
many of our local members, lie was an elegant classical 
scholar, a profound student of theology and ecclesiastical 
history, and a writer of clear, vigorous English. Nothing 
could be more simple and unostentatious than his whole 
life and character. In the modest self-reliance of genuine 
attainments, and the independence of thought and expres- 
sion worthy of one in whose veins iiowed blood kindred to 
that of Samuel Adams, he may be ranked with the poor 
scholar who "stood erect and self-confident before kings." 
But he made parade of nothing, sought no opportunities of 
display, preferred the intellectual and spiritual wealth to 
the material which had no charm for him, and when ninety- 
one years crowned with learning, virtue and piety had 
rolled by, he "fell asleep." 

2Gb' American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

On the next day, April 1, 1883, the Hon. Isaac Davis, 
LL.D., who was horn in the town of Northborough on the 
2d day of June, 17 ( J ( J, died at his home in the city of 
Worcester. As he was a member of the Council, the Presi- 
dent called that body together, and made a communication 
with reference to the death of Col. Davis and incidentally 
that of Mr. Allen, which, with the action of the Council 
thereupon, is transcribed on their records and will be printed 
in our Proceedings. 

Col. Davis was educated at Brown University. Although 
his family connection was respectable, the necessities of a 
numerous household left small room for pecuniary contribu- 
tions to the education of the sons. He attended school dur- 
ing the winters, after the fashion of early times and primitive 
opportunity, at the district schools of his native town. Both 
at the academy at Leicester where he subsequently spent a 
short time in fitting for college, and at the University, he 
contributed by his own labor as a teacher or otherwise, 
towards the expenses of his education. He had in early as 
in later life a resolute will, which sustained him in struggle 
and self-sacritice, and a determination to succeed which 
made success possible and inevitable. He studied for the 
Par, to which he was admitted in 1825. Those were the 
days when priority of attachment was worth something to 
creditors, and brought substantial results, and advantages 
which could not afterwards be frittered away by proceed- 
ings under insolvent laws. Mr. Davis was adapted to a 
practice where the qualities of great vigilance, tireless 
industry, and unremitting energy, were called into play. 
He was the contemporary of some of the ablest men who 
ever practised at the bar of Worcester. Judged by the 
multitude of his entries, he surpassed them all in the num- 
ber of his clients and his grasp on the practical business of 
the profession. Though he may not properly be said to 
have been learned in the law, yet he seized strongly on the 
practical principles which made the law useful as an aid to 

1883.] Report of the Council. 267 

actual business. He used it as a servant, and made it a 
bearer of burdens, and it rendered him faithful service 
because he was a faithful and diligent master. The men in 
middle life to-day have never met him in actual practice, 
and what they can sa} r of him therefore as a practitioner, is 
the abstract and summary of traditions and gleanings from 
the records and dockets of the courts. 

But in the affairs of business and finance, for which a 
knowledge of and training in the profession > of the law is so 
valuable a preparation, Col. Pavis was most able and success- 
ful. He was possessed of a clear foresight, and great courage. 
He had a power of judging men, and a discriminating 
sagacity, that told him whom it was probably safe to stand 
by, and what were the chances to be declined. It is only 
just to say that probably more than one of the great en- 
terprises and industries of the city of his adoption, owe 
their power and prosperity to-day to his early, brave and 
judicious support. 

For he was a man of large public spirit as well as indi- 
vidual boldness, and preferred building up his own city to 
spending his energies in the stranger's tields. It is said too 
that he aided many young men to start their fortunes here, 
advancing money on security which depended for its value 
on their success, and at rates of interest not oppressive, 
when neither the character of the security nor the rate of 
interest offered sufficient attraction to men of less public 
spirit and private sympathy. Thus it may be said that few 
if any of those who were his contemporaries, or of those who 
have been his successors, in the ranks of the educated and 
professional men, have done as much as he to promote by 
direct and indirect means the material welfare of his city. 

Thus was he a marked man among his fellow-citizens, 
holding the offices which from time to time were conferred 
upon him in a community where his party was seldom in 
the majority, yet none of them for long periods nor with 
many years of aggregate service. Hut he was vigorous in 


2«>8 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

administration and left a mark behind him. Though a party 
man he was not the slave of party. lie was one of the 
early subscribers to the Kansas Relief Fund. His support 
of the government at the breaking out of the war in 1801, 
though a member of the democratic party and in some sense 
its representative in the mayoralty of Worcester, was hearty 
and eileetive, and is never to be forgotten in forming an 
estimate of his character. This is to be said of him with 
truth, that he was loyal in spirit and strenuous in action, 
that no amount of pressure from those with whom he had 
been intimately associated in party counsels could sway or 
swerve him a hair-breadth from the line of patriotic duty ; 
that he was a fearless man, who when assailed never apolo- 
gized for the positions he had taken, but defended them 
with vigor, ingenuity and ability. 

During his long life he was connected, in the relation of 
President or Director, with many important corporations, 
the presidency of one of which he retained till his death. 
He was the senior member of our Council, and took a lively 
interest in the welfare of this Society. His frequent gilts 
of interesting articles, of books and of money, have hereto- 
fore received honorable and grateful mention ; and Colum- 
bian University in 184(5, and Brown University in 1860, 
conferred on him the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws. 

Holmes Ammidown, Esq., who was born in the town of 
Southbridge on the 12th of June, 1801, died in St. Augus- 
tine, Florida, on April 3, 1883. His life had been spent in 
active commercial pursuits until 1870, when he retired from 
business, and passed the remainder of his days in the quieter 
pursuits of historical research, specially in the preparation 
and compilation of his k ' Historical Collections," of which 
two volumes have already been published. A third volume 
of the Collections has been left in manuscript, and will pro- 
bably in due time be published uniformly with the others. 
He also built in his native town a library building, of which 


Report of the Council. 


he gave the town the free use, so far as it was needed for 
library purposes. 

Mr. Annnidown was a type of the many men ot New 
England who went out from the small towns to build up the 
commercial enterprises which have made our cities great. 
His early education was not extensive. He attended the 
schools of his native town, finishing his education at 
Nichols Academy in the neighboring town of Dudley. He 
gave his energies successfully to the sale of miscellaneous 
merchandise in a country store in Southbridge. In 1836 
he went to Boston and established a very important and 
successful business in the department of dry goods. In 
18ti5 he removed to New York, and was a partner in a 
leading firm of which his name stood at the head, till his 
retirement from business. In Southbridge, for which he 
never lost his affection, he did many works of enlightened 
charity, and in Florida, where he passed several winters in 
his later years, he was an instrument of good in the benefi- 
cent held of educational enterprise. And, dying in that 
distant land, he was buried with many demonstrations of 
respect and affection by the side of his kindred, in the 
town of his early and constant love. 

For the Council, 


270 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 


Our records show that during the six months just passed, 
members, friends and societies, have been unusually mind- 
ful of our requirements. The accessions are as follows : 
gifts, fourteen hundred and sixty-one books, thirty-three 
hundred and sixty pamphlets, one hundred and sixty-one 
files of newspapers, sixteen lithographs, seven maps, one 
marble and six plaster busts, two alabaster vases and one 
framed engraving. By exchange, three hundred and eighty- 
seven books, eight hundred and thirty-six pamphlets, five 
files of newspapers, ten lithographs, three maps, six photo- 
graphs and one book-case. From the binder, thirty-eight 
volumes. Total, eighteen hundred and eighty-six books, 
forty-one hundred and ninety-six pamphlets, one hundred 
and sixty-six volumes of newspapers, twenty-six lithographs, 
ten maps, six photographs and the other articles named. 
Mention is here made of some of the more important 
benefactions, following in each class the order of entry in 
the Book of Donations. 

To Dr. William F. Poole we are indebted for the third 
edition of his invaluable and indispensable Index to 
Periodical Literature. All scholars will thank him and 
his faithful associate-editor, Mr. William I. Fletcher, for 
their conscientious and laborious work. In this connection, 
an earnest appeal is made for additions to our collection of 
periodicals, as there arc important gaps which should be 
filled. Dr. Haven's special call in October, 1871, was 
responded to by quick and large returns. Many of our 
friends were convinced that he said truly, " A thoroughly 
life-like and accurate history of a period, cannot be written 

1883.] Eejwrt on the Library. 271 

without an examination of its periodical literature." These 
words might well be inscribed upon our four alcoves of 
magazines. The stock of duplicate serials is very large 
and will doubtless help us to exchange in kind, with 
libraries, dealers and others. The funds of the society 
have not justified us in buying sets of magazines, but the 
Salisbury Binding Fund has enabled us to send volumes to 
the binder as fast as they were completed. Stephen Salis- 
bury, Jr., Esq., has remembered our wants in Mexican and 
periodical literature, and especially by his valued and 
arduous labors in the preparation of what is modestly 
called "A Partial Index" to the First Series of the 
Society's Proceedings. Few persons can fully appreciate 
the difficulties attending the preparation of such a work, 
but in its completed form its value will be apparent to all. 
In a recent number of The Nation, a correspondent suggests 
that this business of indexing " is incomparable for teach- 
ing order, patience, humility, and for thoroughly eradicating 
the last trace of old Adam in whoever pursues it." As an 
increased demand for our Proceedings is sure to follow the 
publication of the Index,- it is suggested that members who 
desire to complete their sets give timely notice, and that 
others who do not care to preserve their copies should 
turn them over to the society. It is quite possible that 
in this way some of the rarer numbers would reach 
us, and by their sale the Publishing Fund be materially 
increased. The remainder of' Mr. Salisbury's edition of 
Aynie's "Notes on Mitla" has been deposited in the 
library. Hon. Samuel A. Green, M.D., whose gifts are 
so wide-spread, has supplied a new chapter in the history 
of Groton, bearing upon the witchcraft times, and has 
lessened the breaks in our collection of Uoston City Docu- 
ments. The mass ol" Washington material received from 
Hon. George F. Hoar required as usual the setting apart 
of a couple of days for its classification. Two excellent 
original daguerreotypes of members of the society have 


272 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

also been presented by him. One is of Daniel Webster — 
who was elected in October, 1814, when he was residing 
at Portsmouth, New Hampshire, and continued a member 
until his death in October, 1852 — the other of Rev. Alonzo 
Hill, D.D., a member for many years and Recording 
Secretary from 1865 to 1871. The gift of Charles A. 
Chase, Esq. includes many numbers of the North Ameri- 
can Review, which will help to complete the tine set in 
numbers received from the family of the late Governor 
Lincoln. lion. Francis II. Dewey sends a first instalment 
of books intended for the library ; and Dr. George IL 
Moore a copy of the rare •* Memorials of the Graduates of 
Harvard University," published by his father in August, 
1833, when in company with John Farmer. From Hon. 
Robert C. Winthrop we have received Canon Farrar's 
sermon at the unveiling of the Raleigh Window, a memo- 
rial to which the Society contributed, as in so many other 
instances, through the liberality of its President. Admiral 
George II. Preble has added to the departments of history, 
biography and travel, contributions from his own pen. 
Hon. Stephen Salisbury, besides adding more of his 
reprints to our salesroom, and recent local histories, biog- 
raphies and magazines to our shelves, has placed upon our 
walls a full size photographic fac-simile of Sebastian 
Cabot's Mappe-Monde, which has been so learnedly dis- 
cussed in our Proceedings by Rev. Dr. Hale, Dr. Deane 
and Col. Washburn. Permission to have a few copies of 
the latter taken from the original in the Bibliotheque 
Nationale was obtained by Hon. Robert C. Winthrop 
while in Paris last summer. An interesting .volume on 
" American Hero Myths, a study in the native religions of 
the western continent," has innm received from the author, 
Dr. Daniel G. Brinton, who promises others on kindred 
subjects. It may not be generally known that his valuable 
manuscript collection includes that of our late associate 
Dr. C. Hermann Berendt, for many years a careful stu dent 

1883,] Report on the Library. 273 

of Mexican and Central American antiquities. Our Treas- 
urer, Mr. Nathaniel Paine, contributes largely of such 
material as he so well knows we stand in need. Rev. Dr. 
William R. Huntington presents his k '()ne and Twenty 
Years of a Massachusetts Rectorship," with his " Prayer 
Book and Common Prayer, a boundary question," and 
Hill's " History of the (lunch in Burlington, New Jersey"; 
and Rev. Dr. Egbert C. Smyth two pamphlets on the 
creeds of Andover Theological Seminary, with Cleveland 
and Packard's History of Bowdoin College. Mr. James 
F. Hunnewell has favored us with his carefully prepared 
Historical Sketch of the First Church in Charlestown, 
Massachusetts. Prof. Frederick W. Putnam sets the good 
example of placing a collection of his own publications 
upon our shelves ; while Prof. Herbert B, Adams adds his 
Germanic Origin of New England Towns, with Freeman's 
Introduction to American Institutional History. These 
last named monographs comprise numbers one and two of 
a series to be designated the "Johns Hopkins University 
Studies in Historical and Political Science," of which 
Professor Adams is to have the editorial supervision. Dr. 
George Chandler's donation of valuable pamphlets should 
not be forgotten. He has for many years examined every 
family and local history received at the library, with a 
view to culling therefrom items relating to the Chandlers. 
It will especially interest those who failed to secure any of 
the forty-one copies of his Chandler Genealogy, saved 
from the Boston tire of November, 1872, to know that a 
second edition, revised and enlarged, is now passing 
through the press. As Prof. Charles (). Thompson was in 
Paris at the time of Gambetta's death, he kindly remem- 
bered the society by forwarding the illustrated and other 
papers relating thereto. The society's faithful Recording 
Secretary continues to preserve for its use tiles of the lead- 
ing insurance periodicals of America. Robert Clarke, 
Esq., furnishes from his press in Cincinnati a careful 


274 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

reprint of what is now an exceedingly rare pamphlet, 
44 John Leith's Short Biography, with a Brief Account of 
his Life among the Indians," to which Mr. C. W. Butter- 
field has added illustrative notes. Rev. Dr. Lucius R. 
Paige has given his exhaustive History of Hard wick, Mass., 
as a companion to his Cambridge, issued in 1877. A very 
full genealogical register makes a part of each work. The 
gift of Hon. Edward L. Davis indicates his continued 
interest in our departments of art and literature. It 
includes the marble bust of his father, the late Hon. Isaac 
Davis, made by Benjamin II. Kinney in 1851), which has 
now been placed in the Davis Spanish-American Alcove ; 
two large Italian vases of alabaster, beautiful in design and 
workmanship; busts of Washington, Franklin, Lafayette, 
Shakespeare, Milton and Scott; a foe-simile of Billings's 
design for the Pilgrim monument at Plymouth ; a framed 
•engraving of White's "Signing of the Compact in the 
Cabin of the Mayflower ;" Delainotte's views of the colleges, 
chapels and gardens of Oxford; and Sparks's Life and 
Writings of Washington. Seven volumes relating to 
Mexico and Central America and six volumes on South 
America, have been purchased for the Isaac Davis alcove. 
We are indebted to the late Holmes Ammidown, Esq., for 
a large map of St. Augustine, Florida, as it appeared fifty 
years ago. It was lithographed at his expense from the 
original drawing by the surveyor-general. Eighteen vol- 
umes, chiefly issues of the past few years, have been added 
to the Benjamin F. Thomas Local History alcove, which at 
present includes our English County Histories. To this 
latter invaluable collection we have added an occasional 
volume in the way of exchange, but it remains substantially 
.the same as when Mr. Henry Stevens tilled our President's 
order some twenty years ago. We should be very glad 
not to be obliged to refer members and visitors to other 
libraries for these county and kindred authorities not on 
our shelves. Mrs. Samuel F. Haven, Executrix, has 


1883.] Report on lite Library. 275 

recently deposited in the Haven alcove two hundred and 
five volumes, comprising about one-fourth part of the 
valuable library of her late honored husband. 

Among friends of the society, Mr. H. G. O. Blake has 
added to the library quite a large number of books, maga- 
zines and pamphlets, in recognition of a year's care of the 
Thoreau manuscripts, Capt. Albert A. Folsom has sup- 
plied some copies missing from our tile of Ancient and 
Honorable Artillery Election Sermons, and has made 
earnest endeavors by correspondence and otherwise to still 
further complete the same. It may be proper to add that 
the Richardson sermon of June 10, 1675, which was 
"Reprinted by company vote 1839," has been found not to 
belong to this series. Mr. Caleb B. Metcalf makes his 
regular contribution of educational pamphlets, and Dr. 
Pliny Earle his usual gift of insane asylum reports, to be 
added to his collection. Mr. Charles R. Hildeburn sends 
his List of the Publications issued in Pennsylvania from 
1085 to 1751). It is a valuable addition to the larger works 
of Messrs. Sabin and Haven, and the smaller ones, like that 
of Mr. Hunnewell. All are more or less imperfect, because 
some of the original publications cannot be found or 
accounted for. Already some cities and towns are making 
efforts to secure the early issues of their printing presses, 
a work exceedingly difficult and expensive because too 
long delayed. Mr. William W. Smith has left for our 
portfolio of town views, some drawings of the surround- 
ings of Worcester Common, • as they appeared to him 
early in the nineteenth century. The Gay family of 
Sutlield, Connecticut, have for the sixtieth time forwarded 
their annual rile of the Connecticut Courant ; and Hon. 
John Wentworth a copy of Arnold's Historical Chicago. 
Mr. Ellis Van Voorhis has given us his clearly printed 
Tombstone Inscriptions from the Churchyard of the First 
Reformed Dutch Church, of Fish kill, New York; and Mr. 
Alvah H. Burrage his Genealogical History of the Descend- 


27() American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

ants of John Burrage. Hamilton Andrews Hill, Esq., 
has presented his privately printed Biography of Abbott 
Lawrence — a valued member of this society — largely 
extended from the memoir prepared by him for the New 
England Historic, Genealogical Society. Mrs. Edward 
Southwick has made a donation of some two hundred 
volumes from the library of her father, the late John 
Milton Earle of Worcester. Among them were found a 
few copies of Mr. Earle's exhaustive report on the Indians 
of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, made to Governor 
Andrew in 181)1, while biography, horticulture and slavery 
are well represented in this valuable gift. Mrs. Maria 
Billiard Hart on has added to our collection of manuscripts, 
for the especial use of the genealogist, a box of Bullard 
family papers of the eighteenth and early nineteenth centu- 
ries. Such material should be carefully examined for 
strictly private papers before deposit, but should not be 
subject to withdrawal thereafter. At the suggestion of our 
friend, the Rev. Samuel May of Leicester, Mrs. Abby 
Kelley Foster has presented a tile of the National Anti- 
Slavery Standard, from volume eight, 1847, to volume 
thirty, 1870, an appropriate companion for the Liberator, 
now very nearly complete upon our shelves. Prof. John 
B. MeMaster, in remembrance of some weeks spent in the 
library last year, has sent the First volume of his History 
of the People of the United States from the Revolution to 
the Civil War, a pleasant reminder of Green's History of 
the English People. From this work it will readily be seen 
that our library, and especially the newspaper department, 
can furnish valuable material for the post-revolutionary as 
well as for the ante-revolutionary history of the United 
States. Col. Horatio C. King, Recording Secretary of the 
Society of the Army of the Potomac, in forwarding the 
last two reports of their Proceedings, to complete our set, 
promises to put the society on the permanent list of institu- 
tions to which the reports will be sent. Mr. G. D. Scull 

1883.] Report on (lit Library. 211 

of Oxford, England, mails to us, upon application, the two 
valuable Evelyn and Scott Genealogies, of which he 
modestly styles himself the editor. The first named is one 
of a small edition of a large work containing, among others, 
portraits of English officers in the War of the American 
Revolution. Accompanying the books was a note of 
thanks for the opportunity given to deposit them in the 
Genealogical alcove of the library. In November last, 
acting Secretary of State lion. John Davis, oit'ered to 
supply, from his department, Journals and Documents of 
Congress, for the past fifty years, provided the society 
would pay all expenses of selecting, packing and transport- 
ing the books, and furnish a list of wants within one week. 
In accordance with this otter we have received two hundred 
and seventy volumes at an expense of twenty-eight dollars. 
Early in March there was sold in New York, by Messrs. 
George A. Leavitt and Co., the first part of the library of 
the late Mr. Joseph J. Cooke of Providence, Rhode 
Island. The society was represented by its Treasurer, Mr. 
Paine, and Mr. Colton, the Assistant-Librarian. By the 
terms of the will the society is allowed to bid oil' five 
thousand dollars' worth of books without charge ; and of 
this amount about one-fifth was expended, the society 
receiving therefor four hundred and forty-two books, at an 
average cost of two dollars and fifteen cents a volume. 
The following roughly classified list will, perhaps, best 
indicate the enrichment : 

Poetry, seventy-six volumes; 

Periodicals, sixty-oue volumes; 

English Literature, fifty-four volumes ; 

Bibliography, forty-six volumes ; 

History, forty-live volumes; 

Voyages and Travels, forty-three volumes; 

Biography, forty-one volumes ; 

Bibles, twenty-three volumes ; 

Science and Art, twelve volumes; 

Theology, ten volumes ; 

Dictionaries, six volumes ; 


278 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Masonry, three volumes: 
Trials, two volumes ; 
Miscellaneous, twelve volumes; 

Among the more noteworthy books acquired are the follow- 
in g : Macklin's edition of the Bible in seven volumes, folio, 
published in London in the year 1800, at seventy-three 
pounds sterling; seven volumes of Dibdin's rare works, 
namely, Bibliotheca Spenceriana, four volumes, octavo, 
London, 1814, with its supplement Aedes Althorpianse, 
in two volumes, octavo, London, 1822-23 ; and the Cassano 
Catalogue, octavo, London, 1823 ; Bonn's edition of 
Lowndes's Bibliographer's Manual of English Literature, 
six volumes, octavo, London, 1864; Johnson's Works of 
the English Poets, seventy-live volumes, duodecimo, Lon- 
don, 171)0; and Lodge's Peerage and Baronetage, octavo, 
London, 1860. We have reason to be entirely satisfied 
with the result of the sale. The New Jersey Historical 
Society sends volume six of Documents relating to the 
Colonial History of New Jersey ; and the State of New 
Hampshire volume eleven of her publications in the same 
line ; the latter treating especially of the towns of the 
Granite State. The centennial volume of the Memoirs of 
the American Academy of Arts and Sciences ; the First 
Annual Report of the United States Bureau of Ethnology ; 
and the Fourth volume of the Reprint of the Acts and 
Resolves of the Province of Massachusetts Bay, are very 
acceptable and valuable contributions. By the closing of 
several exchange accounts, the material received from this 
productive Held has been greatly increased. Among other 
works obtained, are those of George Finlay, LL.D., for 
thirty-eight years a member of this society, in Greece. It 
may be noted as an interesting fact that in the earliest of 
these, "Greece under the Romans," printed at Edinburgh 
in 1844, he honors himself, as well as the society, by plac- 
ing under his name, on the neat title page, -'Member of 
the American Antiquarian Society and Corresponding 


1883.] Report on the Library. 279 

Member of the. Archaeological Institute at Rome." Dupli- 
cates accumulate rapidly, and unless put upon the market 
more freely, some suitable provision for their storage must 
be devised. Some extra volumes of bound newspapers 
have lately been disposed of, but the attic avenues are still 
lined with the unbound newspapers of New England and 
the Middle States. These are for the most part geograph- 
ically and chronologically arranged, and are available for 
any cities or towns desirous of securing material in this 
form, for their history. Much time and hard labor have been 
spent upon them. It should be borne in mind that we have 
the remainders of the editions of some rare, early books, 
for example, among others, Whitney's History of Worcester 
County, Mass., octavo, Worcester, 1793, and Lincoln and 
Baldwin's Worcester Magazine and Historical Journal, two 
volumes, octavo, Worcester, 1825-20. Attention is called 
to the fact that in nearly every large lot of books received, 
we find some whose pages are badly defaced by having 
been used for pressing leaves and flowers, the texture, in 
some cases, having been nearly destroyed. At a recent 
hearing before the Committee on Education, in reference to 
the further legislation for the protection of libraries, the 
society was represented by your Librarian. The bill in 
which we are especially interested provides a penalty for 
" whoever wilfully, maliciously or wantonly and without 
cause, writes upon, injures, defaces, tears or destroys a 
book, plate, picture, engraving, map, newspaper, maga- 
zine, pamphlet, manuscript or statue belonging to a law, 
town, city or other incorporated library." Our associate, 
Mr. Samuel S. Green of Worcester, and Mr. William B. 
Clarke of Boston, have been active in securing this much 
needed protection. 

Whenever the Publishing Fund shall be so increased 
as to allow the reprinting of the second volume of the 
Society's Transactions, now about out of print, the pro- 
priety of offering the first six volumes to libraries at a 

280 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

large discount, that we may have regular subscribers for the 

succeeding volumes, should be seriously considered. 

It may not be amiss at the present time to oiler a very few 
words witli regard to the present condition and future pros- 
pects of the society's cabinet of curiosities. In 1868 Messrs. 
Stephen Salisbury, Jr., and William A. Smith arranged 
in two upright cases a general collection of Indian stone 
implements, with specimens from the Western mounds, and 
printed a catalogue of the same. Our careful Treasurer 
has protected the coins and medals, in two cases standing 
in the North lobby adjoining the oflice and in the main hall. 
The other cabinet material, a portion of which has been 
catalogued, is unarranged, and to some extent inaccessible. 
Though an historic painter has occasionally sketched an 
Indian blanket or Hawaiian dress, the collection is practi- 
cally useless. It is clear that our Founder, Dr. Thomas, 
intended to establish a cabinet and a library, hoping that 
both would be helpful here to the student of history. It 
niight, however, be worthy of consideration whether some 
of this material which is particularly liable to decay, 
should not be sent, in a fair exchange, to the great National 
Museum at Washington, or to the hardly less celebrated 
Peabody Museum at Cambridge. A large number of 
geological and other specimens were many years ago trans- 
ferred to the Worcester Lyceum and Natural History 
Association, and, in 1876, the exsiccated Indian from 
Kentucky, commonly known as the mummy, was sent on 
exchange account to the Smithsonian Institution. 

Copies of the New England Home Journal for February 
second, 1883, containing an interesting illustrated article 
upon the society and its library, have been mailed to all 
members and corresponding societies, at the request of 
the President. The account was carefully prepared, and 
includes an excellent cut of the society's building in its 
present condition. 

A short plea is offered to authors, publishers and printers, 


1883.] Report on the Library. 281 

for greater care in dating, not only hooks and pamphlets, 
but newspapers and handbills. Even reprints from our 
own Proceedings have escaped from the press not only 
without the society's name, but with no date of publication. 
Upon the exterior of some of the newspapers of the late 
war, this important information has not been found, and 
large numbers of sale catalogues, which we would like to 
arrange chronologically, are issued with only the day of 
the week and the day of the month, as if, with the two 
facts stated, we ought easily to guess the third. 

Under the By-Laws of 1831 the library was for fifty years 
open from nine until twelve and from two until five o'clock, 
but under the new Rules and Regulations the Library Com- 
mittee are authorized to fix the hours of opening and closing. 
Although no action has been taken by them, it has been 
found desirable gradually to extend the time, for the 
especial benefit of scholars and others from a distance, 
until now the regular hours are from nine in the forenoon 
to five in the afternoon. 

In our work upon Sabin's Dictionary of Books relating 
to America man)' early tracts upon our catalogue were 
found not marked as in the library, and as a consequence 
the titles could not be verified and extended. Dr. Haven's 
solution of the problem was that a portion of the printed 
catalogue was made up from Dr. Thomas's lists, and that 
some of the pamphlets failed to reach the library. Twenty- 
two volumes containing about one hundred and fifty of 
these titles have been discovered and the proper shelf 
entries made. 

Antiquarian Hall has always been known as a pleasant, 
well-filled retreat for scholars, but not often as a place from 
which to send out for information. The latter use of the 
Hall has lately been tested for a member of the Council 
who desired facts with regard to certain laws of the various 
States. Letters were addressed to all the Secretaries of 
State, and prompt answers received from all but one, in 

282 American Antiquarian Society. f April, 

which case one of our members obtained the information 

As a society we have completed three-score years and 
ten of quiet, unpretending usefulness. Bearing this in 
mind, may we not hope that with increased facilities and 
an active membership its future record will be not les& 
satisfactory than its past. 

Respectfully submitted. 



1883.] Donors and Donations. 283 

Donors anti Donations* 


Adams, Prof. Herbert B., Baltimore, Md. — His "Germanic origin of 
New .England Towns;" and " Freeman's Introduction to American 
Institutional History." 

Ammidown, Holmes, Esq., New York.— A map of St. Augustine, 

Barton, Mr. Edmund M., Worcester.— One book; thirty-seven pam- 
phlets; two copper coins; one photograph; and fragments of pottery 
and flint from the Indian Burying ground at Fort Popham, Me. 

Brinton, Daniel G., M.D., Philadelphia, Pa.— His "American Hero 
Myths. A study iu the Native Religions of the Western Continent;" 
and his remarks on " Recent European Contributions to the Study of 
American Archaeology." 

Brock, Robert A., Esq., Richmond, Va. — His Articles on the Colonial 
Seals of Virginia; and various newspapers. 

Chandler, George, M.D., Worcester.— Twenty-five selected pam- 

Chase, Charles A., Esq., Worcester. — Sixteen books; sixty-four num- 
bers of English and American magazines; and thirty-seven pam- 

Childs, George W., Esq., Philadelphia, Pa. — Robinson's Account of 
the library of Mr. Childs. 

Clarke, Robert, Esq., Cincinnati, O. — Butterfleld's reprint, with 
notes, of the " Short Biography of John Leith." 

Davis, Andrew McF., Esq., San Francisco, Cal. — The Californian and 
Overland Monthly, in continuation. 

Davis, Hon. Edward L., Worcester. — A marble bust of Hon. Isaac 
Davis; two alabaster vases; busts of Washington, Lafayette, Frank- 
lin, Milton, Shakespeare, and Scott; a framed medallion of Hon. John 
Davis; a fac-simile of the Pilgrim Monument at Plymouth; a framed 
engraving of White's signing of the compact in the cabin of the May- 
flower; and nineteen selected books. 

Davis, Hon. Horace, San Francisco, Cal. — Proceedings of the California 
Academy of Sciences, August 7 — November 2, 1882. 

Dewey, Hon. Francis H., Worcester. — Three books; and twenty 


284 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Dexter, George, Esq., Cambridge. — "Journal of a Tour from Boston 
to Oneida, June 17DG. By Jeremy Belknap." Edited by Mr. Dexter. 

Green, lion. Samuel A., Boston.— His " Groton in the Witchcraft 
Times ;"" Successful New Hampshire men;" twenty-seven books; 
and one hundred and forty-nine pamphlets. 

Harris, Clarendon, Esq., Worcester. — Gould's Uranometria Argentina, 
with accompanying maps; seven pamphlets; and a photograph of the 
Thaddeus Mason home, in Cambridge, Mass. 

Haynes, Prof. Henry W., Boston. — His "Indications of an- Early Race 
of men in New England ; " and a catalogue of works of art exhibited 
in the new Library of the Corporation of London, 1872. 

Higginson, Col. Thomas Wentworth, Cambridge.— An Engraved head 
of Longfellow; the City of Newport Tax Book for 1863; and the 
Cambridge Directory for 1882. 

Hoar, Hon. George F., Worcester. — His speeches on a Uniform System 
of Bankruptcy in the United States; one hundred and thirty-two 
books; four hundred and twenty-two pamphlets; eight engravings; 
two daguerreotypes; one map; and the Congressional Record, in con- 

Hoyt, Albert II., Esq., Boston. — Three pamphlets; and two newspa- 

Hunnewell, Mr. James F., Charlestown. — An account of the Com- 
memoration of the Two Hundred and Fiftieth Anniversary of the 
First Church in Charlestown, Mass., including his Historical Sketch. 

Huntington, Rev. William R., D.D., Worcester. — His "Prayer Book 
and Book of Common Prayer, A Boundary Question; " his "Twenty 
years of a Massachusetts Rectorship;" Hill's History of the Church 
in Burlington, New Jersey; an Account of the Eighth Congress of 
the Protestant Episcopal Church; and sixteen pamphlets. 

Jones, Hon. Charles C, Jr., Augusta, Ga. — Rain's History of the Con- 
federate Powder Works at Augusta, Georgia. 

Latour, Maj. L. A. H., Montreal, P. Q. — His " Annuaire de Ville- 
Marie," for 1882; and six pamphlets. 

Mooiuc, George II., LL.D., New York. — " Memorials of the Graduates of 
Harvard University, No. 1, August, 1833." 

Paige, Rev. Lucius R., D.D., Cambridge.— His History of Hardwick, 
Massachusetts, with a Genealogical Register. 

Paine Nathaniel, Esq., Worcester. — Paine Family Records, Vol. 2, No. 
1U; five books; two hundred and forty-six pamphlets; thirty-eight 
numbers of magazines; three files of newspapers, in continuation; 
two photographs; eight lithographs ; and one map. 

Peabody, Rev. Andrew P., D.D., Cambridge. — His Sermon in Com- 
memoration of the Life and Services of Rev. Chandler Robbins, D.D. 


Donors and Donations. 


■His American Antiquarian aud 
la. — Two pamphlets; 

Peet, Rev. Stephen D., Clinton, Wis. 
Oriental Journal, in continuation. 

Perry, Rev. Wm. Stevens, D.D., Davenport, 
and the Iowa Churchman, as issued. 

Poole, William F., LL. D., Chicago, 111.— His Index to Periodical 
Literature. Third edition. 

Preble, Admiral George H., Brookline. — His History of Steam Navi- 
gation; Diary of a Canoe Expedition into the Everglades and Interior 
of Southern Florida, in 1842; his Notice of John Adolphus Dahlgren ; 
a wax Impression of the Great Seal of the United States ; and clippings 
relating to Longevity. 

Putnam, Prof. Frederick W., Cambridge.— Thirty-six pamphlets of 
his own writing. 

Rau, Dr. Charles, Washington, D. C. — His paper on Indian Stone 

Salisbury, Prof. Edward E., New Haven, Conn.— An account of the 
Presentation of a Medal to the Rev. President Woolsley, in Commem- 
oration of Fifty years in Yale College. 

Salisbury, James II., M.D., Cleveland, O. — One hundred and twenty- 
eight miscellaneous pamphlets. 

Salisbury, Hon. Stephen, Worcester. Thirteen copies of his "Troy 
and Homer;" and "Antiquarian papers;" a Photo-Lithographic copy 
of Cabot's map of the world; Page's History of Hardwick; Davis's 
Ancient Landmarks of Plymouth; Ly ell's Life, Letters and Journals; 
Life of Noah Webster; one book; ninety-three numbers of maga- 
zines; and four files of newspapers. 

Salisbury, Stephen, Jr., Esq., Worcester. — Eighty copies of Le Plou- 
geon's Mayapau and Maya Inscriptions; Ober's Young Folks' History 
of Mexico; two hundred and four books; seventy-four numbers 
of English and American magazines; six autograph letters; and forty 

Smith, Mr. Charles C, Boston.— His "Memoir of Delano A. God- 
dard; " and his report, March 31, 1883, as Treasurer of the Massachu- 
setts Historical Society. 

Smuckeb, Hon. Isaac, Newark, O.— His papers on "Archaeology Past, 
Present, and Future; " and on " The Contest of 1882; " and one book 
and twelve pamphlets relating to Ohio. 

Smyth, Rev. Egbert C, D.D., Andover.— Cloaveland and Packard's 
History of Bowdoin College; and two pamphlets relating to the 
Creed of Andover Theological Seminary. 

Stoddard, Hon. Elijah B., Worcester.— Four Brown University 

Thompson, Prof. Charles O., Terre Haute, Ind.— A collection of 
French papers relating to the death of Gambetta. 


286 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Washburn, Col. John D., Worcester.— Seven flies of Insurance Maga- 
zines, in continuation; and a scarf pin made from the Charter Oak. 

WiNTiinop, Hon. Robert C, Boston. — Canon Farrar's sermon preached 
at the unveiling of the " Raleigh Window." 

Winsor, Prof. Justin, Cambridge. — His "Massachusetts;" reprinted 
from the Eneylopa.dia Brittanica; his Fifth report as Librarian of 
Harvard University; heliotypes of the Virginia Map of 1651, and 
of an India ink Portrait of Cotton Mather. 


Ancona, Sr. Desiderio. — One tile of Yucatan newspapers. 

Ancona, Sr. Eligio. — Four liles of Yucatan newspapers. 

Bailey, Isaac H. Esq., Boston.— His Shoe and Leather Reporter, as 

issued, and the Annual for 1883. 
Baldwin, Messrs. John D. and Company, Worcester. — Their Daily and 

Weekly Spy, as issued. 
Barton, Capt. Chas. Henry, Topeka, Kansas. — Kansas State Historical 

Report of 1883. # 

Barton, Mrs. Maria Bullard, Worcester. — A collection of Bullard 

Family Papers of the 18th and 19th centuries; and live pamphlets. 
Blake, Mr. II. G. 0., Worcester.— Thirty books; sixty-nine numbers of 

American magazines; and ninety-two pamphlets. 
Boaudman, Hon. Samuel L., Augusta, Me.— His "Home Farm," as 

Boutwell, Mr. Francis Marion, Groton. — His "Old Homesteads of 

Groton, Massachusetts." 
Brahlee, Rev. Caleb D., Boston. — His " Mozart, a poem." 

Brinley, Francis, Esq., Newport, R I. — His Annual report as Presi- 
dent of the Board of Trustees of the Redwood Library and 

Brooks, Rev. Wm. Henry, D.D., Scituate. — His "Memorial of St. An- 
drew's Church, Scituate, Massachusetts, A. D. 1730-1810." 

Brown, Francis II., Secretary, Boston. — Report of the Class of 1857 
in Harvard College. 

Brown, Mrs. John Carter, Providence, R. I. — Catalogue of the 
Library of the late John Carter Brown, Part II., Second series. 

Burleigh, Mr. Charles H., Worcester. — Appleton's Journal, Volumes 
V. and VI. 

Burrage, Alvaii H. , Esq., Boston. — His Genealogical History of the 
Descendants of John Burrage. 

Caldwell, Rev. Augustine, Worcester. — a Genealogical Record of 
the Little Family; and a Garlield Memorial Sermon. 

1883.] Donors and Donations. 287 

Canfield, Miss P. W. S., Worcester. — The Magazine of Art, iu con- 
Carpenter, Rev. Charles C, Mt. Vernon, N. H. — His Annual Record 

of the Congregational Church, Mt. Vernon, N. 11., 1882. 
Clark, Rev. George F., Mendon. — Seventy-four books; six hundred 

and ninety-seven pamphlets; and fifteen files of newspapers. 
Cook, Henry H., Esq., Barre. — His Gazette, as issued. 
Cooke, John J., Executors of the Estate of. — Four hundred and 

forty-two books. 
Cutter, Cha'rles A., Esq., Boston.— " How to get Books. With an 

Explanation of the New Way of Marking Books." 
Cyr, M. Narcisse, Boston. — His Le Republicain, as issued. 
Davis, Hon. Alonzo, Fitchburg. — Fitchburg City Documents, 1882. 
Davis, Mrs. Edward L., Worcester, — Rev. Dr. Peabody's Sermon in Com- 
memoration of the Life and Services of Rev. Chandler Robbins, D.D. 
Dean, Mr. John Ward, Boston.— His Appendix, No. XVII. to the 

Memoir of Rev. Nathaniel Ward. 
Doe, Messrs. Charles H. and Company, Worcester. — Their Daily and 

Weekly Gazette, as issued. 
Donnell, Mr. E. J., New York. — His " Slavery and Protection." 
Drowne, Henry T., Esq.. New York. — Account of the Seventy-ninth 

Annual Meeting of the New England Society in the City of New 

Earle, Pliny, M.D., Northampton.— Three books and thirty-four 

pamphlets, chiefly relating to Insanity. 
Edes, Mr. Henry H., Charlestown. — One book; thirty-two pamphlets; 

and four files of newspapers. 
Fisher, Charles II., M.D., Commissioner. — The Twenty-ninth Rhode 

Island Registration Report. 
Folsom, Capt. Albert A., Boston. — Nine numbers of the Ancient and 

Honorable Artillery Election Sermons. 
Foote and Horton, Messrs., Salem. — Their Gazette, as issued. 
Foster. Mrs. Abby Kelley, Worcester.— The Anti-Slavery Standard, 

1847-1870, nearly complete. 
Francis, George E., M.D., Worcester. — Eleven numbers of the Harvard 

Fuller, Mr. Willard, Cleveland, 0. — Family Records of George 

Clark, Daniel Kellogg, and Edward Nash. 
Gardiner, C. C, Esq., St. Louis, Mo. — Fac-simile of the Signature and 

Seal of Lion Gardiner. 
Gerould, Mrs. J. IL, Worcester. — Two pamphlets. 
Goss, Elbridge H., Esq., Melrose.— Melrose Town reports for 1882. 

288 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Goss, Francis W., M.D., Librarian.— The Massachusetts Medical 
Society Publications, Vol. II., No. 3. 

Hammond, Lewis W., Esq., Worcester. — Eighteen pamphlets. 

Harlez, M. C. de, Lourain, Belgium. His reply to M. Luquieu's Criti- 

Haven, Mrs. Samuel F., Executrix, Worcester.— Two hundred and five 
books; two hundred and forty-two pamphlets; one map; and various 

Hazard, Mr. Thomas R., Vaucluse, II. I. — His Miscellaneous Essays and 

Hildeburn, Charles R., Esq., Philadelphia, Pa.— His List of the Pub- 
lications issued in Pennsylvania, 1G85-175U. 

Hildretii, Hon. Samuel E., Worcester. — His Inaugural Address as 
Mayor, January 1, 1883. 

Hill, Hamilton Andrews, Esq., Boston.— His Memoir of Abbott Law- 

Hough, Franklin B., Esq., Secretary, Washington, D. C. — Proceedings 

of the American Forestry Congress, 1883. 
Kellogg and Stratton, Messrs., Fitchburg. — Their Sentinel, as 

Kimball, Mr. John C, Brookneld.— Five Brookfkld pamphlets. 
King, Col. Horatio C, Secretary, New York. — Reports of the Twelfth 

and Thirteenth Reunions of the Society of the Army of the Potomac. 
Kirkbride, Thomas S., M.D., Philadelphia, Pa. — His Report of the 

Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane, 1882. 
Leamon, Mr. Jacob, Lawrenceburg, Tenn. — His Weekly Press, as 

Lewis, Mr. C. W., Boston. — A newly discovered Fourth of July Ora- 
tion, by Daniel Webster. 
Lincoln, Edward W., Esq., Secretary, Worcester. — Transactions of 

the Worcester County Horticultural Society for 1882. 
Lippincott and Co., Messrs. J. B., Philadelphia, Pa. — The National 

Review, Vol. I., No. 1. 
Lovering, Rev. Joseph F., Worcester. — His Address at the Dedication 

of the Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument, at Beverly, Mass., Oct. 13, 

Marble, Albert P., Esq., Worcester. — Doings of the National Council 

of Education, 1882. 
McCarthy, Mr. Carlton, Richmond, Va.— His Detailed Minutiae of 

Soldiers' Life in the Army of Northern Virginia, 18G1-1865. 
McMaster, Prof. John Bach, Princeton, N. J.— His History of the Peo- 
ple of the United States, Vol. L, 1784-90. 


1883.] Donors and Donations. 289 

Mktcalf, Caleb B., Esq., Worcester. — Two books; one hundred and 
twenty-two pamphlets; live files of newspapers, in continuation; and 
three heliotypes. 

Mitchell, Mr. Thomas, Worcester. — Acts passed in Parliament, May 
8-May 19, 1651, a black-letter fragment. 

Moerell, Henry K., Esq., Gardiner, Me.— " Tontine : What it is and 
how it Works?" and an Oration pronounced at Goffstown, N. H., 
July i, 1805. 

Park, John G., M.D., Worcester.— The Fiftieth Annual Report of the 
Trustees of the State Lunatic Hospital at Worcester. 

Gay, Miss Mary C, Suflield, Conn.— A file of the Connecticut Courant 

for 1882. 

Phillips, Henry, Jr., Esq., Philadelphia, Pa. — His Notes on a Collec- 
tion of Coins and Medals, Philadelphia, 1882. 

Rand, Col. Arnold A., Secretary, Boston. — "Military Order of the 
Loyal Le«jion of the United States. Registry of the Commaiulery 
of Massachusetts, 1882." 

Rice, Hon. William W., Worcester. — The President's Message and 
accompanying documents, 1881-82. 

Roe, Mr. Alfred S., Worcester. — The Methodist Magazine, Vol. II. ; 
Harper's Bazar for 1882; and forty-live Educational pamphlets. 

Scull, Mr. G. D., Oxford, Eng. — His Evelyns in America; and his 
Dorothea Scott, otherwise Gotherson and llogben. 

Sheridan, Gen. Philip H., IT. S. A. — Two war pamphlets. 

Stone, Mr. Everutt C, Worcester. — His '• New England Home Journal," 

as issued. 
Smith, Mr. John G., Worcester. — A description of his Library; and a 

catalogue of the same. 
Smith, Mr. Wm. White, Worcester.— Two sketches of Worcester in 

1817, drawn by Mr. Smith. 
Souther, William T., M.D., Worcester.— A book of early date. 
Southwick, Mrs. Edward, Worcester.— Two hundred selected books; 

and thirty-eight pamphlets. 
Spalding, Mr. E. Hi, Nashua, N. H. — The New Hampshire Register 

for 1883. 
Stanwood, James R., Esq., Boston. — His " Direct Ancestry of the late 

Jacob Wendell, of Portsmouth, N. H." 
Sumner, Mr. George, Worcester. — Appleton's Additious and Correc- 
tions to the Sumner Genealogy. 

Taft, Royal C, Esq., Providence, R. I. — His Notes upon the Introduc- 
tion of the Woollen Manufacture into the United States. 


290 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Thacher, Peter, Esq., Boston. — Heliotypes of the Original Plan of 
Lebanon, Conn. ; and of pages of the first Book of Records of the 
Old South Church, Boston, in the handwriting of Thomas Timelier. 

Tolman, Mr. Edward F., Worcester.— The Wheelman, Vol. I., No. 1. 

Townsend, Charles H., Esq., New Haven, Conn. — His " Townsend 
Family in Old and New England." Revised third edition. 

Turner, John H., Esq., Ayer.— His "Public Spirit," a.s issued. 

Van Vooriiis, Elias, Esq., New York.— His Tombstone Inscriptions 
from the Churchyard of the First Reformed Dutch Church of Fishkill, 
New York. 

Wentwokth, Hon. John, Chicago, 111. — Arnold's "Historical Chicago, 

Past, Present, and Future." 
Wheeler, Mr. Henry A., Worcester. The National Temperance 

Advocate, 1873-75. 

White, Mr. Isaac I)., Jr., Worcester. — Three books; and four pam- 

Wilder, Harvey B., Esq., Worcester.— Two pamphlets. 
Witherby, Rugg and Richardson, Messrs., Worcester. — Eight tiles of 
Mechanical newspapers. 


Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelpha. — The Proceedings, 

Parts II. and III., May-December, 1882. 
American Academy of Arts and Sciences.— Their Memoirs, Centen- 

niul Volume, and Proceedings, Vol. IX., New Series. 
American Baptist Missionary Association. — Their Magazine, as 


American Geographical Society.— Their Journal of 1881; and Bulle- 
tin, 1882, No. 2. 

American Numismatic and Archaeological Society. — Their Pro- 
ceedings, 1882. 

American Philosophical Society. — Their Proceedings, Number 112. 

Archaeological Institute of America.— -The Bulletin, January, 1s8;l 

Astor Library. — The Thirty-fourth Annual Report. 

Boston Board of Health. — Their Monthly Statements of Mortality. 

Boston, City of.— An Account of the Re-dedication of the Old State 
House, Boston, July 11, 1882; and the Boston Records, 1700-1728. 

Boston Public Library.— The Bulletin, as issued; and one pamphlet. 

Boston Water Board. — A Supplement to the History of the Boston 
Water Works. 

Bostonian Society.— Their Proceedings, January 1), 1883. 

Bowdoin College. — The Eighty-first Annual Catalogue; and Good- 
win's Longfellow Memorial Address, July 12, 1882. 


1883. J 

Donor* and Donatio in 


California Academy of Arts and Sciences. — The Proceedings, August 

7-November 20, 1882. 
Canadian Institute.— The Proceedings, Vol. I., No. 3. 
Chicago Historical Society. — Their Collections, Vol. I. ; and two 

Cincinnati Public Library.— The Report of 1882. 
Civil Service Reform Association. — Their Record, as issued. 
Cobden Club. — The Financial Reform Almanac for 1883. 
Davenport Academy of Natural Sciences.— Their Proceedings, 

Vol. III.. Part 3. 
Essex Institute.— East Church, Salem, Record of Parish List of Deaths, 

1785-1819; and Historical Collections, July-Dec. 1882, Vol. XIX. 
First Presbyterian Church, Morristown, N. J. — The Record, Jan- 
uary 1, 1883. 
Harvard University. — The Bulletin, as issued; and nine Numbers of 

the Bibliographical Contributions. 
Haverford College.— The Annual Catalogue for 1882-83. 
Historical Society of Pennsylvania. — Their Magazine of History 

and Biography, as issued. 

Illinois Association of the Sons of Vermont. — Their Fifth and 
Sixth Annual Reports. 

Johns Hopkins University. — The Seventh Annual Report of the Presi- 

Kansas Trustees of the State Charitable Institutions.— Their 
Third Biennial Report. 

Lancaster Town Library.— The Twentieth Annual Report. 

Lynn, City of. — Proceedings at the Celebration of the Two Hundred 
and Fiftieth Anniversary of the Settlement of Lynn, June 17, 1879. 

Massachusetts, Commonwealth of.— Acts and Resolves of the Prov- 
ince of Massachusetts Hay, Vol. IV., 1757-1708. 

Massachusetts Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons. — Their 
Proceedings, September 13-October 20, 1882. 

Massachusetts Historical Society. — Their Proceedings, Volume 

XIX.. 1881-1882. 
Massachusetts Horticultural Society. — Their Transactions. 1882, 

Part I. ; and their Schedule of Prizes for 1883. 
Massachusetts State Library. — The Annual Report of 1882. 
Missouri Historical Society. — Their Publication, No. 7. 
Morse Institute of Natick.— Their Annual Report for 1882. 
Museo Nacional de Mexico.— Anales, Tomo II. , Entrega 7 a ; Tomo 

III., Entreua 1", 2'. 
New Bedford Public Libkaky. — Four pamphlets. 


292 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

New England Historic, Gknealogical Society. — Their Register, as 

issued; and Proceedings at the Annual Meeting, 1683. 
New Hampshire, State of. — Documents Relating to Towns in New 

Hampshire, Vol. XL; and the Annual Report, 1882. 
New Jersey Historical Society. —Documents relating to the Colonial 

History of New Jersey, Vol. VI. ; and Proceedings, Vol. VII. 
New York Bible Society. — The Fifty-eighth Auuual Report. 
New Yoke Evening Post Printing Company. — The Nation, as issued. 
New Yoke Historical Society. — Fifteen Numbers of the Proceedings 

of the American Antiquarian Society. 
New York State Library. — Seven New York State Reports. 
Numismatic and Antiquarian Society of Philadelphia.— Their Pro- 
ceedings for 1882. 
Ohio, State of. — The Ohio State Documents, 1881-82. 
Peabody Museum of American Arcileology and Ethnology. — The 

Fifteenth Annual Report. 
Peoria Public Libra ry. — The Library News, Vol. I., Nos. 4 and 5. 
Perkins Institution and Massachusetts School for the Blind. — 

The Fifty-first Animal Report. 
Philadelphia Mercantile Library Company. — Their Bulletin, Vol. 

I-., Numbers 1 and 2. 
Providence Athenaeum.— The Report of 1882. 
Providence Public Library.— The Monthly Reference List of August, 

Rhode Island Historical Society.— Their Proceedings for 1882-83. 
Royal Arch/EOLogical Commission of Russia. — Their Record for the 

year 1880. 
Saint Louis Mercantile Library Association. — The Annual Report 

for 1882. 
Saint Louis Public School Library. — The Bulletin, Number 18. 
Smithsonian Institution. — Catalogue of its Publications, 184G-1882 ; 

and various papers on Anthropology. 
Societe D' Ethnographie.— Congres International des Orientalistes, 

Compte Rendu de la Premiere Session, 1873, two volumes. 
Societe des Etudes Historiques. — Their Journal, as issued. 
Societe Historique de Montreal.— Memoires, Neuvieme Livraison. 
Societe des Antiquaiees de France.— Their Memoires, Vol. IV. 
Society of Antiquaries of London.— Their Proceedings, December 

10, 1880, to June 23, 1881. 
Travelers' Insurance Company.— Their Record, as issued. 


1883.] Donors and Donations. 293 

United States Bureau of Education.— The Circulars of Informa- 
tion, Numbers 5 and 6; and a paper ou the High School for Girls in 

United States Bureau of Ethnology. — The First Annual Report. 

United States Department oe the Interior. — Twenty-eight Vol- 
umes of Public Documents. 

United States Department of State. — Two hundred and seventy 
Volumes of Government Documents, 20th-4Gth Congresses. 

United States Fish Commission. — Their Bulletin, as issued. 

United States National Musicum. — The Proceedings, in continua- 

United States War Department. — Alphabetical Catalogue of the 
Department Library ; Official Records of the Union and Confederate 
Annies in the War of the Rebellion, Vol. G, Series I.; and eight 

Western Reserve and Northern Historical Society. — Their Pro- 
ceedings, 1882. 

Wisconsin Historical Society.— Memorial Address on the Life and 
Character of Hou. C. C. Washburn. 

Worcester City Hospital, Trustees of.— Their Twelfth Annual 

Worcester County Free Institute of Industrial Science. — The 

Thirteenth Annual Report. 
Worcester Free Public Library.— Sixty flies of Newspapers; and 

one hundred and twelve pamphlets. 

Worcester County Mechanics Association. — Nineteen flies of news- 

Worcester National Bank. — The New York Evening Post, in con- 

Wyoming Historical and Geological Society.— Their Publication, 

No. 4. 
Yale College. — Annual Catalogue, 1882-83. 
Yale College, The Professors of. — An Account of the Presentation 

of a Medal to the Rev. President Woolsey, in Commemoration of his 

Fifty Years of Service in Yale College. 
Young Men's Christian Association of Worcester. — The Scientific 

American, in continuation. 

294 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 


In accordance with the requirements of the By-Laws, the 
Treasurer of the American Antiquarian Society submits 
his report for the six months ending April 18, 1883. 

There has been a small increase in the au^reiiate of the 
several funds, the total of the eleven funds now amounting 
to $77,798.01, a gain in the last six months of $960.52. 
Most of this apparent increase, however, arises from the 
fact that the dividends and interest due October last were 
not then collected, owing to the illness of the Treasurer at 
that time, but appear in the present account. 

The only change made in the investments since the last 
meeting of the Society, is in the form of a loan of 
$3,000.00, secured by -a mortgage on improved real estate 
in the city of Worcester. 

The following statement gives in detail the receipts and 
expenditures for the past six months, and the condition of 
the various funds. 

Statement of the condition of the several Funds, 
APKIL 18, 1883. 

The Librarian's and General Fund. 

1882, Oct. 18. Balance of the Fund $31,378 9G 

1883, April 18. Received for interest and divi- 

dends to date 991 01 

" " " Received for annual assessments 45 00 . 

" •' " •' " life assessment . . 50 00 

«•■•«« •• " bank tax refunded . 315 94 

.$32,781 51 
Paid for salaries and incidental expenses . $850 GO 
" " heating hall 450 00 

1,300 GO 

1883, April 18. Present amount of Fund . . . $31,480 91 


1883.] Report of the Treasurer. 295 

Invested in : 

Bank Stock §9,400 Q0 

Railroad Stock 1,800 00 

Railroad Bonds 9,200 00 

Mortgage Notes 10,500 00 

Cash 560 91 

031,430 91 

The Collection and Research Fund. 

1882, Oct. 18. Balance of Fund $17,616 08 

188.'}, April 18. Received interest and dividends to 

date 618 25 

" " k ' Received for bank tax refunded. 215 09 

" " " •• " books sold .... 30 72 

§18,480 14 

Paid Assistant-Librarians $408 34 

" for books and Incidental expenses . 215 84 

624 18 

1883, April 18. Present amount of Fund #17,855 96 

Invested in : 

1 Bank Stock . $6,400 00 

Railroad Stock 5,300 00 

Railroad Bonds 3,000 00 

Worcester Gas Co, Stock . 500 00 

Mortgage Note 2,150 00 

Cash 505 96 

$17,855 96 

The Bookbinding Fund. 

1882, Oct. 18. Balance of Fund $6,219 34 

1883, April 18. Received interest and dividends to 

date 233 00 

Received bank tax refunded ... 92 29 

$6,544 63 
Paid for binding 817 30 

1883, April 18. Present amount of the Fund ; . . $6,227 33 

Invested in : 

Bank Stock $2,500 00 

Railroad Stock . 1,000 00 

Railroad Bonds 2,6u0 00 

Cash 127 33 

$6,227 33 


29<) American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

The Publishing Fund. 

1882, Oct. 18. Balance of Fund $8,714 45 

1883, April 18. Received for interest and divi- 

dends to date 290 00 

" k ' " Received for bank tax refunded . 5;5 86 

" " " " " publications sold . . 131 25 

$0,1 'J 5 56 

Paid for printing Proceedings . . 200 41 

1883, April 18. Present amount of the Fund . . . $8,905 15 

Invested in : 

Bank Stock $1,000 00 

Railroad Bonds 5,500 00 

City Bond l,00u 00 

Cash 805 15 

$8,905 15 

The Salisbury Building Fund. 

1882, Oct. 18. Balance of Fund $1,431 05 

1883*, April 18. Received interest to date .... 35 0o 

1883, April 18. Present amount of the Fund. . . $1,406 05 

Invested in : 

Railroad Bond $1,000 00 

Cash 460 05 

$1,400 05 


The Isaac Davis Book Fund. 

1882, Oct. 18. Balance of Fund $1,493 72 

1883, April 18. Received dividends to date .... 86 18 

$1,579 90 
Paid for books 10 21 

1883, April 18. Present amount of the Fund . . . ^1,563 09 

Invested in : 

Bank Stock $500 00 

Railroad Stock 800 00 

Cash 263 69 

$1,563 69 


1883.] Iteport of the Treasurer. 297 

The Lincoln Legacy Fund. 

1882, Oct. 18. Balance of Fund $1,826 82 

1883, April 18. Received dividends to date . . . . 142 26 

1883, April 18. Present amount of the Fund . . . $1,909 08 

Invested in : 

Bank Stock . . - $1,600 00 

Cash .• 3(J l J 0» 

$1,969 08 

The Benjamin F. Thomas Local History Fund. 

1882, Oct. 18. Balance of Fund $1,085 07 

1883, April 18. Received interest to date .... 35 00 

SI, 120 07 
Paid for books 37 43 

1883, April 18. Present amount of the Fund . . . $1,082 64 

Invested in : 

Railroad Bond $1,000 UU 

Cash 82 64 

f $1,082 <;i 

The Tenney Fund. 

1882, Oct. 18. Balance of Fund $5,000 00 

1883, April 18. Received interest to date .... 100 00 

1883, April 18. Present amount of Fund . . . . . $5, 100 00 

Invested in : 

Mortgage Notes $5,000 00 

Cash • . . . . 100 00 

$5,100 00 

The Alden Fund. 

1882, Oct. 18. Balance of Fund $1,070 00 

1883, April 18. Received interest to date .... ^ 35 00 

1883, April 18. Present amount of Fund $1,105 00 

Invested in : 

Railroad Bond $1,000 00 

Cash 105 00 

$1,105 00 

298 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

The Haven Fund. 

1882, Oct. 18. Balance of Fund $1,000 00 

188;>, April 18. Received interest to date. . ... 4020 

1883, April 18. Present amount of Fund (in Sav- 

ings Bank; tf 1,040 20 

Total of the eleven Funds . . $77,790 01 

('ash on hand, included in foregoing statement . . §3,405 81 

Librarian's and General Fund §580 91 

Collection and Research Fund 505 90 

lloo-k binding Fund 127 33 

Publishing Fund 805 15 

Salisbury Building Fund 406 05 

Isaac Davis Book Fund . • 203 60 

Lincoln Legacy Fund 3G9 08 

Benj. F. Thomas Local History Fund .... 82 04 

Tcnney Fund 100 00 

Alden Fund 105 UO 

Total Cash $3,4u5 81 

Respectfully submitted, 

Worcester, April 18, 1883. 


The undersigned, Auditors of the American Antiquarian Society, 
hereby certify that they have examined the report of the Treasurer, 
made up to April 18, 188."., and find the same to be correct and prop- 
erly vouched, that the securities held by him for the several funds are 
as stated, and that the balance of cash on hand is accounted for. 


Worcester, April 20, 1883. 

1883.] Death of Mac Davis. 2!)9 


At a meeting of the council, held April 3, 1883, to take 
notice of the death of Hon. Isaac Davis, President Salisbury 
said : 

Gkntlemkn : We have another lesson, most impressive for its con- 
nection with ourselves and its conspieuousness, that earth is not the 
permanent abode of man. He appeareth for a time in a vesture of 
decay, capable of longer or shorter wearing, and evidently designed for 
transition to other experience of the same wisdom and love that sustains 
him here. And this lesson comes to us with a repeated illustration in the 
same street of this city in a period of twenty-four hours. On March 31, 
at 9 o'clock v. m., Rev. George Allen was released from his painful 
intirmities at the age of ninety-one years and two months. We cannot 
boast of him as an associate in the council or the society. Many years 
ago he was elected to membership and courteously declined it, with the 
remark that he could be more useful to the society without it. This 
implied promise was fulfilled by his gifts of desirable publications 
and by imparting his wonderful knowledge of history, especially of 
ecclesiastical controversies and doctrines in his long and energetic life. 
He was one of those friends better than brothers, to whom this society 
always acknowledges obligation. 

The second shaft has struck within our circle. The senior elected 
member of this council, Hon. Isaac Davis, LL.D., died at his home in 
this city, of pneumonia, at 4 v. m. on April l,at the age of eighty-three 
years and ten months, wanting one day. He was born in Norlhborough, 
and was graduated at Brown University, to which he rendered great 
service as a trustee and by his repeated gifts. He made himself a 
leading man of affairs rather than a scholar, and sought to direct 
learning to its best uses. In his large practice as a lawyer he was more 
distiguished for his professional connection with the business of his 
time than for his power as a jurist or an advocate. Yet he spoke with 
confidence and influence. He obtained his position and his success in 
life by the strenuous use of his native powers without the aid of 
patronage. It is unnecessary to recall his many public oiliees. He has 
placed on them marks of utility that will cause them to be remembered. 
So we may trace his forty-two years of membership with generous and 

300 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

judicious acts for this society. For thirty-tlirue years he has sat with us 
in this council, aiding us by willing labor and wise counsels, stimulating 
us by his liberal example and making the hours more happy by his 
spirited and agreeable companionship. That the council may express 
on their records the sentiments that are excited by the interests of the 
society and by the merit of our lost associate, and by the respect and 
friendship that we entertain for him, I otter the following resolutions : 

Resolved, That while we consider with sadness the death of Hon. 
Isaac Davis, the senior elected councillor of this society, and lament 
that his work on earth is ended, we cannot regret his removal from 
depressing and increasing infirmities, and we are grateful that he 
accomplished so much in his long and earnest life, not only for this 
society, but for all within the reach of his benevolence or his example. 

Resolved, That we hold in honor the good qualities by which Mr. ■ 
Davis was distinguished. We call to mind the energy and perseverance, 
the reverence for good things, the conservative disposition, the hopeful 
spirit, the cordial and digniiied address, the generous impulses, and 
the love of well-earned approbation that were prominent in his character 
and gave him a large measure of worldly prosperity and honor. 

Resolved, That we cherish the memory of Mr. Davis as one who 
rendered faithful service to the State and the city in the performance of 
various public ottices, and in aiding religious and benevolent objects, 
and in the investment of his wealth, which was in the direction of the 
growth and welfare of this city, llis numerous private gifts for the 
relief of suffering and for assistance in obtaining education and in 
carrying on business, should surround his tomb with an unexpected and 
grateful company. 

* Resolved, That it is not necessary to transcribe from our records the 
details of the faithfulness of Mr. Davis as a member and an ollicer of 
this society, in his constant and prompt attention, and in his frequent 
gifts of desirable objects and money, and especially in founding the 

! collection of rare and costly books relating to Central and South 

America, which the council has placed in an alcove of the library marked 
as the " Isaac Davis " alcove. 

Resolved, That the council will attend the funeral of Mr. Davis, and 
we invite such members of the society as can conveniently join us to be 
with us in this act of affection and reverence. 

Resolved, That a copy of this action of the council in relation to our 
honored and beloved associate shall be presented to the family by the 
recording secretary, with an assurance of our respect and sympathy. 

The foregoing resolutions and their introduction were 
adopted by ji unanimous vote of the council. 



1883. J Second Parish of Worcester. 301 




By Samuel S. Green. 

The religious society which is known as The Second Parish in the 
town of Worcester, originated in a voluntary association of sixty-seven 
persons, formed in March, 1785. The tirst meeting of the society for 
public worship was held on the third Sunday of this month, and it was 
incorporated by an act of the General Court, passed November 13, 1787. 
The history of this organization has been written several times, but 
there are a- few incidents connected with its formation and early history 
which deserve further consideration. These I propose to write about 
briefly in this paper. 

Following will be found a list of the principal sources of information 
regarding the Second Parish : —The manuscript parish and church 
records, which are well preserved. The treasurer of the parish has in 
his possession, a trunk containing numerous early lists of the valuation 
of the property of its members, reports of committees, and other docu- 
ments of value in finding out the history of the Society. There are 
two sermons of Rev. Dr. Aaron Bancroft, of especial historical value, 
namely : that preached on the tirst Sunday after the ordiuation of his 
colleague, Alonzo Hill, April 8, 1827, and that delivered on the fiftieth 
anniversary of his settlement as pastor of the parish, January 31, 1836. 
There are also three valuable historical discourses delivered by the 
second pastor of the society, Rev. Dr. Alonzo Hill, namely : one on the 
life and character of his predecessor, delivered at his interment, August 
22, 1839; another, delivered when he had been ordained twenty-five 
years ; and still another, preached on the occurrence of the celebration of 
the fortieth anniversary of his settlement, March 28, 1867. The first 
two are enriched by interesting historical notes, and the last contains 
an account of proceedings at a social gathering in the vestry 
of the meeting-house, at which were recounted some interesting 
facts in the history of the society. The article on Dr. Bancroft, in 
volume eight of the Annals of the American Pulpit, by our late associate, 
William B. Sprague, D.D., was written by Dr. Sprague himself, who 
knew Dr. Bancroft personally, and contains valuable letters concerning 
the subject of the memoir, by his distinguished parishioner, the late 



302 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Gov. Levi Lincoln, and by his son, Hon. George Bancroft. See also the 
Worcester Pulpit, by Kev. Elara Snmlley, D.D., History of the Worcester 
Association, etc., by Rev. Joseph Allen, D.D. Dr. Allen was well 
acquainted with Dr. Bancroft, and had lived for a considerable time in 
his family. See also The History of Worcester, 1 by William Lincoln, a 
member of the secoud parish, and its continuation by Charles Hersey ; 
The History of Worcester, by Charles A. Chase, in the History of Wor- 
cester County, published in 1879; Reminiscences of Worcester, by 
Caleb A. Wall; The History of the County of Worcester, by Peter 
Whitney; Report of the Committee of the Second Parish in Worcester, 
on the subject of its expenditures, and the best mode of raising money 
for its support, by Levi Lincoln, made in 18G(i; an Historical Discourse 
delivered September 22, 18G;J, to commemorate the one hundredth anni- 
versary of the erection of the meeting-house of the First Parish in 
Worcester, by Leonard Bacon, D.D. Note also a passage on Rev. Dr. 
Bancroft, in one of a series of letters printed in the Worcester Palla- 
dium, called Carl's Tour in Main Street. The first of these letters 
appeared in the paper issued under date of March 21, 1855. A volume 
of Controversial Sermons was published in Worcester, May, 1822. by 
Rev. Dr. Bancroft. Examine also, other books and pamphlets, publicly 
or privately printed, by the three pastors of the society, Aaron Ban- 
croft, Alonzo Hill, and Edward II. Hall. William Lincoln, in his 
history,- gives a long note containing a list of the publications of Rev. Dr. 

This society was a "poll parish" from the beginning. It was, says 
Rev. Dr. Bancroft, " I believe, the first example of a poll parish in any 
inland town of the commonwealth." 3 William Lincoln, in his History 
of Worcester, 4 speaks of its erection into a poll parish (" bringing 
together those of similar opinions, without regard to local habitation") 
as " almost, if not entirely unprecedented, except in the metropolis." 
Lincoln, 5 however, Whitney, and Dr. Bancroft himself, 7 speak of 
the society of Rev. John Rogers, in Leominster, as a poll parish. This 
parish was established by an order of the General Court, February 18, 
1702, twenty-three years before the first meeting of the associates who 
were afterwards incorporated as the Second Parish in Worcester. The 
term is used here in a different sense from that which it has when 
applicable to the society in Worcester. I have not been able to find, in 
print, the order by which the parish of Mr. Rogers in Leominster was 
established, but Mr. C. B. Tillinghast, the acting Librarian of the State, 

'The references to Lincoln's History of Worcester in this paper are 
to the edition of 18G2. 
"Pp. 173 and 4. 

y Discourse delivered April 8, 1827. 
4 Id., page 167. 

6 Id., lb., note 1. 

u Hist. of Worcester Co., p. 194. 

7 Discourse delivered January 31, 1836. 



1883.] Second Parish of Worcester. 303 

lias courteously caused n copy of it to be made for me from the manu- 
script Records of the General Court, now in the State House at Boston. 
I give the copy in a note. 1 

The Rule of the Superior Court of judicature, containing the terms 
of agreement which regulated the provisions of the order of the General 
Court, may be found in Wilder's History, pp. 17(J and 7. 

A statement of Wilder, in his history of Leominster, is somewhat 
misleading, as he speaks of the order of the General Court as an " Act 

1 In the manuscript records of the General Court, under date of Jan- 
uary 27, 1762, occurs the following entry : — "A petition of Jonathan 
White, agent of the adherents of the Rev. John Rogers, Pastor of the 
church in Leominster, setting forth that an unhappy controversy hath 
for several years subsisted in the said town, and a number of the inhabi- 
tants have withdrawn from the ministry of their said pastor, and 
refused to pay towards his salary, whereby he was necessitated to bring 
his action against them, and finally a rule of Court was entered into, 
previous to winch the petitioners' constituents were earnestly requested 
in writing, by the othor inhabitants, to consent to a division of the town 
into two precincts, and that they have since, agreeably to the Rule of 
Court, requested the town's concurrence in said division, to which they 
have by vote agreed, and praying that they and other, the adherents of 
the said Mr. Rogers, may be incorporated into a separate precinct, 
agreeable to tin- said rule of Court. 

"In Council read and ordered that the petitioners have leave to bring 
in a bill for the purposes within mentioned." — [Gen. Court Records, v. 
24, p. 204. 

Under date of February 18, 17G2, occurs the following entry: — 

"In Council, ordered that Thomas Wilder, Nathaniel Colburn, James 
Simonds, Joseph P. May, Joseph Wheelock, Nathaniel Carter, Simon 
Butler, Nathaniel Rogers, David Farnsworth, Thomas Legatt, Thomas 
Wilder, Jr., William Warner. John Colburn, Nathaniel Carter, Jr., 
Susanna Peabody, Jonathan White, Abner Wheelock, Jonathan Wol- 
burn, Timothy Kendall, Jonas Kendall, Mayaban Leggat, Jonathan 
White, Jr., Lemuel Davenport, Nathaniel Peabody, Abel Wheelock, 
Samuel Hardcastle, and the farm of Stephen Symonds of Boxford, lying 
in Leominster, David White, Joseph Butler, James Symonds, James 
White, Elijah Wheelock, Abel Wilder, Francis Corey, Nathan Colburn 
and Robert Legatt be, and together with their estates, lying in Leomin- 
ster, in the County of Worcester, hereby are erected into a distinct and 
separate precinct, and vested with all the powers, privileges and immu- 
nities which other precincts by law do enjoy, and that the rule of Court 
and every matter and thing therein contained, which was entered into 
at the last Superior Court of Judicature, Court of Assize and General 
Gaol delivery, holden at Worcester, in September last, by the Inhabit- 
ants of Leominster, Plaintiffs, and John Rogers, defendant, be, and 
hereby is ratified and continued, to all intents and purposes whatever, 
and that the honorable John Chandler, Esq., be, and he hereby is 
empowered to issue his Warrant to some principal person in said 
Parish to warn a Parish meeting in the month of March next in said 
town of Leominster, then and there to meet and chuse Parish officers, 
as by law other Parishes in this Province are enjoined to chuse." 

"In the House of Representatives, read and concurred. 

"Consented to by the Governor." — [Gen. Court Records, v. 24, p. 271. 

• . 

30L American Antiquarian /Society. [April, 

of incorporation," and gives incorrectly the date of its passage (p. 178). 
An examination of this order shows that the parish in Leominster was 
a territorial parish, and that Thomas Wilder and others, together with 
their estates lying in Leominster, and the farm of Stephen Symonds of 
Boxford, were erected into a distinct and separate precinct. The 
estates of the members of the parish were probably, however, not con- 
tiguous, as was the case usually in territorial parishes. 

The great difference between the poll parishes which existed in Wor- 
cester after the incorporation of the Second Parish, and the poll parish 
in Leominster, will appear from the following extract from the Act of 
Incorporation of the Second Parish. It was enacted "That any of the 
inhabitants of the said town " (Worcester) "shall at all times hereafter 
have full liberty to join themselves with their families to either of the 
parishes in the said town : Provided they shall signify in writing under 
their hands to the clerk of the said town, their determination of being 
considered as belonging to the parish to which they may join themselves 
as aforesaid." 

I found it difficult to get at a copy of this Act of Incorporation, audi 
therefore append one in a note, which Mr. Tillinghast had made for'me 
from the printed Laws of Massachusetts for 17S7. 1 

'An Act for incorporating a number of the Inhabitants of the town 
of Worcester, in the County of Worcester, into a separate Parish. 

Whereas — a number of the inhabitants of the town of Worcester, 
belonging to the religious society whereof the Kev. Aaron Bancroft is 
pastor, have petitioned this Court to be incorporated for the reasons 
expressed in their petition, and it appearing to this Court reasonable 
that the prayer be granted : 

Be it therefore enacted by the Senate, and House of Representatives, 
in General Court assembled, and by the authority of the same. That 
Levi Lincoln, Timothy Paine, David Bigelow, Joseph Allen, Palmer 
Goulding, Benjamin Flagg, John Peirce, John Stowers, John Barnard, 
Jedediah Healy", William Tread well, Abel Stowell, Phineas Hey wood, 
Eli Chapin, Cornelius Stowell, Thadeus McCarty, Samuel Chandler, 
Abraham Lincoln, Samuel Flagg, Ephraim Mower, John Stanten, 
Timothy Bigelow, Clark Chandler, John Smith, Samuel Allen, Ignatius 
Goulding, Daniel Goulding, Edward Bangs, Samuel Bridge, John Good- 
win, Jacob Snow, Samuel Brazer, Nathan Heard, Nathaniel Paine, 
David Bigelow, Nahiiin Willard, Joel How, Oliver Peirce, Josiah 
Peirce, Isaiah Thomas, Samuel Fullerton, John Walker, David Chad- 
wick, Ellis Gray Blake, Micah Johnson, Benjamin Andrews, Samuel 
Rice, Charles Chandler, Andrew Tufts, Daniel Clap, Benjamin Green, 
Joseph Torry, William Gates, Samuel Warden, Winthrop Chandler, 
William Johnson, William Jenneson, Anthony Paine, John Paine, Elias 
Mann, Peter Stowell, Thomas Stowell, Benjamin Butman, the petition- 
ers, and members of the said religious society, together with their polls 
ami estates be, and hereby are ineorporated into a parish by the name 
of the second parish in the town of Worcester, with all the privileges, 
powers and immunities which other parishes in this Commonwealth, are 
entitled to, by law. 

Be it enacted by the authority aforesaid, That any of the inhabitants 
of the said town, shall at all times hereafter have full liberty to join 
themselves with their families to either of the parishes in the said town, 



1883.] Second Parish of Worcester. 305 

It appears from this document that after the incorporation of the 
Second Parish the citizens of Worcester, unlike those of Leominster, 
were free to attend tin: -services of either of the two societies they chose 
to select, and to change from one society to the other at will, paying 
for the support of public worship according to the rules of the society 
they were pleased to attach themselves to. Their estates went with 
them, but they could carry their estates from one parish to the other 
after the observance of a slight formality. The second parishes, both 
in Leominster and in Worcester, were in a certain sense territorial; 
they were both in a certain sense poll parishes. But the members of 
the two parishes in Worcester enjoyed greater liberty of action than 
those of either of the parishes in Leominster, and the step taken in the 
incorporation of the Second Parish in Worcester was one greatly iu 
advance of the one taken in the incorporation of Rev, Mr. Rogers's 
parish in Leominster. 

Winthrop, as is well known, writes in his Journal, in 1C39, that 
"Mr. Cotton preaching out of the 8 of Kings, 8, taught that when 
magistrates are forced to provide for the maintenance of ministers, etc., 
then the churches are in a declining condition," and, " that the 
ministers' maintenance should be by voluntary contribution, not by 
lands, revenues or tithes, etc." 1 

Chief Justice Parker, in delivering the decision of the Supreme 
Judicial Court in the famous Dedham Case in 1820, said: " In 1G54 2 an 
authority was given to the county court to assess upon the inhabitants 
a proper sum for the support of their minister, if any defect existed, 
and this probably was the first coercive power given for this purpose." 3 

Provided they shall signify in writing under their hands to the clerk of 
the said town, their determination of being considered as belonging to 
the parish to which they may join themselves as aforesaid. 

And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That the mem- 
bers of each respective parish, and their families, shall be deemed and 
considered as continuing members of their respective parishes, with 
their estates, for the time being, until they shall signify their determi- 
nation to the contrary, as above expressed. 

And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That Levi Lin- 
coln, Esq., be, and hereby is authorized, to issue his warrant, directed 
to some principal member of the said parish, requiring him to warn the 
members of the said parish, qualified to vote in parish affairs, to assem- 
ble at some suitable time and place in the said town, to choose such 
officers as parishes are by law required to choose in the month of 
March or April annually, and to transact all matters and things neces- 
sary to be done in the said parish. 

[This act passed November 13, 1787.] 

— [Laws of Massachusetts 1787, chapter 7. 

1 Hist, of New England by John Winthrop, p. 355. 

8 Records of the Governor and Company of the Mass l,v Bay, Vol. IV. f 
Part I., p. 199. 

3 Mass"" Reports, vol. 16, p. 516. 


300 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

He also states that in the earliest times ministers were probably sup- 
ported in the colony of Massachusetts Bay by voluntary contributions. 1 
Indications are not wanting, however, that before 1G54 the freemen of 
Massachusetts Bay had it in mind, when inhabitants did not voluntarily 
contribute proper amounts for the support of public worship, to collect 
such ^mounts by compulsion.- As early as Sept. G, 1G38, the General 
Court passed a law which has the following provision : ,v it i^ also 
ordered, that every such inhabitant who shall not voluntarily contribute 
proportionably to his ability, with other freemen of the same towne, to 
all common charges, as well for upholding the ordinances in the 
churches as otherwise, shall bee compelled thereto by assessment & 
distress to bee levied by the ('unstable, or other otiicer of the towne, as 
in other cases. " a 

After the svstem of supporting the ministry by voluntary contribu- 
tions, which had prevailed in the earliest times of the colonies both of 
Massachusetts Bay and, of Plymouth.,' 1 was given up, the law and the 
usage concerning the maintenance of public Worship passed through 
various modifications, until, in 1833, an amendment of the Third Article 
in the Bill of Rights of the constitution of this commonwealth again 
left the whole subject to the voluntary action of the people. At the 
time when the second religious society was formed in Worcester, 
parishes outside ol* Boston generally raised money for the support of 
public worship by taxes laid upon the polls and estates of their members. 
They had enjoyed the privilege, however, since 1754 of raising money in 
the manner in vogue in Boston, namely, by laying an assessment upon 
owners of pews, according to a valuation. 

The voluntary association which mew into the Second Parish, was 
formed while troubles were vexing the souls of citizens, which led in 
the autumn of 178G to those overt acts against the -government of 
Massachusetts which are known by the name of Shays's Rebellion. 
Thus it came into existence at a time when great poverty prevailed 
among the people, and distressed the Slate and country. Until the 
society was incorporated as the Second Parish, November 13, 1787, its 
members were also obliged to pay their proportion of taxes levied for 
the payment of the expenses of the First Parish. On account of this 
state of things it was deemed unwise for the Second Parish to raise 
money for its own purposes by taxes levied on the polls and estates of 
its members. Therefore it was voted, "That there be a contribution 

1 Mass 11 * Reports, vol. 10, pp. 5 14-1 5. 

- Mass 1 ' 1 Eccles. Law by Edward Buck, revised edition, pp. 24-2G. 

3 Records of the Governor ami Company of the Mass 11 " Bay, vol. 1, 
pp. 240-1. 

4 For pertinent matter connected with this subject see the Congrega- 
tional Quarterly", Vol. I., pp. 150 and 161. 

5 Mass. Eccles. Law by Edward Buck, revised ed., pp. 38 and 39. 
u Parish records, Nov. 7, 1785. 


1883.] Second Parish of Worcester. 307 

on the first Sabbath in each month for the payment of Mr. Bancroft's 
salary & that each person contributing ami putting his name on the 
wrapper be credited therefor, & that Mi 1 . Bridge pay the sums so 
collected to Mr. Bancroft and take his receipt therefor." In February 1 
of the next year assessors were chosen to assess the minister's salary 
and certain expenses attendant upon his ordination, on the members of 
the parish agreeably to the last town tax. No attempt was made, how- 
ever, to force the payment of the assessments, ami in 17«7 bills for 
taxes still unpaid were placed in the hands of the minister with the 
request that he should settle with members severally. He was assured 
" that these taxes could not with safety be collected in the usual 
manner." 2 Dr. Bancroft writes that "members generally were dis- 
posed to make payment in the most easy manner," and that " The sums 
received fell far short in value of the amount due." 3 Until 1792, when 
the first meeting-house of the society was occupied, all of its expenses 
were paid by voluntary contributions. At that time a tax of twenty- 
four shillings, or four dollars, was laid on every pew on the tloor of the 
house, "for the use of the ministry." 4 

The next year it was voted " That the Gallery pews in said meeting- 
house be subjected to a tax of twelve shillings each pew annually." In 
December, 17%, u it was voted " that there be assessed and levied upon 
the Polls & Estates of the members of this Parish the sum of two hundred 
& eighty four Dollars & twenty-seven Cents, for the purpose of paying a 
deficiency of Gallery Pew taxes due to the Rev 1 Aaron Bancroft, & to 
make up to him in addition to the Pew tax, the sum of one hundred & 
fifty pounds for the present year, commencing ye first day of April one 
thousand seyeu hundred & ninety six and ending the first of April 1797. 
Provided that those persons who are bound by their subscriptions 
towards the support of the Rev 1 Aaron Bancroft for the term of five 
years be released from that subscription for & during the term of one 
year from the said first clay of April 1796— & that the Parish assessors 
be directed to make such assessment & the Collector to call for the 
money forthwith." Up to the date of this vote no levy had been made 
upon the polls and estates of the members of the Second Parish. That 
is to say, its expenses hail been paid by voluntary contributions exclu- 
sively for about seven years, and by taxes ou pews and voluntary 
contributions for four or live years longer. Money was raised, after 
this time, for the support of public worship by the tax on pews and by 
assessments on polls and estates until the second meeting-house of the 

1 Parish records, Feb. 24, 1780. 

8 Discourse delivered, Jan. 31, 1830. pp. 20 and 21. 

3 Id.. lb. 

'Parish records, Feb. 4, 1791. 

5 Id., Jan. 10, 1792. 

" Id., Dec. 20, 1790. 

■3()<S American Antiquarian Society, [April, 

parish was built. This was dedicated Aug. 20, 182'J. From this time 
forward, until 1867, money was raised by taxes levied on polls and 
estates exclusively. In January 1 of the last-named year it was " voted 
that hereafter all sums of money voted and to be raised by the Parish 
for the support of the Ministry and for incidental parish expenses, shall 
be equally divided between and assessed upon the pews in the meeting- 
house and the polls and estates of the members of the Parish ; the one- 
half thereof upon each." No tax seems to have been levied in 
accordance with the provisions of this vote, for April 15th of the same 
year it was " Voted that the whole amount of the money to be raised 
for parish expenses for the current year be assessed upon the pews in 
the meeting-house." From that time to the present, money has been 
raised by taxes laid upon the pews only, excepting that extraordinary 
expenses have been occasionally met by voluntary subscriptions by 
members of the society. 

It appears from what has now been stated, that after the establish- 
ment of the Second Parish, citizens of Worcester could attach them- 
selves to either parish, could change from one parish to the other at 
will, and if they joined the Second Parish could for several years 
obtain gospel privileges if they chose without paying for them. The 
inhabitants of Worcester were still obliged to go to meeting somewhere, 
for it was not until 1701 that able-bodied men, absent three months 
from meeting, could escape serious consequences by paying the petty 
sum of ten shillings. It was not until 1835 that this law was repealed. 2 

The doctrinal attitude of the Second Parish at the time of its forma- 
tion is shown by the following extract from a sermon of Rev. Dr. 
Bancroft, preached April 8, 1827. He says the society "originated 
from a dili'erenee of opinion among the inhabitants " of Worcester " on 
the Calvinistic and Arminian creeds. Questions respecting the divine 
Uuity were not then agitated, and among those who separated, I am 
not sure there was more than one decided Unitarian." 3 In a note to a 
sermon preached about nine years after, Dr. Bancroft writes, " two or 
three years after my settlement, a distinguished member of the society 
came to me in evident excitement, and said ' it is reported that you 
deny the underived Divinity of the Savior; such a report credited would 
shake our society to its centre.'" 4 The members of the society 
changed their views during Dr. Bancroft's ministry, for when in 1821, 
thirty -six years after he began to preach to the new organization, he 
delivered a course of controversial sermons which were decidedly 
Unitarian in their statement of doctrines, he was able to write 
respecting these discourses that they "were almost universally 

1 Parish records, Jan. 7, 18G7. 

" 2 Mass m Eccles. Law by Edward Buck, revised ed., p. 27, 

3 Id., p. 15. 

'Discourse delivered Jan. 31, 183G, p. 43. 


1883.] Second Pariah of Worcester. 309 

approved by the heavers, and at their desire published." 1 While still 
young Dr. Bancroft began to doubt the soundness of the doctrinal 
teachings under which he had been brought up. He writes, "'the 
Westminster Assembly's Shorter Catechism was early taught me. 
While young, I was, by my lather, appointed reader to the family on 
Saturday evenings, and Willard's Body of Divinity, a large folio, was 
selected as my book. The Catechism I never understood or loved; — my 
mind revolted against Willard. I could not assent to the popular creed, 
anil I well remember the throes of my youthful mind when dwelling 
upon religious subjects." 2 Again he writes, '-I was educated in the 
Trinitarian and Calvinistic faith, and well remember the conflicts of my 
iniud between the desire of searching for Christian truth and the fear 
of falling into fatal error." 3 

Dr. Sprague says that Dr. Bancroft was not only an Arminiau but an 
Arian at the time when he supplied the pulpit of the First Church 
during the illness of its pastor, Rev. Thaddeus Maccarty. 4 Perhaps 
this was the case. At any rate, a little later he was unwilling to say 
or write anything in opposition to Arianism. In speaking of the com- 
mencement of his ministry, fifty years after his settlement in Worcester, 
he writes, " I may, I believe, safely aver, that I never uttered a senti- 
ment from the pulpit, either in a sermon or a prayer, inconsistent with 
the Unitarian doctrine; but in humble imitation of Jesus I did decline 
to preach truths which I was persuaded people werd" not prepared to 
bear. The peculiarities of Calvinism were without reserve opposed, 
and doctrines inculcated which embraced the Divine clemency, the 
moral agency of man, the sufficiency of Scripture, the right of private 
judgment, the adaptation of the terms of acceptance to human power, 
and the certainty of salvation to all who seek Divine assistance and 
prove their faith by their works."'' 

Alonzo Hill, the successor of Dr. Bancroft, in a sermon on the life 
and character of his predecessor, writes, " Dr. Freeman has been 
generally regarded as the earliest advocate of Unitarianism in this 
country; but it is not generally known, that when he was refused 
ordination by his superior clergy on account of the change in his 
opinions, Dr. Bancroft had already taken his position, — was consulted 
by him— had consented to assist at his ordination over the society at 
King's Chapel, and was prevented only by their dispensing with an 
ecclesiastical council and adopting lay services." It was in 17S7 that 
King's Chapel became a Unitarian Church. The First Church in 
Plymouth settled a liberal minister soon after the year 1S00, and a 

1 Discourse preached Jan. 31, 1836, p 

* Discourse preached by Alonzo Hill Aug. 22, 1839, p. 29 

J Discourse preached by Rev. Dr. Bancroft Jan. 1, 1836, 

4 Annals of the American Pulpit, Vol. VIII., p. 133. 

5 Discourse delivered Jan. 31, 1830, pp. 2b and 29. 

« Discourse of Alonzo Hill delivered Aug. 22, 1839, p. 28. 


22, 1839, 

836, p. 43. 

310 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

portion of the more orthodox members of the society withdrew from it. 
However, it was not until IS 15, or later, that a general separation of 
the Orthodox and Liberals took place in Boston and its vicinity. It 
was in this year that our late associate, Jedediah Morse, shotted the guns 
* of the Panoplist with the letters of Freeman and later Unitarians, and tired 
them into the ranks of the Liberals. Churches ami ministers now 
hoisted their colors. 

Dr. Bancroft writes, "the editors of the Panoplist republished Bel- 
sham's History of American Unitarianism, accompanied with bitter 
reflections and severe censures on liberal clergymen ; those in Boston 
particularly were charged with criminally concealing their opinions, and 
of great duplicity in the execution of their official duties. * * * * * 
Believing myself to be in some measure included in the general charge 
and finding the subject in controversy had become familiar to every 
class in the community by religious journals, newspapers and sermons, 
and that it was made a common topick of conversation in our families, 
I deemed it expedient to deliver a course of doctrinal discourses." 
These sermons were delivered in 1821 and published in 1822. They 
show Dr. Bancroft to have been an Arian at the time when they were 
preached. In them he opposes the live points of Calvinism, and argues 
against the doctrine of Universal restoration and in favor of the belief 
in the annihilation of the wicked. 

George Bancroft writes of his father that " He had nfl sympathy with 
Belsham or his school, and read little or nothing of theirs till late in 
life." 1 

Belsham held humanitarian views in regard to Christ. So did 
Priestley and other early Unitarians in England. But most of the early 
Unitarians in America were, like Dr. Bancroft, Arians. Dr. Channing 
denied that the Boston ministers had any sympathy with Belsham's 
peculiar views.- With most of his brethren Dr. Bancroft believed also 
in the inspiration and sufficiency of the scriptures. " He," also, writes 
his son, " considered reasop as a primary and universal revelation of 
God to men of all nations and all ages ; he was sure of the necessary har- 
mony between reason and true religion, and he did not scruple to reject 
whatever seemed to him plainly in contradiction with it." J 

Among the persons incorporated into the Second Parish are the fol- 
lowing : Levi Lincoln (who at the time of the formation of the society 
was nearly 30 years old. March 5, 1801, he was appointed Attorney- 
General of the United States in Jelferson's Cabinet, resigning after about 
four years service. In 1811 he was chosen an Associate Justice ol the 
United States Supreme Court, but on account of ill health declined the 
appointment, lie was Councillor in the American Antiquarian Society, 

Spra-ue's Annuls, Vol. VIII. , p. 139. 
Id., p. XV. 
id., p. HO. 


1883.] Second Parish of Worcester. 311 

1816-1817); Timothy Paine, his sons Nathaniel, Anthony and John 
(about 55 years old in 1785. Lincoln, in his History of Worcester, says 
that Timothy Paine was long one of* the most respected and useful citi- 
zens of Worcester. He received, just before the Revolution broke out, 
an appointment of Mandamus Councillor, a station which, as Lincoln 
says, he "declined in compliance with public will." ' Nathaniel Paine, 
about 26 years old,'- was Judge of Probate for 35 years from January 
24, 1801, and Councillor in the American Antiquarian Society, 1815-1820. 
Anthony Paine and John Paine were respectively about 25 and 23 years 
old); David Bigelow (54 or 55 years old. His son Tyler Bigelow mar- 
ried Clara, daughter of Timothy Bigelow. The late George T. Bigelow, 
Chief Justice of the Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts, was 
their son. A daughter of David Bigelow married Zachariah Child of 
West Boylston, who was father of David Lee Child, the husband of the 
late Lydia Maria Child) ; Timothy Bigelow (brother of David was about 
46 years old. He was a distinguished patriot preceding and during the 
Revolution. He was the father of the Hon. Timothy Bigelow of Med- 
ford and. Boston, and grandfather of Hon. John P. Bigelow, Mayor of 
Boston, and Rev. Dr. Andrew Bigelow of Boston, who were all mem- 
bers of the American Antiquarian Society. He was also, as stated 
before, grandfather of Hon. George T. Bigelow. Mrs. Abbott Law- 
rence was his granddaughter) ; Joseph Allen (35 or 36 years old. He 
was a nephew of Samuel Adams. He was a member, with Levi Lincoln 
and David Bigelow, of the Convention which framed the first Constitu- 
tion of Massachusetts. Member of Congress in 1810, etc.); Isaiah 
Thomas (about 36 years old. Peter Whitney whose History of Worces- 
ter County was published 17 ( J3, writes as follows: "A printing press 
was here [Worcester] set up in 1775, by Mr. Isaiah Thomas, who is 
thought to c\o far more business than any other in the state, or in the 
United States of America" [p. 28.] "Mr. Thomas has also carried on 
the bookbinding business very extensively; and is now engaged in 
building, in Worcester, as large a paper mill as is in this state. His 
bookstore in Worcester is kept well filled with a large assortment of 
books in all branches of literature, which is a great accommodation to 
purchasers in the town and county. His manufactures employ and sup- 
port a large number of people, and it may justly be said, that the busi- 
ness of no one person has added more to the consequence and advantage 
of the town and county of Worcester than his." [p. 2'J]. lie was the 
founder and first President of the American Antiquarian Society) ; Palmer 
Goulding, his brother Ignatius and his son Daniel (Palmer, 62 years old, 
Ignatius about 51, Daniel about 33 years of age. 3 Palmer senior, the father 

1 p. 222. 

-The figures placed against this and following names show the ages 
of the persons designated in 1785, the year of the formation of the 
Second religious Society in Worcester. 

3 The ages of the Gouldings are taken from Wall's Reminiscences of 


312 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

of the Parmer Goulding here mentioned, Palmer, jr., and Daniel are spoken 
of by Wall in hi* Reminiscences of Worcester [p. 51] as follows: "they 
all successively carried on the business of tanning, shoeinaking, making 
malt, curing hams, &c, on an extended scale for those clays." Daniel was 
"also a manufacturer of earthen ware. Tradition represents the earlier 
Gould ill gs to have been of extreme size, very ingenious, and capable of 
doing anything") ; Cornelius Stowell, and his sons Abel, Peter and Thomas 
(Cornelius about (50 years old, Abel 33, Thomas 2!), and Peter L'3. 1 
Cornelius was a clothier by trade, '• took his sons Peter and Ebenezer 
into partnership with him about 171)0, when they began the busi- 
ness of manufacturing woollen goods and printing calicos, making 
a specialty ol weaving carpets, dyeing and dressing woollen goods 
at the same time." -'They also built shearing machines." "They 
made the first carpets used in the State House in Boston." 
Abel was a clock-maker and made the clock formerly in* the 
tower of the First Church. Thomas Stowell was a clothier 2 ; ; Thad- 
deus Maccarty (about 38 years old, son of Rev. Thaddeus Maccarty. 
He was a physician); Samuel, Clark, Charles and Winthrop Chandler 
(Clark 41 or 42, Charles about 30, Samuel about 28 years old, sons of 
the third Judge John Chandler. Winthrop Chandler about 36 years old, 
a descendant of the first Judge John Chandler, was a painter. On the 
list of the members of the church are Lueretia Chandler, who married 
Revi Aaron Bancroft in 1780, and Sally Chandler wfio married John 
Stanton (29 or 30 years old) one of the corporate members ol' the 
parish) ; Abraham Lincoln (23 years old, brother ol* Levi Lincoln, senior, 
and a man who tilled many ollices) ; Samuel Allen (about 28 years old, a 
brother of Joseph Allen, County Treasurer 1781 to his death, December 
20, 1830); Edward Bangs (about 29 years old, Councillor in the Ameri- 
can Antiquarian Society from 1812 to his death in 1818, Associate Jus- 
tice of the Court of Common Pleas for the Western Circuit) ; Samuel 
Brazer (30 years old, father of Lev. John Brazer of Salem); and Wil- 
liam Jennison. 

Among the owners of pews in the tirst meeting-house, which was 
occupied January 1, 1792, not before mentioned, were William Sever 
(26 years old, who married Mary, daughter of the last Judge John 
Chandler), William Chandler (32 or 33 years old, another son of the 
same Judge Chandler), and John Green (about 22 years old, the second 
Dr. Green of this name). Stephen Salisbury, father of the President of 
this Society (38 or 39 years old), our former associate Hon. Daniel 
Waldo a (about 22 years old), and Dr. William Paine (35 years old), 

'According to Bond's History of Watertown Cornelius Stowell was 
about 59 and Peter Stowell 21 years old. Wall gives the age of Cor- 
nelius Stowell as Gl, of Peter as 23, and the ages of the other members 
of the family mentioned, as above. 

2 Wall's Reminiscences, pp. 53 aud 64. 

J Chosen Clerk of the Parish Apr!' 17, 1797. 





Second. Parish of Worcester . 


son of Timothy Paine, Vice-President of this society from its founda- 
tion in 1812 to 1810, are among the early members of the Society. 
Under the dates of June 15, 17'J-i, January 11, 171)8, February 2, lb06, 
December 25, 1808, and January 20, 1812, we liud in the church records 
entries of the baptisms of children of David Curtis. He was a direct 
descendant ofEplirai,in Curtis, who appears to have been the lirst actual 
white settler of Worcester, who came to Worcester in 1073, but had to 
abandon his settlement after a year or two cm account of the hostilities 
of the Indians. David Curtis was the father of the wife of Dr. John 
Green (the third; the founder of the Free Public Library in Worcester, 
and of George Curtis of New York, the father of George William 
Curtis. , 

Worcester had in 17L>0 only 2,044: inhabitants. 1 The names of persons 
already given, and those of others who were either corporate members 
of the Second Parish or who are known to have attended the services of 
this society in the earliest years of its existence, show that Dr. Bancroft 
must have been right when he stated that among his supporters at the 
beginning of his ministry there was a large proportion of the profes- 
sional and distinguished men of the town. " There was also in the 
society" at its start, writes Dr. Bancroft, "a fair proportion of the 
farmers and mechanics of the town."'-' Aaron Bancroft, the lirst pastor 
of the society, was Councillor in the American Antiquarian Society 
from its foundation in 1812 to 1810, Vice-President from 1810 to 1831, 
and a member of its Publication Committee from 1815 to 1831. 

In the new society there were men who had been staunch patriots in 
the revolution, now just over, and members of families which had been 
loyalist in feeling. Side by side sat Levi Lincoln, Joseph Allen, 
Timothy Bigelow, Stephen Salisbury and other warm friends of the 
revolution; and Timothy Paine, his son Dr. William Paine-, and the 
sons and daughters of the "honest refugee" the last Judge John 
Chandler. The lirst pastor, Rev. Air. Bancroft, 'although an undoubted 
patriot, had spent the interval between the spring of 1780 and July 
178_3 in Nova Scotia doing missionary work, and soon after settling in 
Worcester married a daughter of Judge Chandler. Families were 
considerably divided by theological differences in those days. Stephen 
Salisbury, Senior, attended the church of the Second Parish with his 
son; Madame Salisbury remained in the First Church. Tradition says 
that she prized the influence of Rev. Dr. Austin of that church so highly 
that she had our venerable President in his boyhood placed under his 
•care, he spending the secular days of the week in his family and 
receiving such care from Dr. Austin as could be afforded after the 
demands of his farm and pulpit had been satisfied. Dr. John Green had 
a pew in the first meeting-house of the Second Parish; he inclined to 
liberal views in theology, imbibing, probably, the tendencies of his 

1 Lincoln's History, p. 250. 

2 Sermon delivered Jan. 31, 1830, p. 19. 

314 American Antiquarian Society. [April,. 

mother the daughter of Timothy RuggJes of Hardwick rather than those 
of his lather, the lirst Dr. John Green, who was a pious Baptist, one of 
the first three in Worcester, and the sou of Rev. and Dr. Thomas Green 
of Greenville, Leicester, who besides being a distinguished physician 
was the lirst clergyman of the lirst Baptist Church in Worcester County. 
I fear that Dr. Green did not attend meeting often. His wife, true to 
the Presbyterian blood that flowed in her veins, remained in the First 
church, and the children attended that church with her until several of 
them on growing up withdrew to the Second Parish. Daniel Waldo 
Jr.'s father and sisters attended the first church. He withdrew from 
the Second Parish and with his sisters took part in the formation of a 
new Congregational Church which took the name of The Calvinist 
Society in Worcester, a name which was changed in 1870 to The Central 
Society in Worcester. Before this change it had long been known in 
popular speech as the Centre Church. 3 Mr. Waldo built a meeting- 
house for the society at his own expense. 

There are numerous descendants of early members of the Second 
Parish still connected with the organization. There is no descendant, 
however, of either of the several Chandlers who belonged to the society 
at the beginning, still bearing the family name. Our venerable 
associate, Dr. George Chandler, is a descendant of Deacon Jwhn 
Chandler of AVoodstock (now in Connecticut, but formerly a town in 
Worcester County, Massachusetts), through a brother of the first Judge 
John Chandler. Dr. Chandler's children, however, Mrs. A. G. Bullock 
and Mrs. Waldo Lincoln, who with their husbands are members of the 
society, are descendants through their mother of the first two Judge 
John Chandlers, and the children of Mrs Lincoln, through their father, 
are descended from the third and last Judge of that name, also. I do not 
recall a direct descendant of Palmer Colliding, but there are several 
Gouldings in the society now, including Mr. Frank P. Goulding, a well- 
known member of the Worcester County bar, who are descended from 
Palmer Goulding's father, the lirst Palmer Goulding, who came to 
Worcester in 1718, about the time of the final .settlement of the town. 

Among those persons who have been or are members of the Second 
Parish or Society, there are many, besides some already mentioned, who 
have been ollicers or members of the American Antiquarian Society. 
Among those permanently connected with it or who remained members 
until the Second Unitarian Society, the Church of the Unity, was formed 
in Worcester, are the following named gentlemen: Levi Lincoln, Jr. 
(the late Governor Lincoln, whose name appears first in the Parish 
records, September 7, 1807, when he was chosen Treasurer of the Parish), 

3 This church arose out of differences which sprang up in the First 
Church during the pastorate of Rev. Charles A. Goodrich, author of a 
history of the United States and other books, and brother of Peter 
Parley. Its lirst pastor, Rev. L. I. Hoadley, has just died of old age in 
Shelton, Conn., at the ripe age of 1)2 years. Its second pastor was the 
late Rev. John S. C. Abbott, the author of the Life of Napoleon. 

1883.] Second Parish of Worcester. 315 

Rejoice Newton, Samuel M^ Bum side (who seems to have beeu an 
officer of the Antiquarian Society from its foundation iu 1812 to his death 
in 1850), Pliny Merrick (Justice of the Supreme Judicial Court:, Edward 
D. Bangs (Secretary of the Commonwealth for twelve years), Frederick 
W. Paine (son of Dr. William Paine and grandson of Timothy Paine), 
Stephen Salisbury, Jr. (our President, whose name first appears iu the 
Parish records, April 11, 1825, when he was elected Treasurer of the 
Parish), Clarendon Harris, John W. Lincoln (brother of the late Gover- 
nor Lincoln), Charles Allen (Chief Justice of the Superior Court, mem- 
ber of Congress, etc.), William Lincoln (the historian of Worcester, a 
brother of Governor Lincoln), Nathaniel Maccarty (son of Rev. 
Thaddeus Maccarty,), Isaac Goodwin, John Green, M. D. (the founder 
of the Free Public Library, Worcester;, Thomas Kinnieutt (Judge of 
Probate in Worcester County), Francis Blake (the brilliant lawyer), 
John Davis (Governor of the Commonwealth, United States Senator 
and President of this Society), John Park, M. D. (father of Mrs. 
Benjamin F. Thomas and of the second wife of Rev. Dr. Edward B. 
Hall of Providence, R. I., the father of the third pastor of the 2nd 
Parish, Rev. Edward II. Hall), George Chandler, M. D., Benjamin F. 
Thomas (Justice of the Supreme Judicial Court, Member of Congress, 
&c), Christopher C. Baldwin (librarian of the Antiquarian Society), 
Samuel F. Haven, 1 Joseph Sargent. M. I)., Henry Chapin (Judge of 
Probate, &c), 1). Waldo Lincoln, Stephen Salisbury, Jr., Thomas 
Leverett Nelson (Judge of the United States District Court), and 
Samuel S. Green. 

Other members of the Antiquarian Society who were members of the 
Second Parish, for longer or shorter periods, are Alfred Dwight Foster 
(the father of our present associate, Judge Dwight Foster), Emory 
Washburn (Governor of Massachusetts, &c, who appears as a teacher 
in the Sunday School the first year of its formation, 1820), Alexander 
H. Bullock (Governor of Massachusetts, etc.), John C. B. Davis 
(Judge of the United States Court of Claims, late minister to Germany, 
etc.), and Eleazer James. Samuel Jennison seems to have had pews 
in the churches of both the First and Second Parishes. He was chosen 
Treasurer of the Second Parish May 13, 1829. Among other persons 
who have been members of the Second Parish are Samuel Allen, Jr. 
(a brother of Charles Allen and the fattier of the widow of our late 
Librarian), Henry Rogers (the father of Charles O. Rogers, of the Bos- 
ton Journal), Francis T. Merrick, Horace B. Clarlin (the successful mer- 

1 Mr. Haven was, as is well known, grandson of Rev. Jason Haven of 
Dedham and son of Samuel Haven, Chief Justice of the Court of 
Common Pleas for Norfolk County. Judge Haven was very much 
interested in the controversy which arose iu Dedham upon the settle- 
ment of Rev. Alvan Lamson. he taking the Orthodox side of the ques- 
tion. Samuel F. Haven was much interested in the works of Sweden- 
borg. He was an early friend of the Episcopal Church in Worcester, 
but for many years before his death was a constant attendant at the 
church of the 2nd Parish or that of the Church of the Unity. 

31 () American Antiquarian Society. [April,. 

chant of New York), and Moses D. Phillips (afterwards the head of the 
firm of publishers in Boston, known* as Phillips, Sampson &Co.) Wil- 
liam E. Green (brother of the second Dr. John Green and father of 
Andrew H. Green, late Comptroller of the city of New York, who was 
baptised, according to the records of the Second Church, January 28, 
1821,) his sou, Judge William N. Green, and Hon. John S. C. Knowlton, 
appear to have been for a time members of the Second Parish. 

The second pastor of the society, Kev. Dr. Alonzo Hill, was an otlicer 
of the Antiquarian Society, and its third and last minister, Rev. Edward 
H. Hall, is a Councillor of this Society. 

Among persons not already mentioned, who were baptized in the 
Second Parish, according to the Church Records, whom it seems well 
to mention here, are the following: Enoch Lincoln, afterwards Gov- 
ernor of Maine (baptized January 4, 1789), John Brazer, afterwards a 
well known Unitarian minister (November 1, 1789), George Allen, 
brother of Charles Allen, a minister of the gospel, who has just died in 
Worcester at the ripe age of about 92 years (February 5, 1792), Gard- 

iiner Paine (May 2G, 1799), his son Nathaniel Paine, our Treasurer 
(June 2, 1833), George Bancroft, the historian (October 5, 1800), John 
Healey Heywood, a well known Unitarian minister (June 7, 1818), Has- 
brouck Davis, father of John Davis, present Assistant U. S. Secretary 
of State (July 15, 1827), Horace Davis, recently Member of Congress 
from the San Francisco district (May 22, 1831), Henry William Browu, 
late a Unitarian minister, uow instructor in the Worcester State Normal 
School (May G, 1832), George Slurgis Paine, our associate, an Episco- 
pal minister (July 7, 1833), John Green, an ophthalmologist in St. 
Louis, Mo. (May 31, 1835). 

The church of the Second Parish appointed delegates at the dates 
given below to attend the ordination and installation of the following 
persons among others : Mr. .John Nelson at Leicester (February 23, 1812), 
Mr. Wm. Ware, 1st Congregational Church, N. Y. (December 2, 1821), 
Rev. Samuel J. May, 1st Ecclesiastical Society of Brooklyn, Conn. (Nov- 
ember 2, 1823), Wm. H. Furness, Congregational Unitarian Church in 
Philadelphia (December 19, 1/824), Mr. George R. Noyes, South Parish in 
Brookiield (October 21, 1827), Mr. George W. Burnap, 1st Independent 
Church of Baltimore (April 3, 1828), Mr. John F. W. Ware, Unitarian 
Church and Society in Fall River (April 9, 1843), Mr. John Weiss, Jr., 
1st Congregational Church and Society in Watertown (October 22, 
1843), Rev. David Fosdick, Proprietors of the Hollis street meeting-house 
in Boston (March 1, 1846), Mr. Wm. R. Alger, Mt. Pleasant Society, Rox- 
bury (September 5, 1847), Hasbrouck Davis, 1st Parish in Watertown 
(March 14, 1849), Rev. Frederick H. Hedge, Westminster Congregational 
Church in Providence (March 24, 1850), Mr. Horatio Stebbins, Colleague 
Pastor with Rev. Calvin Lincoln, 1st Church and Society in Fitchburg 
(November 2, 1851), and Rev. Francis Tiffany, 3d Congregational Society 
in Springfield (December 2G, 1852). Mr. Furness was ordained in Phila- 



Second Parish of Worcester 


delphia, January 1271825. The Second Parish took part in the services 
connected with the fiftieth anniversary of his settlement. 

The Second Parish was invited to send delegates to take part in the 
ordination and installation of Mr. Joseph Allen over the Church in 
Northborough (Church records, October 27, 1816), of Mr. Edward B. 
Hall over the Second Congregational Society in Northampton (August 
6, 1826), of Mr. Lunt over the Second Unitarian Society in New York 
(June 15, 1828), of Edward J. Young over the Channing Church and 
Congregation in Newtou (June 7, 1857), and of Mr. Alfred P. Putnam 
over the Church of the Saviour, Brooklyn, New York (August 11, 18G4). 

Delegates were appointed to assist in the ordination of Mr. Samuel B. 
Ingersoll as pastor of the Church in Shrewsbury (June 4, 1820), but the 
Second Church in Worcester did not join in the ordination, because Mr. 
Ingersoll "declared that he could not hold ministerial intercourse with a 
Unitarian. September 9, 1821, the Church of the Second Parish elected 
a delegate to take part in the ordination of Mr. Edwards Whipple as pas- 
tor of the Church in Shrewsbury, but the delegate did not "form with 
the Council," because Mr. Whipple made a similar declaration to that 
which Mr. Ingersoll had made. November 1G, 1823, the Church of the 
Second Parish chose a delegate to assist in the ordination of Mr. George 
Allen over the same church. There seems to have been no declaration 
such as those made at the previously mentioned inductions. Mr. Allen, 
it will be remembered, was the son of Joseph Allen and the brother of 
Charles Allen of the Second Parish in Worcester. April 20, 1829, the 
Church of the Second Parish appointed a delegate to form in Council and 
give advice respecting a controversy existing between their pastor, Rev. 
Dr. Holmes and the First Parish in Cambridge. May 2, 1830, "a letter 
missive was communicated from the First Church and Society in Cam- 
bridge requesting the attendance of the Pastors and Delegate at said 
Cambridge, on the 19th inst., to form in council and assist in the ordina- 
tion of Mr. Win. Newell." April, 1882, the Church of the Second Parish 
assisted at the installation of Rev. Edward II. Hall as pastor of the First 
Church in Cambridge. July 4, 1841, the Church voted to take part in the 
ordination of Mr. John Ilealey Hey wood as an Evangelist, on the 19th of 
the same month. April 19, 184G, Deacons Merrifleld and Kettell were 
chosen to assist in the ordination on the 29th of the month, of Edward 
Everett Hale, as Pastor of the Church of the Unity in Worcester. 
December 22, 1858, Rev. R. R. Shippen was installed as minister of the 
Church of the Unity, the pastor of the Second Parish giving the right 
hand of fellowship. * 

At the close of last year Hon. George Bancroft sent the following let- 
ter to the Mayor of Worcester: — 

1G23 II Street, N. W. ) 

Washington, D. C, 18 December, 1882. 5 
Elijah Brigiiam Stoddard, Esq., Mayor of the City of Worcester, 
Massachusetts : — 

Dear Sir.— I have always borne and shall ever bear love and a per- 
fect good will to the town, now the city, of Worcester in the Common- 


318 American Antiquarian Society. [April 

wealth of Massachfasetts, my native place, and have felt deep grati- 
tude for the affectionate esteem in which the memory of my parents, 
Aaron and Lucretia Chandler Bancroft, lias been held by the successive 
generations of its inhabitants who knew them. 

Desirous to raise some monument to them, I would rather place it in 
the midst of the living and for their beueiit, than in the solitude of the 
graveyard. The one of them was the most constant and most consistent 
supporter of freedom of conscience, the right and the duty of free 
inquiry, the right and the duty of private judgment, the paramount 
duty of devoting life to the pursuit and the support of truth; in all this 
nobody could excel him; it formed an elementary part of his being. 
The other to superior intellectual endowments united cheerfulness and 
benevolence of heart; a lively play of fancy; a heroism that bore up 
against adversity of trial; a kindliness, vivacity, and good humor that 
great old age could not diminish. They lived together in marriage for 
more than fifty-two years. In their last winter he had been declining, 
but she died somewhat suddenly before him. He followed her remains 
to the grave ; after his return he spoke to me of her cheering and 
infinitely pleasing ways in nursing him during the winter; and never 
left his house again till he was borne to be placed by her side. 

I wish to establish and convey to the city of Worcester a sum, in 
amount and periods of payment more conformable to my means than to 
my wishes, for the foundation of a scholarship to be called the Aaron 
and Lucretia Chandler Bancroft Scholarship, the income thereof to be 
paid without diminution towards defraying in constant succession the 
expense of the liberal education of some young native of Worcester, 
who in the schools of the city may prove his ability, and yet neither he 
nor his parents may have sufficient means to meet his expenses of resi- 
dence at the college or university of his choice. 

If this proposition should be agreeable to the city of Worcester, I 
will immediately join in defining with exactness our reciprocal obliga- 
tions, and begin to perform my part of the agreement. I remain, my 
dear Mr. Mayor, yours with perfect truth and respect, 

Geo. Bancroft. 

The proposition of the writer of the letter was gratefully accepted by 
the City Government of Worcester. 

I wish to add in ending this paper, to the estimate of Dr. and Mrs. 
Bancroft by their son contained in this letter, that of Stephen Salisbury, 
which is contained in the following epitaphs prepared by him for the 
monument raised by friends to their memory in the Rural Cemetery in 
Worcester. The epitaphs have been printed before, but their author- 
ship has, I believe, never before been publicly stated. I give them here 
for this reason and because, most felicitously expressed, they are at the 
same time an excellent example of that correctness of characterization 
which marks all the memorial tributes of Mr. Salisbury, and makes 
them real additions to our knowledge of the career and mental qualities 
of the subjects described. 


1883.] Second Parish of Worcester. 319 

Inscriptions on a Monument in Worcester Rural Cemetery. 

Here rest 


of the Rev 1 Aaron Bancroft D.D. 

BORN in Reading Nov. 10, 1755 

ordained Pastor of the Second Parish in Worcester 

Feb. 1, 1786 

His spirit ascended to God who gave it 

August 19, 1839. 


In honor and gratitude 

to a devoted Pastor 

Who gathered a little flock 

of Christian Worshippers 

in days of opposition straus and trials 

Vindicating for them >' 

the glorious freedom to worship the one god 

according to the teachings and example 

of the blessed savior 

giving them union strength and increase 

by his labors and his life 

in a ministry of flfty three years 

the Second Parish in Worcester 

erect this monument. 

( South. ) 

a spirit free to concede as to claim 

its dearest treasure, christian liberty; 

fearlessness in thought and duty; 

ready and various rowers of learning and observation; 

a clear and forcible expression; " 

an ardent temper 

subdued to the calmness of christian philosophy; 

Uniform prudence in counsel and action; 

a warm heart and courteous manners 

and devoted fidelity in all relations 

of public and private life; 

gave to our revered pastor 

a moral power, 

which extended to a large circle 

beyond those whose happiness it was 

to know him best and love him most. 


320 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 


*. Hebe rest 

the mortal remains 

of Lucretia Bancroft 

daughter of judge john 

and Mary Church Chandler 

horn June l J 1755 

1 married to the Rev 1 Aaron Bancroft Oct 2, 178G. 

died April 27 1830. 
With zealous and untiring sympathy 
She shared and relieved 
the pious labor's of her husband 
and was not long separated from him 
by an earlier simmons to her reward, 
her ardent friendship, her active benevolence, 
her many virtues 
and her efforts and sacrifices 
for the welfare 
of the Second Parish in Worcester 
should ever be held 
in grateful remembrance. 

I append in a note a list of the names of the present Board of Assess- 
ors of the Second Parish to serve as a landmark in its history. 1 

1 Phinehas Ball, Henry C. Rice, Stephen Salisbury, Jr., Samuel S. 
Green, John C. Otis, A. George Bullock, Joseph Sargent, Jr., Francis 
H. Dewey, Jr., Henry S. Pratt, Frank P. Goulding, Edwin Brown and 
Joseph E. Davis. 

18N3.] The Journey of Monaicht-Ape. 321 


By Andrew McFaklaxd Davis. 

In the autumn of 1718 M. Le Page du Pratz landed in America. In 
company with about eight hundred others forwarded by the " Company 
of the West " he had come to this country to settle. He lirst located 
near New Orleans, where Bienville was then just starting a new settle- 
ment, but the situation of his grant proving unhealthy, he shortly after- 
wards moved up to Natchez. There he secured a farm, on which he 
spent eight of the sixteen years he was in this country. He had served 
in the army in Germany and had received a fair education. He was of 
a speculative turn of mind, fond of theorizing and always on the alert 
for information. While at Natchez he collected and transmitted to 
Paris no less than three hundred plants used by the Indians as remedies. 
He cultivated the friendship of his Indian neighbors and studied their 
habits ami their language. In 1758 he published at Paris his '• Histoire 
de la Louisiane, " in which in addition to the personal experiences and 
observations there recorded he has treasured up much that he garnered 
from conversations with the old men of the tribes concerning the tradi- 
tions of their origin, their religion and their forms of government. 

The importance attached to one of these conversations by M. de 
Quatrefages, in an article in the Revue d' Anthropologic, 1 is the occa- 
sion of this paper. The story of Moncacht-Ape's journey across the 
continent and of his encounter with the bearded white men on the 
North 'Pacific Coast of this country, has, to all intents and purposes, 
slumbered in the pages of Le Page du Prat/, until it was revived by de 
Quatrefages, who takes pride in the thought that he is, as he believes, 
the first to call attention to its importance. 

To understand the merit of the arguments upon which he bases his 
faith in the story, it is essential that the whole of the story should be 
read, otherwise one can neither appreciate the importance attached to 
the verisimilitude of its style, nor measure the value of the coincidences 
between the statements of the Indian concerning this unknown region 
and the facts as revealed by Lewis and Clark and other subsequent 

We turn therefore to the pages of Le Page du Pratz- and allow him to 
introduce the story in his own words : — 

i4 When the Natchez came to the part of America in which I found 
them there were several tribes living on both sides of the Mississippi 

1 Revue d'Anthropologie. Tome 4me. 1681. 

8 Histoire de la Louisiane, par M. LePage du Pratz, Paris, 1758. v. III., 
p. 87 et seq. 

322 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

The)' called each other Red Men, and their origin is extremely difficult 
to discover, for they have not, like the Natchez, preserved their tradi- 
tions nor have they arts and sciences like- the Mexicans, from which one 
can draw inductions. The only thing to be learned from them is. what 
they invariably say, that they came from the North -West, and the spot 
that tlnty point out with their lingers, no matter where they may be at the 
time, .should be about fifty-five degrees of latitude. This meagre infor- 
mation not being- satisfactory to me, I made inquiry, if among the neigh- 
boring tribes there was not some wise old man who could enlighten me fur- 
ther on this point. 1 was extremely rejoiced to learn that in the nation 
of the Yazoos, at a distance of forty leagues from Natchez, such an one 
could be found. His name was Moncaeht-Ape. He was a man of cour- 
age and spirit. 1 can do no better than compare him to the early 
Greeks, who travelled among the Eastern people to examine the man- 
ners and customs of the different countries and then returned to com- 
municate what they had learned to their countrymen.. Not that Mon- 
cacht-Ape actually carried out such a project as this, but he conceived 
the idea and did what he could to carry it out. I took advantage of a 
visit that was paid me by this native of the Yazoo Nation, called by the 
French ' the interpreter' because he speaks so many Indian languages, 
but known among his own people, as 1 have already said, as Moncacht- 
Ape^, which means ' one who kills difficulties or fatigue.' In fact, the 
travels of many years did not affect his physique I begged him to re- 
peat to me an account of his travels, omitting nothing. My proposition 
seemed to please him. 1 shall make our traveller speak in the first per- 
son, but I shall abridge his voyage to the Eastern Coast, because he 
speaks there largely of Canada which is very well known. I shall only 
report what there was in it of importance. He began as follows : — 

" ' I had lost my wife, and the children that 1 had by her were dead 
before her, when 1 undertook my trip to the country where the sun 
rises. I left my village notwithstanding all my relations. I was to 
take counsel with the Chickasaws, our friends and neighbors. 1 re- 
mained some days to find out if they knew whence we all came, or at 
least, if they knew whence they themselves came: they who are our 
ancestors, .since it is from them that the language of the people comes; 
but they could teach me nothing new. For this reason 1 resolved to go 
to the nations on the coast where the sun rises, to learn about them, 
and to know if their old language was the same. They taught me the 
route that I must take, in order to avoid the large villages of the whites 
for fear that they might be angry to see me — me a stranger. I reached 
the country of the Shawnees, the point where 1 was to take up the 
river Wabash (Ohio), and 1 followed it up nearly to its source which is 
in the country of the Iroquois, but i left them to the side of the cold 
[north] and I went into a village of the Abenaquais which was in my 
route. I remained there until the cold weather, which in this country 
is very severe and very long, was over. During this winter 1 gained 
the friendship of a man a little older than myself, who was equally fond 
of travelling. He promised to come with me and to conduct me, be- 
cause he knew the way, to the Great Water which I wished to see since 
I had heard it talked about. As soon as the snows were melted and the 
weather settled, I started with hhn and we avoided the Indian settle- 
ments. We rested frequently on the way, because this country is full 
of stones which made our feet sore, especially mine, being unaccustomed 
to anything of the sort. After having travelled several days we saw 
the Great Water. When I saw it 1 was so content that I could not 
speak, arid my eyes seemed to me to be too small to look at it at my 
ease, but night overtook us and we encamped near at hand, upon an 
elevation. The water was near but below us. The wind was high and 



The Jo unity of Mon each t- Ape. 


without doubt vexed the Great Water, for it made so mueh noise that 
I could not sleep. I feared that the blows that it gave would break 
down the height where we were, although it was of stone. 

4,1 The sun had not appeared when I rose to see the Great Water. I 
was much surprised to see that it was far away. I was a long time 
without speaking to my comrade, who thought from seeing me all the 
time looking about and not speaking that I had lost my wits. I could 
not understand how this could be. Finally, the wind having ceased, the 
sun arose. The Great Water was not so much disturbed as it was on 
the preceding night, ami 1 saw with surprise that it returned towards 
un. I sprang up quickly and tied with all my strength. My comrade 
called out to me not to be afraid. I shouted to him, on my part, that 
the Great Water was coining towards us and that we should be drowned, 
lie then reassured me, saying that the red men who had seen the Great 
Water had observed that it always advanced as much as it receded, but 
that it never came farther up on the earth at one time than another. 
When he had thus satislied me we returned to the shore of the Great 
Water, and remained there until the middle of the day when 1 saw it, 
receding, go afar o'tf. We left to go to sleep far oft' from the noise, 
which followed me everywhere, and even till evening I spoke of nothing 
else to my comrade. We arrived at the banks of a little river, where we 
lay down to rest, but I thought of it all the night. We retook the route 
that we had followed in going and arrived at his home, where they 
were glad to see us. 

" ' This village is in the country at some distance from the Great 
Water whence we had come, and they had not seen it except between the 
lands where i he great river of the country loses itself. In this region 
where they had saen it, it advances and recedes, but much less than in 
the place where we had seen it. These people believe that the Great 
Water over which tin.' French come with their floating villages, which 
the winds move Yjy pulling out the great sails which they bear, they 
believe, I say, that this Great Water was like several Great Waters that 
they have in their country which are surrounded with land and of which 
the water is good to drink, in place of which that where we were is salt 
and bitter. I know it because I put some of it in my mouth. More- 
over the French say it takes more than two moons to come to our 
country, whereas the Great Waters of their country can be crossed in 
two or three, or at most in four days for the largest, and all that I have 
seen agrees with what the French have told me, that this water touches 
all lands and is as large as the earth. 

• k ' They listened to me with pleasure for a long time, and an old man 
who was there told me that he had been in a place where the great river 
of their country [St. Lawrence] precipitated itself from so high and 
with so much noise that it could be heard a half day's journey distant; 
that as 1 was curious, I should do well to see this place when the cold 
weather should be over. 1 resolved to go there. I told my comrade who 
had accompanied me to the Great Water, ami he promised to go with 
me. I had in truth a great desire to see this place which seemed worthy to 
be seen. I passed the winter in this place and was very impatient because 
it was long. It is impossible to hunt except with rackets on the feet, to 
get accustomed to which caused me much trouble. This is unfortunate, 
for the country is good. Finally, the winter being over, the snow 
melted, the weather good, ami our provisions prepared, we packed our 
bundles, and my comrade took a hatchet, with the use of which he was 
familiar. It was for the purpose of making me a dug-out, upon which, 
following the counsel that was given me, I should embark upon the river 
Ohio, as it is called in this country, the Wabash as we call it, and by 
this means I could return to my village more easily and in less time than 

324 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

it* I should return on foot. Wo departed then and travelled for several 
days before fiuding the great river of that country. We did not lack 
for meat on our route. There is an abundance of buffaloes and also of 
other gftine, but as these animals have a great deal of trouble to live 
while snow is on the ground they were not yet fat. When we had arrived 
upon the banks of this great river, we rested. The next day we 
travelled with the current of the water, for we were too high up for 
the place that we came to see. Following what had been told us, we 
could tlot be deceived in finding this water-fall, for one hears the noise 
from afar, as we discovered on our approach. We passed the night 
where the noise was already strong* but not enough to hinder us from 
sleeping. As soon as day broke we departed for this place of which all 
men speak with wonder: Fortunately an old man had induced us to take. 
before leaving the village, some buffalo's wool to put in our ears; niili- 
out that we should truly have become deaf through the great noise made 
by this water in falling from so high. 1 had never been able to believe 
what the old man had told me, but when my eyes and mv Senses beheld, 
I thought he had not said enough for that which my eyes saw. 

" -This river does not fall. It is as if it were cast, the same as when 
an arrow falls to the ground This sight made my hair stand on end and 
my flesh creep. Nevertheless, after having looked for a sufficiently long 
time, my heart which had been agitated became quiet. As soon as 1 
perceived it was quiet 1 spoke to myself and said, ' What then! Am i 
not a man? What 1 see is natural, and other men have passed under tins 
river. Why should not I pass there? It is true that only Frenchmen 
have passed there and that red men do not undertake the passage ; but I, 
Moncacht-Ape, ought I to fear more than another man?' l No,' said I, 
in a low tone. ' I ought not to fear.' I descended at once and passed 
under and came back. 1 passed extremely quick, for although 1 had 
buffalo's wool in my ears, the noise was so strong that 1 was giddy. I 
was not so much drenched as I had expected to be before 1 went in. 
After having examined the height of this fall, 1 believe that the Red 
men speak the truth when they assert that it is of the height of one 
hundred lied men who are rather taller than whites. We were detained 
so long looking at what 1 have narrated that we were compelled to 
camp for the night on the other side of a wood, which notwithstanding 
its thickness did not stop the noise of the waters, for we still heard it. 
It is true that our ears, although stopped up, were full of it, and for 
more than ten days after 1 still thought I heard it. 

" ' The next day we took the shortest path for the Ohio River. When 
we reached there we followed down this river to a point where there 
was mo more wood to prevent me from following its waters to the great 
river of our country, which passes very near here. This was the way 
that 1 wished to take, as I had been told it would take me to my village. 
When we were at- the place where I ought to take the water, we cut 
down a tree of soft wood: we made in a short time my little dug-out. 
In truth it was not well finished, but as it was to descend with the 
current, it was better than a light one. My dug-out beiug made, I 
shaped a paddle. 1 also made a bark rope. We placed the du^-out iu 
the water and fastened it with my b.ark rope; then we went hunting. 
We killed two buffaloes, the meat of which we smoked. My comrade 
took his share, and 1 placed the rest in the dug-out. We parted with 
hearts bound together like good friends who love one another, if he 
had been without a wife and children he would have joined me in my 
trip to the West of which 1 have spoken. 

" ' I entered my dug-out and descended at my ease the Ohio River to 
our great river, which we call Meact-chact-sipi, without meeting any 
man in the Ohio River. I had not proceeded far in the Great River before 



The. Journey of ' Moiicacht-Ape. 


I met two pirogues full of Arkansas, who bore a calumet to the Illinois, 
who are their brothers. Thence I descended all the time even to our 
little river, which I entered, but except for one of our neighbors, whom 
I happily met, 1 never should have been able to ascend to our village. I 
saw with joy my relations, who were glad to see me in good health.' 

"Such was the narrative that Moneaeht-Aye gave me of his jour- 
ney to the East, where he learned nothing concerning the matters which 
he was investigating. It is true lie had seen the ocean. He had seen it 
in a state of agitation, lie had witnessed the ebb and flow of the tide. 
He had examined the famous Tails at Niagara, and he could talk intelli- 
genfTy of them. All this could not fail to be satisfactory to a curious 
man, who had nothing else to do than travel for information, to do 
which he had but to make similar expeditions to that which he had 
made to the East. 

"The failure of the steps taken by Moucacht-Ape during several 
years, tar from extinguishing the desire that he had to learn, only 
excited him the more. Determined to attempt anything to dispel the 
ignorance in which he perceived that he was immersed, he persisted 
in the design of discovering the origin of his people; a design which 
demanded as much spirit as courage, and which would never have 
entered the brain of an ordinary man. lie determined then to go from 
nation to nation until he should lind himself in the country from which 
his ancestors emigrated, being persuaded that he could there learn many 
things which they had forgotten in their travels. He undertook the 
journey to the West, from which he did not return for live years. He 
gave me the following details the next day after he had repeated to 
me that of the East ; — 

" ' My preparations were made, and when the grain was ripe 1 1 prepared 
some provisions for the journey, and I departed, following the high 
laud in which we live [to the east of the river to the Wabash (Ohio)]. 
I followed the stream up for a quarter of a day above the place where it 
loses itself in the Great River [Mississippi], in order to be able to cross 
it without being carried into the other. When I saw that it was high 
enough, I made a raft of canes and a little bunch of canes which served 
me for a paddle. I thus crossed the Wabash [Ohio], and began my 
journey on the prairies, where the grass was but just beginning to 
spring up. The next day, towards the middle of the day, I found a 
small troop of buffaloes, which permitted me to approach so near to them 
that 1 killed a cow sufficiently fat. I took the tenderloin, the hump and 
the tongue, and left the rest for the wolves. I was heavily loaded, but 
1 did not have far to go to reach the Tamaroas, one of the villages of 
the Illinois nation. When I was in this nation I rested a few days, 
preparing to continue my journey. After this little rest 1 pursued my 
way, mounting to the North, even to the Missouri. As soon as I Avas 
opposite this river, I prepared to cross the Great Kiver [Mississippi] so 
as to arrive on the north of the Missouri. To effect this, 1 ascended 
sulliciently high and made a raft as I had done to cross the Wabash 
[Ohio]. I crossed the Great River [Mississippi] from East to West. 
When I was near the bank I permitted myself to drift with the current 
until I was at the sand point where the two rivers meet. In descending 
upon this point I found there some bustards, which had no fear of man. 
I killed one. As I went to pick it up I saw my raft, which I had 
abandoned because 1 had no further use for .it. It had been drawn 
quietly down by the current along the shore, but when it readied the 
point where the two waters meet, they tossed it about and seemed to 
quarrel as to which should have it. 1 watched it as long as I could, for 

'Probably when the corn was "in the roasting ear 



326 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

I had never seen waters light like that, as if each of them wished to 
have a part of it. Finally I lost sight of it. What seemed extraordinary 
to me and gave me great pleasure was to see the two waters mingle 
themselves together. Their difference is great, for the Great Kiver 
[Mississippi] which I had just crossed, is very clear above the Missouri, 
although below it is muddy even to the Great Water [ocean]. This 
comes from the Missouri, whose waters are always muddy in all its 
course, which is very long. I saw also that these two waters flowed 
for a long distance, side by side, that on the West being muddy, and on 
the JEast the water is clear. I ascended the Missouri on the North bank, 
and I travelled several days before arriving at the Missouri nation, 
whom I had some difficulty to And. I remained there long enough not 
only to rest myself, but also to learn the language spoken a little further 
on. 1 was surfeited on my trip with the humps and tenderloins of 
buffaloes which I had killed. I never saw so many of these animals as 
in this country, where you can see prairies of the length of a day's 
journey and more covered with them. The Missouris live almost 
exclusively on meat, and they only use maize as a relief from buffalo and 
other game, of which they have great quantity. I passed the winter 
with them, during which so much snow fell that it covered the earth as 
deep as a man's waist. 

" ' When the winter was over I resumed my journey ami ascended the 
Missouri till I arrived at the nation of the West. [They are also called 
the Canzes]. There I gathered information of what I wanted to know 
so as to arrange for the future. They told me that to go to the country 
from whence we as well as they came would be very difficult, because 
the nations were far away from the Missouri. That also when I should 
have travelled about a month, it would be necessary for me to bear to 
my right, taking directly North, where I should find at several day's 
journeys another river which runs from the East to the West, conse- 
quently directly opposite to the Missouri. That I should follow this river 
until I should find the nation of the Otters, where I could rest myself 
and could learn more fully what was necessary, and perhaps find some 
persons who would accompany me. For the rest 1 could descend this 
river in a dug-out and travel a great distance without fatigue. 

" ' With these instructions I continued my route, following constantly 
for one moon the Missouri, and although I had travelled sufficiently fast, 
I did not yet dare to take to the right as they had told me, because for 
many days I had seen mountains which 1 hesitated to pass for fear of 
wounding my feet. Nevertheless, it was necessary for me to come to a 
conclusion. Having taken this resolve for the next day, 1 determined to 
sleep where 1 was and made a tire. Shortly after, while watching the 
sun which had already gone considerably down, I saw some smoke at 
some distance off. 1 did not doubt that this was a party of hunters who 
proposed to pass the night in this place, and it entered my mind that 
they might belong to the Otters. I immediately left in order that I 
might be guided to them by the smoke while it was yet daylight. I 
joined them and they saw me with surprise. They were a party of thirty 
men and some women. Their language was unknown to me and we 
were only able to communicate by signs. Nevertheless, with the 
exception of their surprise, they received me well enough, and I 
remained three days with them. At the end of this time one of the 
wives told her husband that she believed herself ready for lying in. 
Upon that the others sent this man and his wile to the village, and told 
them to take me with them in order that I might travel by an easier 
road than that which I was on the point of taking. 

'' l We ascended the Missouri still for nine short days, then we turned 
directly North and travelled for rive days, at the end of which time 


The Journey of Moncacht-ApS. 

we found a river with clear and beautiful water. They called it 
"The Beautiful River." This man and his wife asked me by signs 
if I did not wish to bathe, as they did, because it was long since 
they had bathed. I told them in the same way that I also had great 
need of a bath, but that I was afraid of crocodiles. They made me 
understand that there were none here. Upon their assurance I bathed 
and did it with great pleasure in this beautiful water. 

" s We descended the Beautiful River during the rest of the day, till we 
arrived upon the banks of a stream which we recognized where this 
troop of hunters had concealed their dug-outs. My guide having drawn 
out Ins own, we three entered and descended to their village, where we 
did not arrive till night. I was as well receis'ed by this nation as if I 
had been one of them. During the jouruey I had picked up a few words 
of their language and I very soon learned it, because I was always with 
the old men who love to instruct the young, as the young love to be 
instructed and converse freely with each other. I have noted this 
generally in all the natives that I have seen. This nation was really the 
Otters whom I sought. As I was very well treated there I would 
willingly have made a longer stay, and it seemed to me that they also 
wished it. But my design occupied me always. I determined to leave 
with some of this people who were going to carry a calumet to a nation 
through which I must pass, who, being brothers of those whom I was 
about to quit, spoke the same language with some slight differences. I 
parted then with the Otters, and we descended the •' Beautiful River " in 
a pirogue for eighteen days, putting on shore from time to time 
to hunt, and we did not want for game. I should have liked to 
push on further, following always the •' Beautiful River," for I did not 
become fatigued in the pirogue, but it was necessary for me to yield to 
the reasons opposed to it. They told me that the heat was already 
great, that the grass was high and the' serpents dangerous in this season, 
and that I might be bitten in going to the chase, and that moreover it 
was necessary that I should learn the language of the nation where I 
wished to go, which would be much easier when I should know that of 
the country where I was. I followed the advice that the old men of 
this nation gave me with the less hesitation that I saw that their hearts 
and their mouths spoke together. They loved me and I did not go 
to the chase except for amusement. During the winter that I passed 
with them, I set myself to work to learn the language of the people 
where I intended to go, because with it they assured me that I could 
make myself understood by all the people that I should And from that 
point to the " Great Water,*' which is at the West, the difference 
between their languages not being great. 

'"The warm weather was not yet entirely over when I got in a 
pirogue with plenty of breadstuff's 1 [viandes en farine'] because these 
nations do not cultivate maize, although the soil seems very good. 
They cultivate only a little as a curiosity. I had in my pirogue only my 
provisions, a pot, a bowl and what I needed for my bed, and if I had 
had some Indian corn -nothing would have been wanting. Thus, not 
being embarrassed with anything, I floated at my ease, and in a short time 
I arrived at a very small nation, who were surprised to see me arrive 
alone. This tribe wear long hair and look upon those who wear short 
as slaves, Whose hair has been cut in order that they may be recog- 
nized. The chief of this tribe, who was on the bank of the river, said 

1 U. S. G. and G. Survey, Contributions to North American Ethnology, 
vol. I., 1U3. Tribes of Western Washington and Northeastern Oregon, 
by George Gibbs, M.D. The roots used [for food] are numerous; but 
the wappatu, or saggittaria, and the katrias are the principal. 

328 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

brusquely to me : ' Who are you? Where do you come from? What do 
you want here with your short hair?' I said to him, 'I am Moncacht- 
Ape ; I come from the nation of the Otters. 1 am in search of informa- 
tion, and I come to you for you to give it; my hair is short so that it 
may not bother me. but my courage is good. I do not come to ask food 
from you. I have enough to last me for some time, and when I shall 
have no more, my bow and my arrows will furnish me more than I need. 
During winter, like the bear, I seek a covert, and in summer 1 imitate 
the eagle, who moves about to satisfy his curiosity. Is it possible that 
a single man, who travels by daylight, makes you afraid?' 

"'He replied that although I might come from the nation of the 
Otter*, he easily saw that I was not of them; but that I could remain 
since I was so courageous, adding that he could not understand how I 
spoke his language, which none of the people east of there understood. 
I told him that I had learned it of an old man called Salt Tear, and at 
the same time 1 re-embarked in order to go, because I disliked his 
conversation, but at the name of Salt Tear, who was one of his friends, 
he retained me, assuring me that I should confer a pleasure on him by 
remaining in his village as long as I was willing. I came ashore rather 
to learn what I could than to rest myself, for I was not satisfied with 
, his talk. ' What,' said I to myself, ' when two bears meet they stop, 
rub nose against nose, mutter some sounds that they understand without 
doubt, and seem to caress each other, and here men speak rudely to each 
other.' Being then disembarked I told him that Salt Tear had charged 
me to see on his part an old man called " Big Roebuck." It was the 
father of him with whom I was talking. He had him called. The old 
man came, being led by the hand, for he could not see very well, and 
learning from what parts I had come, he received me as if I were his 
son, took me into his cabin and had all that was in my pirogue brought 
there. The next day he taught me those things that I wished to know. 
and assured me that all the nations on the shores of the Great Water 
would receive me well on telling them that I was the friend of Big 
Roebuck. 1 remained there only two days, during which he caused to 
be made some gruel from certain small grains, smaller than French peas, 
which are very good, which pleased me all the more that it was so lung 
that 1 had eaten only meat. Having re-embarked in my pirogue, I 
descended the Beautiful River without stopping more than one day with 
each nation that I met on my way. 

"'The last of these nations is at a day's journey from the Great 
Water, and withdrawn from the river the journey of a man [about 
a league]. They remain in the woods to conceal themselves, they say, 
from the bearded men. I was received in this nation as if I had arrived 
in my family, and I had there good cheer of all sorts, for they have in 
this country an abundance of that grain of which Big Roebuck had 
made me a gruel, and although it springs up without being sowed, it is 
better than any grain that 1 have ever eaten. Some large blue birds 
come to eat this grain, but they kill them because they are very good. 
The water also furnishes this people with meat. There is an animal 
which comes ashore to eat grass, which has a head shaped like a young 
buffalo, but not of the same color. They eat also many fish from the 
Great Water, which are larger than our large brills and much better, as 
well as a great variety of shell-llsh, amongst which some are very 
beautiful. But if they li\e well in this country it is necessary always 
to be on the watch against the bearded men, who do all that they can to 
carry away the young persons, for they never have taken any men, 
although they could have done so. They told me that these men were 
white, that they had long, black beards which fell upon their breasts, 
that they appeared to be short and thick, with large heads, which they 


The Journey of Moneacht-AjpS. 


covered with cloth; that they always wore their clothes, even in the 
hottest weather; that their coats fell to the middle of the legs, which 
as well as the feet were covered with red or yellow cloth. For the rest 
they did not know of what their clothing was made, because they had 
never been able to kill one, their arms making a great noise and a great 
flame; that they nevertheless retire when they see more red men than 
their own nnmbers; that then they go aboard their pirogue [without 
doubt a barque] where there were sometimes thirty and even more. 
They added that these strangers came from where the sun sets to seek 
upon this coast a yellow and bad-smelling wood which dyes a beautiful 
yellow. That as they had observed that the bearded men came to carry 
oil" tkis wood each year when the cold weather had eeased, they had 
destroyed all these trees, following the advice of an old man, so that they 
came no more, because they found no more of this wood. In truth, the 
banks of the river, which were formerly covered, were then naked, and 
there remained of this wood in this country but a small quantity, only 
sufficient for the dyeing of the people themselves. Two nations, neigh- 
bors of each other and not far distant from the one where 1 was, could 
not imitate them in this step, because they had no other than this yellow 
wood, and the bearded men, having discovered this, went there every 
year, which inconvenienced these nations very much, as they did not dare 
go on the coast for fear of losing their young people. In order to drive 
them off thoroughly, they had invited all the neighboring tribes to 
rendezvous with them in arms towards the commencement of the 
following summer, at a given moon, ami this time was near at hand. As 
I told them that I had seen lire-arms ami was not afraid of them, these 
people invited me to go with them, saying that these two nations were 
on the route that 1 must take to go to the country from which we came, 
ami for the rest there would be so many red men that they would easily 
destroy the bearded men, which would hinder others from coming. I 
replied that my heart found that it was good that I should go with 
them, and in acting thus 1 had a desire that I wished to satisfy. I was 
anxious to see these bearded men, who did not resemble French, English 
nor Spaniards, such as I had seen, all of whom trim their beards and are 
differently clothed. My cheerful assent created much pleasure among 
these tribes, who thought with reason that a man Avho had seen whites 
and many natives, ought to have more intelligence than those who had 
never left their homes and had only seen red men.' 

"I told Moncacht-Ape to take a rest until the next day. I gave 
him a glass of brandy and set to work as usual transcribing what 
he had told me. During the second night that Moncacht-Ape staid 
with me I recalled what the native had told me of the Great Water into 
which the Beautiful River discharges; I thought this sea of which he 
spoke might be the " Sea of the West," for which they have sought so 
long. Therefore I proposed to submit certain questions to him before 
he began his recital of his journey to the West. The next day, as he 
prepared to continue, I asked him Avhat route he had followed with 
respect to the sun. When one travels in Europe one does not notice 
whether one goes North, South, East or West, because one follows roads 
which lead where you are going, without disturbing oneself with the 
bearing of the stars; but in the regions which are only sparsely 
inhabited it is necessary that the suu should serve as a guide, there 
being no other way; and the natives, through habit and necessity, 
observe closely the bearing of the sun in their travels. Thus I was 
assured of a reply on Moncaeht-Ap6's part. 

"He answered, then, that in ascending the Missouri as far as the 
nation of that name he had travelled according to his idea between 
North and West ; that from this nation to the Canzes he had travelled 

330 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

to the North, and that after leaving the Gauzes, in following the 
Missouri, he had always travelled between North and West, and that the 
Missouri went thus. That when he quitted the Missouri to go to the 
Beautiful River he had travelled direct to the North; that in descending 
the Beautiful River he had always travelled between North and West, 
even to the Great Water; that the Big Roebuck had told him that the 
Missouri and the Beautiful River had their courses always equally 
distant the one from the other. Afer having answered my questions, 
he continued the narrative of his travels in these terms : 

" ' When the time was come, I left with the warriors, aiid we travel- 
led five great days' journeys. Being arrived we waited a long time for 
the bearded men, who came this year a little later than usual. While 
waiting I was shown the place where they put their large pirogue. It 
was between two cliffs which are sufficiently high and long, and are 
connected with the main land. Between them flows a little river bor- 
dered with the trees which furnish the yellow wood, but this river being 
too shallow to permit the entry of their large pirogues, they had a smaller 
one with which they went up. They told me that the bearded men would 
not mistrust anything, because the people all withdrew two days' journey 
from the spot as soon as they perceived them coining on the Great Water, 
and did not appear again until they had left. That nevertheless they 
were always watched without the watchers being seen. After having 
instructed me in all these things, they held a council and were of opinion 
that they ought to conceal themselves behind these two cliffs, and 
when the bearded men should arrive, everybody should cry out and 
draw upon them to prevent them from landing. I had not spoken at 
first, but finally seeing how things were going, I told them that although 
I had not made war against the whites, I knew that they were brave and 
skillful, that although I did not know if these white men resembled the 
others, I nevertheless thought that they (the Indians) would not do 
much harm in the way they proposed to act; that by their plan, if they 
should secure three or four scalps, they would have accomplished a 
great deal; which would not be much honor for so many warriors, and 
they would be badly received on their return to their peopl", for it would 
be believed that they were afraid. I counselled them to place two men 
upon the two cliffs to watch the bearded men without their knowledge, 
and to warn us of their arrival; that time should then be given for them 
to come ashore to cut wood, and that when they were thus occupied a party 
of warriors should mount upon the cliffs, another should conceal itself in 
last year's underbrush, and the rest openly attack. It cannot he doubted, 
I added, that there will not be many bearded men who will save them- 
selves, but when they wish to regain their small pirogue, those concealed 
in the underbrush will kill many, and when they approach the large 
pirogue, those on the cliii's will do the same. All the warriors were 
of my opinion, and were very glad that 1 had been willing to come 
with them. 

•• ' We waited for the bearded men during seventeen days, at the end 
of which time they were seen to approach in two large pirogues. They 
" placed themselves between the two cliii's, where they busied themselves 
in tilling with fresh water, vessels of wood similar to those in which the 
French place the lire water. It was not until the fourth day that they 
went ashore to cut wood. The attack was carried out as I had advised, 
nevertheless they only killed eleven. I do not know why it is that red 
men who shoot so surely at game, aim so badly at their enemies. The 
rest of them gained their pirogues and lied upon the Great Water, where 
we followed them long with our eyes ami Anally lost sight of them. 
They were as much afraid of our numbers as we were of their tire-arms. 
We then went to examine the dead which remained with us. They were 


The Journey of MoncachUApS. 


much smaller than we were, and Aery white. They had large heads and 
bodies sufficiently Large for their height. Their hair was only long in 
the middle of the head. They did not wear hats like you, but their 
heads were twisted around with cloth; their clothes were neither 
woollen nor bark [he would say silk] but something similar to your old 
shirts [without doubt cotton] very soft and of different colors. That 
which covered their limbs and their feet was of a single piece. I 
wished to try on one of these coverings, but my feet would not enter 
it. [The leggings were bottines which have the seam behind. Natives 
can not wear shoes and stockings, because their toes are spread so far 
apart.] All the tribes assembled in this place divided up their garments, 
their beads and their scalps. Of the eleven killed, two only had tire 
arms with powder and balls. Although I did not know as much about 
*-nre-arms as I do now, still, as' I had seen some in Canada, I wished to 
try them, and found that they did not kill as far as yours. They were 
much heavier. The powder was mixed, coarse, medium and line, but 
the coarse was in greater quantity. 

" ' See what I have observed concerning the bearded men, and in what 
way the natives relieved themselves of them. After this I thought only 
of continuing my journey. To accomplish this, leaving the red men to 
return to their homes, I joined those who lived further to the West on 
the coast, and we travelled always following at a Short distance the 
coast line of the Great Water, which goes directly between Ninth and 
West. When 1 reached the homes of this people I rested several days, 
during which 1 studied the way that remained for me to travel. I ob- 
served that the days were much longer than with us, and the nights 
very short. I wanted to know from them the reason, but they could 
not tell me. The old men advised me that it would be useless to under- 
take to go further. They said the coast still extended for a great 
distance to the North and West ; that finally it turned short to the West, 
and finally it was cut through by the Great Water directly from North 
to South. One of them added that when young he had known a very 
old man who had seen this land [before the ocean had eaten its way 
through] which went a long distance, and that when the Great Waters 
were lowered [at low tide] there are rocks which shc^T where this land 
was. Everyone turned me aside from undertaking this journey, because 
they assured me that the country was sterile and cold and consequently 
without inhabitants, and they counselled me to return to my own 

" Moncacht-Ape returned home by the same route that he had taken 
in going, which he recounted to me in few words. After which 1 asked 
him if he could say how many days' journeys there were of actual 
travel; he told me that the Beautiful River being very swift and rapid 
he had descended very fast, and that in reducing this march to days' 
journeys by land, he counted to have journeyed in all thirty-six moons, 
that is to say during three years. It is true, as he admitted, that 
travelling through countries which to him were absolutely unknown, he 
had followed the sinuosities of the Missouri, and if he had to return to 
the same places he could shorten his path and would not travel more 
than thirty-two or thirty-three moons. It is true as he said that he 
travelled faster than red men ordinarily do, who generally make but six 
leagues a day when loaded with at least two hundred pounds burthen, 
but as Moncacht-Ape carried only oiie hundred pounds, or sometimes not 
more than sixty, he ought to have made often even nine or ten leagues. I 
know myself from experience in returning from my expedition to the 
interior, that not losing time in making investigations, my people, 
although loaded, made nearly ten leagues a day. Thus, in estimating 
his day's journeys at seven leagues' travel, he ought to have made, with 


332 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

some certainty, at least eighteen hundred leagues. Thus I reason : He 
travelled about thirty-six moons, as many going as coming. It is 
necessary to deduct half this time for his return. At seven leagues a 
day there will remain three thousand, seven hundred and* forty-eight 
leagues. I deduct again half for the detours that he was obliged to 
make, which were in great number, and I tind still eighteen hundred and 
ninety leagues that there was from the Yazoo to the coast, which was 
at the mouth of the Beautiful River. He was five years making this 
journey to the West." 

■ M. de Quatrefagcs was mistaken in supposing that he was the lirst to 
call attention to the ethnological value of this tale, for we find that the 
first volume of the transactions of the Literary and Historical Society 
of^Quebec 1 contains a paper by Andrew Stuart, Esq., which is entitled 
"Journey Across the Continent of North America, by an Indian Chief," 
etc., etc. Mr. Stuart evidently places confidence in the story, for after 
giving a translation of it and reciting many things which subsequent 
explorations have proved to be true, he says: "None of these could 
have been known to the Indian chief, and the general tone and character 
of M. du Pratz's work excludes the idea of his having fabricated the 
story." 2 

Greenhow, in his History of Oregon, 3 quotes a version of the story with 
the following endorsement : "there is indeed, nothing about it which 
should induce us to reject it as false, except the part respecting the ships 
and white men." In the Revue d' Anthropologic, tome fine, 1881, M. A. 
de Quatrefages, 4 in the article to which we have already alluded, 
reprints LePage's story in full, explains and elucidates the obscure por- 
tions with voluminous notes, cites a vast amount of testimony to show 
that the white men must have come from Lieou Tchou or some of the 
Eastern isles of Japan, and arrives at the conclusion that the journey of 
Moncacht-Ape was really accomplished, and that, prior to t\e time when 
the Europeans knew anything about that part of the shores of North 
America, the mouth of the Columbia River and the adjoining shores 
were known and frequented by this people. 

Let us examine the story to see what are its elements of strength and 

1 Transactions of the Literary and Historical Society of Quebec, Que- 
bec, 1829, Art. XL, vol. L, p. 198 etseq. 

2 As early as 1765 the discussion of this subject began, in a 4to. 
entitled " Meinoires et Observations Geographiques," etc. Par Mr. 
* * * (Samuel Engel). Lausanne, 1705. This was accompanied 
by a chart illustrating the theory of the author and showing Moncacht- 
Ape's journey. 

:i Greenhow's Oregon, Boston, 1844, p. 145. 

'The reputation of M. de Quatrefagcs probably requires no endorse- 
ment in tins country, but if any doubts exist as to the value of his 
opinions, such language as this, " M. de Quatrefages is acknowledged 
to be the most distinguished Anthropologist in France." used by Major 
Powell, in Science, vol. I., No. 10, p. 290, [033], will dispel them. See 
also [C34] where Major Powell briefly alludes to the Moneacht-Ape 



The Jouoney of Moncacht-ApS. 


what its elements of weakness. We eau at the same time, perhaps, 
determine whether there were any motives sufficient to induce a writer 
of that period to fabricate or embellish a production of this 
kind. We must bear in mind that LePage du Prat/, was manifestly a 
theorist and an enthusiast. To him the romantic notion that this vener- 
able red skin was hunting- up a genealogical record, would be conspicu- 
ously apparent as the all-important factor of the journey, where the 
mention of such a motive might have been entirely overlooked by one 
not afflicted with the ethnological craze. But whatever the motive, was 
the journey a possibility? Could this solitary traveller have penetrated 
a region the secrets of which were only yielded to the bold assaults of 
Lewis and Clark in 180-4? Cabec.a de Vaca 1 with his three companions, 
tossed about from tribe to tribe, half-starved and terribly maltreated, 
was nine years in working his way across the arid deserts of New Mex- 
ico and Arizona, but he survived his terrible experiences and finally 
reached a place of safety under the Spanish flag on the Pacific slope. 
Col. Dodge, in "Our Wild Indians,"'- tells of a native who travelled 
" on foot, generally alone, from the banks of the Mississippi to the 
mouth of the Columbia River, and who afterwards in repeated journeys 
crossed and re-crossed, North, South, East and West, the vast expanse 
of wilderness, until he seemed to know every stream and mountain of 
the whole great continent west of the Mississippi river." Capt. Murcy, 
in the "Prairie Traveller," ;) tells of another " who had set his traps 
and spread his blanket upon the head-waters of the Missouri and Co- 
lumbia, and his wanderings had led him South to the Colorado and 
the Gila, and thence to the shores of the Pacific." The physical 
possibility of the trip may therefore be accepted. 

The geography of the lower Missouri, the character of th^ river, the 
tribes of Indians, the animals and the plants to be found there were 
known to LePage du Prat/.. We Unci in his history an account of an 
expedition by Bourgmont through this country. Little or nothing could 
have been known, however, by him, concerning the habits or the modes 
of life of the Indians living near the source of the Missouri, 4 and the 

'Relation of Alvar Nunez Cabega de Vaca, Translated by Buckingham 
Smith, N. Y., 1871. 

-"Our Wild Indians," Col. Richard C. Dodge, Hartford, 1882, p. 554. 
I wish here to acknowledge the assistance rendered me by Mr. Lucien 
Carr, of the Peabody Museum, who kindly pointed out to. me these 
instances of travel and endurance, and has otherwise materially helped 
me in this investigation. 

J The Prairie Traveller, Capt. R. B. Marcv, N. Y., 1859, p. 188. 

1 Hennepin, while a captive among the Sioux, " saw Indians who came 
from about live hundred leagues to the West; they informed us that 
the Assenipovalacs were then only seven or eight days distant to the 
Northeast of us ; all the other known tribes on the West and Northwest 
inhabit immense plains and prairies abounding in buffalo and peltries, 
where they are sometimes obliged to make fires with butlalo clung for 
want of wood." Hennepin's Louisiana, Shea, New York, 1880, p. 23G. 

334 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

existence even of the Columbia river had not been established. What- 
ever coincidences are found between the story and the facts which 
relate to the region West of the head-waters of the Missouri are there- 
fore valuable as indications of the probable truth of the story. The 
astonishment of the savage at the absence of Indian corn, his yearning 
for it after his meat-diet, and the inadequacy of the bread-stuffs ' fur- 
nished him as a substitute, are the natural experiences of a traveller 
over this waste. Of the grain used by Big- Roebuck in his toothsome 
gruel we have no knowledge. It is not included in any list of the arti- 
cles of food of these Indians in such a way as will enable us to identify 
it. There are, however, several varieties of wild peas in Oregon, which 
might make a good relish as a dinner vegetable, and it is not impossible 
that they may have been used in this manner in a limited way. We have 
no record of any Indians along the banks of the Columbia or its tribu- 
taries, who cut the hair of their slaves as a mark of indignity, but in 
his " Native Races of the Pacific, " 2 H. II. Bancroft tells us that " to cut 
the hair short is to the Nootka a disgrace," and in a note he quotes from 
Sproat's " Scenes and Studies of Savage Life," London, 18G3, pp. 25-27, 
as follows : »' The hair of the natives is never shaven from the head. It 
is black or dark brown, without gloss, coarse and lank, but not scanty, 
worn long. * * * Slaves wear their hair short." 3 The 
abundant opportunity for personal observation which Sproat had dur- 
ing his residence on the Pacific Coast, makes this a valuable addition to 
the list of coincidences. The seal does not come on shore and browse 
on the grass, but the movements of the animal would suggest to one 
ignorant of its habits, that this was probably what it was doing; hence 
we have no difficulty in identifying the animal that furnished the " meat 
from the water " to the natives. While it required no great imagina- 
tion to suggest as probable the abundance of fish and she". -rish which 
the savage mentions, the habitual use of seal's meat as food could not 
have been known to the Indian. Such knowledge was not, how- 
ever, absolutely beyond LePage's power of acquisition at the time 
of the publication of his book. 

To appreciate the ignorance, at this time, of the geographers concern- 
ing the region about the Columbia River, it is necessary to establish 
approximately the date of the interview between LePage du Pratz and 
Moneacht-Ape. Following the date of LePage's movements, this must 
have taken place about 1725. Moncacht-Ape was then an old man, and 
the journey was a story drawn from his memory. If we allow that 

'For account of food used by Indians in Oregon, see Contributions to 
North American Ethnology, Art. by George Gibbs, M.D., vol. I., p. 193. 

2 Bancroft's Native Races, vol. I., p. 17U, and note. 

3 Lafitau, in vol. 2, p. 51, of his Mceurs des Sauvages, Paris, 1724, 4to, 
says that Mausolus, king of Caria, compelled the Lyciaus to cut their 
hair, which was then a mark of servitude, also that the hair is cut as a 
mark of servitude among the Caribs and the Indians of the South. 

1883.] The Journey of Monmcht-Ape. 335 

the trip took place about 1700, we shall not place it too earl}'. We have 
no account of the landing - of any white man on the Pacific coast North 
of 43° N. prior to that time. The only explorer said to have penetrated 
that region whose claims have in any way been recognized by posterity, 
is Fuca. His discovery, in 1592, of the straits which bear his name, is 
accepted by many as probable. If to this we should add the alleged 
discovery by Aguilar of a river in 45° N., as being* possibly the mouth 
of the Columbia, the error in the location of which was due to the 
inadequate instruments and the inefficient methods of the time-,, we 
shall then have extended the area of actual knowledge of the day to 
include all that could possibly be claimed. All else was pure conjec- 
ture, and mere speculation. There were, however, among the Indiana., 
rumors concerning a great sea to the West and a great river flowing 
into it, and stories about them were passed from mouth to mouth, 
dreading closely upon facts and suggesting a foundation in knowledge. 
We cannot to-day strip the embellishments from the fundamental facts 
with certainty, but we can come nearer to it than ever before. Among 
these stories one finds place in the "Relation of 1666," J where we are 
told that the " Sioux say that beyond the Karizi the earth is cut oft' and 
there is nothing but a salt lake." 

Father Marquette, at the Mission of the "Outaouacs" in 1669, states 
in his Relation 2 that he was told of a "river at some distance to the 
West of his station, which flowed into the Sea of the West, at the 
mouth of which his informer had seen four canoes under sail." 

Father Dablon, Superior of the same Mission, in his Relation J for 
the same year, gives other details of tlie river and sea, on which he was 
told " there was an ebb and flow of the tide." 

Sagard-Theodat 4 gives some curious details of a tribe " to whom 
each year a certain people having no hair on head or chin, ,»ere wont to 
come by way of the sea in large ships. Their only purpose seemed to 
be that of trafiic. They had tomahawks shaped like the tail of a 
partridge, stockings with shoes attached, which were supple as a glove, 
and many other things which they exchanged for peltries." 

Purehas 5 tells of a " friend in Virginia to whom came rumors even 
there, from Indians to the Northwest, of the arrival on their coast of 
ships ' which he concluded to have come from Japan.' " 

In his history of Carolana, published in 1722, Coxo fi tells us of a yellow 
river called the Massorite, the most northerly branches of which "are 

1 Relation 1666-67, ch. XII., p. 114. 

2 Relation 1669-70, Part III., ch. XL, p. 60. 

3 Id., ch.X., p. 12. 

4 Le grand voyage du pays des Hurons, F. Sagard Th6odat, p. 74, 
Paris, 1632. New ed., Paris, 1865: and also, Histoire du Canada, Sagard 
Theodat, 1636; New ed., Paris, 1866, p. 227. 

6 Purehas his Pilgrimcs, The Third part, London, 1625, p. 849. 
6 Description of Carolana, Daniel Coxe, London, 1722, p. 15. 



American Antiquarian Society. 


interwoven with other branches which have a contrary course, pro- 
ceeding- to the West, and empty themselves into the South Sea. ' The 
Indians affirm they see great ships sailing In that lake, twenty times 
bigger than their canoes." 

An edition of the "delations de la Louisiane " 2 [attributed to Cliev. 
Tonti and by him repudiated], was published at Amsterdam in 1720. 
There is an introductory chapter in this edition from the pen of an 
officer, containing a description of the Missouri, in which the following 
statement occurs: "The savages with whom the banks of this river 
are thickly peopled, assert that it rises in a mountain, from the other side 
of which a torrent forms another great river which flows to the West 
and empties into a great lake which can only be, accepting the truth of 
the statement, the Sea of Japan." 

We have in the foregoing, evidence of the character of information 
on*this subject open to Moncacht-Ap6 as well as to LePage, at the date 
of the Indian's journey. There was no knowledge whatever of the 
Pacific coast or the character of its inhabitants, but there were rumors 
amongst the natives of the River, of the Ocean and even of visits from 
foreigners, whom the French Fathers identified with the Chinese or 

In proceeding to examine the question of motive, Ave must first call 
attention to a curious fact which seems to have been overlooked by 
those who have referred to this story in print. 3 During the time 
that LePage was at Natchez a French officer named Dumont was sta- 
tioned in that vicinity. He met LePage and interchanged notes and 
observations with him. In 1753 he published a book on Louisiana 
which contained a digest of the Moncacht-Ape story, duly credited to 
LePage du Pratz as authority. This story, however, has an entirely 
different ending from the one already quoted, and its peculiarities 
justify its quotation. 4 It is as follows : 

"I will finish what I have to say on Louisiana by some remarks sent 
me by a friend, 5 whom I have cited many times in these memoires, 
concerning the situation of the Sea of the West and the means of 
arriving there by the river Missouri. I shall permit him to speak in this 

" « An Indian,' said he, ' from the Yazoos, called Moncachtabe, whom 
the French call the interpreter because he speaks nearly all the Indian 
languages of North America, was brought to me as I requested. He 
had been described to me as a man remarkable for his long journeys. 
In fact he had made one of three years into Canada, ami another in the 

1 The Pacific. 

2 Relations de la Louisiane, etc., par Chev. Tonti, Amsterdam, 1720. 
3 Except in the contemporaneous publication of Mr. Samuel En gel, 
" Memoires et observations Geographiques," etc. Lausanne, 17G5. 

4 Memoires SUV La Louisiane, composes sur 
Dumont, par M. L. L. M., vol. II., p. 246, etseq., 
3 LePage du Pratz. 

les Memoires de M. 
Paris, 1753. 



The Journey of Moncacld-Ape. 


opposite direction, and to the West-Northwest of America. I received 
him favorably at my house, where he lived some time, and I had the 
leisure to engage him in conversation concerning - his travels. In one of 
these conversations that we had together, see what I learned of the 
journey that he made to the West-Northwest. He ascended the river St. 
Louis [Mississippi] to the Illinois. Thence, having crossed this river 
by swimming or on a raft, he began to travel on the North bank of the 
Missouri river, which Sieur de Bourmont, who ascended it to its source, 
calls eight hundred leagues in length from that point to where it empties 
into the St. Louis [Mississippi]. Following, then, the North bank of 
this river, Moncachtabe arrived at a nation which had been pointed out 
to him as the nearest to those whom he had left, and he made a sojourn 
there, as well to perfect himself in their language, which he knew 
already, as to learn that of the next nation in the direction which he 
wished to take, for in all these nations there is always some one who 
knows how to speak the language of the neighboring natives. He did 
this always in moving from one nation to another, which detained him a 
long time on his journey, which occupied live years. Finally, having 
arrived quite at the source of the Missouri river, pursuing constantly 
the West-Northwest direction, he visited many nations situated upon 
another river quite near to this last, but which had a course directly 
opposite, for he supposes that it hows from East to West into a sea 
whose name as well as that of the river the savage did not know. 
Moncachtabe 1 nevertheless followed it for a long time, taking always the 
same route, but he was not able to reach its mouth, for the last native 
tribe where he was forced to terminate his journey was at war with 
another living between them and the sea. He wished very much to see 
it, but the open war between these nations prevented him. It was 
impossible for him to learn anything about it, because the few slaves 
that this tribe had captured from their enemies were too young to give 
him any information on the subject. Nevertheless, the hope of gaining 
perchance some knowledge in the end, determined him to live for a long 
period with this tribe. He was even desirous of going with his hosts to 
war, and when the winter was come, the season that the Indians choose 
ordinarily for their hunting and military expeditions, he joined the first 
party of this tribe which marched against the enemy. But the expedition 
was not fortunate; not only did they not capture a sing77~slave, they 
even lost some of their own number. Thus it is that these lirst 
expeditions rarely succeed because the enemy are then upon their guard. 
Moncachtabe did not back out. He joined the second party of these 
savages, which returned to the war against this nation, and had more 
good fortune this time than the first. They defeated a party of the 
enemy and took four prisoners, three men and a woman of about thirty- 
two years of age, who, having been taken by our traveller, became in 
consequence his slave. These four prisoners were conducted in triumph 
by these savages to their village, to be there burned with ceremony, 
which was carried out with the three men. As for the woman 
Moneachtab6 'took her to his house, married her and treated her kindly, 
in the hope of drawing from her some light concerning what he wanted 
to know. In fact, after having staunched her tears, this woman had the 
less trouble to reply to the numerous questions put to her by her 
husband and to satisfy his curiosity, because he showed so much friend- 
ship to her, and she knew that he was not a member of the tribe which 
was an enemy of her own. See what she taught him. 

"'The country where we live,' said she, -is only about two days' 
journey from the Great Water [that is to say the Sea]. I went there 
about four years ago with many men and women from our village, to 
fish for those large shell fish which serve to make our ear-rings and 


338 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

those large plaques which men wear at their breasts. While we were 
engaged in gathering them, there appeared upon the great water a large 
pirogue in which two or three trunks of trees were on end, from which 
hung something attached high up which was inflated. [One under- 
stands that this bad description can only mean a vessel with her sails]. 
Behind this great vessel.' continued she, 'we saw a smaller one. [It 
was a barge]. This vessel entered a large and beautiful river where 
they took in water, which they carried as well as wood to the large 
vessel. Those who were in the smaller vessel saw us, and it appeared 
that we mutually feared each other. For ourselves we retired under 
cover of a wood upon a height where it was easy for us to see them 
without being perceived ourselves. They were five clays taking in wood 
and water, after which they all returned into the large vessel, without 
our being able to understand how they could raise the smaller vessel 
into the large one, because we were so far off. After that, having made 
to inflate that which was suspended high up in the great vessel, they 
were borne far oft' and disappeared from our sight as if they had entered 
**into the water. As Ave had time during these live days that they were 
near us to examine them,' added this woman, ' we remarked . that these 
men were smaller than ours ; having a white skin; hair upon the chin, 
black and white ; no hair but something round upon the head ; they bore 
upon their shoulders garments which covered their bodies, upon the 
arms being passed through them, and these descended just to the calf of 
the leg. They had also leggings and shoes different from ours. What- 
ever we could do we were never able to count over seven in the small 
boat with a small boy, without any woman.' ' Such is in substance,' 
added my friend, ' the reply that the wife of Moncachtape made to the 
questions of her husband,' and upon this recital I was very much 
tempted to believe that this Great Water, of which she speaks, might 
very well be the Sea of the West which Ave have sought for so long a 

We have here an account which is relieved from much that is calcu- 
lated to tax the credulity of the reader of to-day. We are not called 
upon to explain an annual visitation. We have no firearms and no 
powder with its large and small grains. The northwest coast, the Alas- 
kan Peninsula and Behring's Straits are left out of this account. Who 
is responsible for the change? Lepage's History was published in 175ti. 
Dumont's " Memoires sur la Louisiane" came out in 1753. Prior to the 
publication of Dumont's work, LePage had contributed to the Journal 
(Economique a series of articles which he terms in his preface an abridg- 
ment of his history. In Dumont's book there is abundant evidence of 
jealousy and hard feeling towards LePage. He alludes repeatedly to the 
articles in the Journal (Economique and accuses the 1 writer of borrow- 
ing his manuscript and appropriating his work. While repeatedly speak- 
ing of him as a friend, he charges him with blunders, inaccuracies and 
falsehood. 2 "His friend" had apparently furnished Dumont with 
the information he had gathered upon the subjects in which he was 
interested. These quotations were inserted In the Memoires with due 
acknowledgment only fur the purpose, we should judge, of being 
.attacked with argument or ridiculed with satire. We have no other 

'Dumont's Memoires, vol. I, p. 113, and note. 
2 jd., vol. III., p. 269. 


Tit c Journey of Moncachi-^ipe. 


clue to Dumonfs identity than what is furnished in the book itself. 
His Memoires were edited by M. L. L. M., said to have been L'Abbfi 
LeMascrier. They have been erroneously attributed by some to Butel 
Dumont, 1 a French lawyer and author born in 1725. As the author of 
these Memoires was in Louisiana in 1721, 2 it is of course out of the 
question that Butel Dumont could have written the book. The charge 
against LePage of plagiarism, which is made in this book, has been 
accepted by many as true, owing to the similarity of the contents of the 
two books, but a careful examination of them may prove that injustice 
has been done LePage du Pratz. His fantastic theories may invite 
attack, and he may record stories repeated to him by others which seem 
incredible, but when he confines himself to the description of what he 
himself saw, there is seldom room for criticism. On the other hand, 
when Dumont tells us that he saw a rattlesnake 3 twenty-two feet in 
Tength, and a frog 4 which weighed thirty-two pounds, we may well ask 
if it w T as in the region that we know as the Louisiana of that time. 

About the same time that these books were published, a great war was 
going on among the cartographers, a review of which, although it may 
not enable us to reach an exact conclusion, Will aid us in comprehending 
the relations of these two men and the extent to which partisan feelings 
might have been aroused in such a contest. 

Joseph Nicolas De Lisle in 1752, and Philippe Buache in 1753, pre- 
sented to the French Academy of Science, Memoires 5 accompanied by 
charts, the object of which was to reconcile the fabulous voyages of 
Admiral Fonte ; Maldonado's mythical straits of A man ; the unknown Sea 
of the West, which occupied the whole or any part of the interior of 
our continent to suit the geographer's taste; and the alleged river of the 
West which was dotted in to suit the fancy of the engraver, with the 
then recent discovery of our coast by Behring. The Freneh_cartogra- 
phers clung to Fonte and Maldonado with a pertinacity worthy of a 
better cause. Writers in Russia, Germany and England took up the 
fight, and articles were published in the scientific works of the day and 
in tracts specially devoted to the subject, in which these charts were 
ridiculed and unworthy motives were attributed to the geographers. 
"But within this century," says one of these tracts, 6 "the French 

'Nouvelle Biographie Generate, see Butel-Dumont. 

a Dumont's Memoires, Preface and v. II., p. <J l J. 

3 Id., vol. I., p. 109. 

4 Id., vol. II., p. 2G7. 

'DeLisle's Explication de la carte des Nouvelles decouvertes, etc., 
Paris, 1752. Buache's Considerations Geographiques, etc., Paris, 1753. 
I desire to acknowledge the assistance of Mr. Justin Winsor in 
looking up the cartography of the Sea of the West, lie called my 
attention to these Memoires for which nay thanks are especially due. 

6 Remarks in Support of the New Chart of North and South America. 
By T. Green, Esq., London, 1753, p. 22. 


340 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

geographers have wholly omitted New Albion, and converted Port Sir 
Francis Drake into Port San Francisco, dishonoring the name of the 
knight and changing it into one of their spurious saints." Our two his- 
torians, who were then at work upon their books, were necessarily 
affected by this contest. To take sides with his countrymen would have 
cost LePage du Pratz his faith in Moncacht-Ape. To him the tale of 
the Indian, crossing the country in .search of the home of his ancestors, 
was more in sympathy than were the wild conjectures about the sen in 
the heart of the continent. It must be borne in mind that the measure of 
the breadth of our continent from ocean to ocean had only been taken at 
Mexico. Every league that the explorers on the Missouri added to its 
width was a surprise. California 1 was an island on many charts for nearly 
two hundred years after an expedition sent out by Cortez had settled the 
,? fact that it was a peninsula. If the island theory had to be abandoned, 
then the next way to narrow the distance from shore to shore was by 

! means of an inland sea. Fuca's inlet and Aguilar's alleged river were 

accepted as entrances to this theoretical sea. The tales of the Indians 
were believed to prove its existence. The most incredible thing to the 
French geographer of that day— the thing which he was least prepared 
to ajtlmit — was the broad stretch of land from Nova Scotia to Oregon. 
La. Hontan, in 1705, published in his book a copy of an Indian map 
drawn on deer's skin, showing the Rocky Mountains and a river heading 
about where the Columbia heads and flowing indefinitely West. This 
chart is recognized by LePage' 2 in the map which accompanied his 
history. Such a river might, perhaps, have been permitted to How into 
the " Sea of the West," as the distance from its source to its mouth 
was absolutely an unknown quantity, but LePage was aware and admits 
the fact, 3 that belief in Moncaeht-Ape's tale involved giving up this 
favorite speculation of the French geographers. lie th"« was com- 
pelled to take the opposite side in this controversy from that maintained 
by the " Premier Geographer of the King of France, and one of the 
most eminent Astronomers of the Academy of Science." 4 

1 Remarks in Support of the New Chart of North and South America. 
By T. Green, Esq., London, 1753, p. 22. 

2 LePage du Pratz. Histoire de la Louisiane, Vol. III., pp. 13a, 13 ( J, 
note. La Hontan's chart is there alluded to with the statement that this 
river must have been the one which Moncacht-Ape descended to the 
11 Sea of the South or Pacific. " 

3 Histoire de la Louisiane, Vol. III., p. 138. Speaking of the Sea of 
the West of the cartographers, he says, "For my part I am strongly 
impelled to believe that it exists only in imagination." Same, p. 137: 
"I can not persuade myself otherwise than that he travelled upon the 
shores of the Sea of the South, of which the northern part may be called 
if you wish, the Sea of the West. Same, p. 13'J : " This beautiful river 
falls into the sea, at the west, . . . which by this account indicates only 
the Sea of the South or Pacific Ocean." 

* Remarks in Support of the New Chart of North and South America. 
By T. Green, Esq., London, 1753, p. 46. 

1883.] The Journey of Moncacfd-Ape. 341 

Dumont ranged himself with his countrymen. lie had written to 
Buache 1 a letter in which he expressed opinions on the subject similar 
to those which may be found in his book. His opinion is also plainly 
shown in the following extract, taken from his book, which immediately 
follows the Indian's story :'-' "Whatever one may think of this narra- 
tive of Sieur LePage, which some perhaps will look upon less as a 
reality than as a bad copy of Robinson, it cannot possibly suffice to give 
more light to our geographers concerning the true position of the Sea 
of the West and the route to take to arrive there through North 
America. To make this more certain it is necessary to consult the new 
chart of North America recently made by Messrs. De Lisle and Buache." 
A change had come over the spirit of his dream since writing in his 
preface: "his (LePage's) reflections seem just; amongst oth'ers, those 
where he points out to us a route to find the Sea of the West by the 
river Missouri, based upon a description made to him by a Yazoo 
Indian known to the author." 

We find no trace of a controversial spirit in LePage's book, J and 
yet we may rest assured that the influences which cost Dumont his 
belief in Moncacht-Ape's story would only fan the fires of faith with one 
of LePage's enthusiastic temperament. 

Although Dumont claims in his preface to have known the Yazoo 
Indian, still he credits the story, as we have seen, to LePage, and there 
is enough of identity to assure the common origin of the two versions. 
Their differences, however, are so radical that they cannot be explained 
as the ordinary changes to which such stories are subject in passing 
from person to person. The ill-will that Dumont entertained toward 
LePage might perhaps have furnished an adequate motive for him to 
have altered or suppressed the story; but, in addition to the fact that 
Dumont's version is much the more credible of the two,_it must be 
borne in mind that LePage had recently published a series 01 articles in 
the Journal (Eeouomique and it is presumable that he was on the spot, 
or where he could see Dumont's book when it should come out, and 
would therefore notice any changes in statements attributed to himself 
as authority. With LePage on the spot and with the pages of a period- 
ical at his command, Dumont might venture to prod him with satire and 
comments, but would scarcely have dared to falsify him. It seems 
incredible that LePage should not have seen Dumont's book, but if he 
did so his failure to notice in his own work the references to himself 
with which Dumont's pages bristle, remains a mystery to puzzle us still. 

Considerations Geographiques, etc., par Philippe Buache. Paris 
1753, p. 36. 

2 Dumont's Memoires sur la Louisiaue, Paris, 1753, p. 246, et seq. 

3 Unless the following extract from the preface, referring to certain 
other Relations, may be considered as alluding to some individual, 
perhaps Dumont: "It is then absolutely necessary to destroy these 
false opinions occasioned by these untrue accounts, often full of malig- 
nity and nearly always of ignorance." 


342 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

The review of this partisan controversy and the proof of its close 
connection with the Moneacht-Ape story has enabled us to see some of 
the sources of information which would inevitably have attracted the 
observation of a geographer during the interim between Moncacht-Ape's 
telling his story and LePage's publication of his history. That Lepage's 
attention was attracted to the controversy of the cartographers we 
know, 1 because he tells us that the French charts show the possibility 
of the connection of the land at the North-west of America and the 
North-east of Asia, as suggested by the Indian. But these were not the 
only sources of information open to LePage in 1758 which have not been 
included in our review of the knowledge which he might have obtained 
at the date of the Indian's story. During the sixteen years which had 
passed between the return to Siberia of the Behriug's Expedition in 
1742* and the time of LePage's going to press, more or less of the 
information gathered by that expedition had been furnished to the public. 
The war of the geographers as to the authenticity of the Fout^ and 
Maldonado forgeries necessarily attracted great attention to the reports 
of the men who accompanied Behring. Buache J in his Memoire to the 
Academy seeks to identify their land-falls with the Fou-Saug of the 
Chinese. Among other things recorded by the naturalists who accom- 
panied the expedition, and published by Midler* in 1756, we find the 
facts that the coast Indians were in the habit of eating seals, and were 
observed to eat roots which they had dug out of the ground. It will 
thus be seen that information upon these two points had been in posses- 
sion of European naturalists for at least fifteen years. It would not 
have been remarkable if during that time it had come to the ears of a 
man of LePage's 5 tastes, but on the other hand there had been no such 
publication of it as to justify us in saying that he must have seen it. 

The knowledge of the coast-line discovered by Behring must have 
been brought to las attention by DeLisle and by Buache^ charts, and as 
he was not hampered by the necessity of reconciling the actual discover- 
ies with the hypothetical maps based upon the alleged voyages of Fonte 
and Maldonado, he would naturally have constructed a coast line which 
would approximate the real one. If the coast line of Siberia, explored 

1 LePage du Pratz, " Histoire de la Louisiaue," Paris, 1758, vol. III., 
p. 136. 

-Midler returned to St. Petersburg Feb. 15, 17-43. See Midler's 
Voyages Asia to America, Jeiierys' translation, p. 107. 

3 Considerations Geographiques, etc., P. Buache, Paris, 1753, p. 47. 

4 See Jeiierys' translation of Midler's Voyages, Asia to America, 
1764, p. 90. 

5 That he was in such close contact with the savants of the period 
as to justify this belief, would appear from the fact that he says in his 
Preface, that he was urged by " the savants to reproduce his ethno- 
logical papers for the Journal CEconomique in book form." 



The Journey of Moncackt-ApS. 


by ftehr'ihg in 172.S ; the strange coast opposite reached by Gwosdew^the 
navigator, in 173.0; the points on the American coast reached by Buhring 

in 1741, and the general trend of the known coast below be 'plotted on a 
chart, the existence of the strait through which Ben ring twice sailed 
without seeing America will be interred without hesitation. The Rus- 
sians accepted this inference, and published a chart which was repro- 
duced by Jellerys in 1704. This chart closely resembles the maps of 
to-day, and Moncacht-Apc's description may fairly be applied to it. 2 

Up to this point we have sought to analyze the sources of knowledge 
of the historian so as to know what weight the argument of coincidences 
was entitled to, and also to discover if there was aught in the story or 
in its relation to the controversies of the clay to imperil the judgment of 
its writer. It remains for us to ask, what about the bearded men who 
m came habitually to the coast with such regularity that their arrival could 
be predicted within a few days; whose purpose was simply to get a 
cargo of dye-wood ami who had no expectation of traffic on these annual 
visits? If we admit this part of the story to be true we shall have no 
difficulty in accepting the learned argument of M. de Quatrefages to 
prove that the foreigners came from Lieou-Tchou or the Eastern Isles of 
Japan, but if we submit the tale to a careful scrutiny, it is not an easy 
one to believe. There is no sufficient evidence to justify the belief that 
the Japanese habitually made such venturesome voyages. We have 
both record and tradition of the arrival of Japanese vessels on our 
coast, 3 but they have always plainly been unwilling visitors. Even if 
the theory that the Chinese found their way from coast to island and 
from island to coast, until they reached the so-called land of Fou Sang 4 
should be accepted, there is no evidence of habitual visitations. There 
is no known wood upon our coast of particular value as a dye-wood, 
and there is no part of the North Pacific coast where thciaixtertninatiou 
of a particular species of tree would leave the inhabitants without wood. 
The collection of a cargo of dye-wood in a country which has no valuable 
woods for that purpose, is not a sufficient reason for an annual visit, 
and if, correcting the story to make it more probable, we admit that the 
vessels came for purposes of trade as indicated in the Indian legends, 
then we must insist upon finding traces of that trade along the coast. 
A careful examination of the authorities does not disclose in the hands 

1 Voyages from Asia to America, Miiller translated by Jellerys, Lon- 
don, 1764, p. 55. Green's " Remarks in support of the New Chart," Lon- 
don, 1753, p. 25. 

-Indeed this is just what LePage himself says of it, vol. III., 136: 
"The passage of the Russians from Asia to America where they landed, 
proves to us that the coast may run in a line conformable to Moncacht- 
Ape's story." 

3 Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society, April 23, 1872. 
Paper on the likelihood of an admixture of Japanese blood on our North- 
West Const, by Horace Davis. 

^'Considerations Geographiques," etc., P. Buache, Paris, 1753, p. 11. 



344 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

of the Iudians evidence sufficient to prove the existence of such a trade. 
Bodega 1 in 1775, at Port Trinidad, found some iron among the Indians, 
but the chronicler of the expedition reports that what they chiefly valued 
in traffic " Was iron and particularly knives or hoops of old barrels." 
Cook 2 found iron and brass among the Indians. Their tomahawks were 
made of stone. Their arrows were generally pointed with bone. They 
had chisels and knives of iron; the latter shaped like pruning-knives 
with the edge on the back. He also met one Indian who had two silver 
spoons, apparently of Spanish manufacture. And yet he says: 3 "We 
never observed the least signs of their having seen ships before, nor of 
their having traded with such people. Many circumstances seem to 
prove this almost beyond a doubt." 

In addition to the foregoing evidences of some sort of traffic with 
outsiders on the part of the Indians on the Northwest coast, Greenhow 4 
cites Friar Penas's journal of a voyage of Juan Perez, and also quotes 
from the narrative of the expedition of Bearing, 5 both of which expedi- 
tions, he says, found knives and artieles of iron in the hands of the 
natives. But he concludes each account with the statement that they 
appeared never before to have held any intercourse with civilized people. 
The uniform testimony of the early voyagers to the existence of metallic 
ornaments and knives in the hands of the Indians, which had apparently 
been introduced from outside sources, can leave but little doubt of the 
fact. The negative testimony of Vancouver as to the Indians at 
Trinidad, whom Bodega had found with both iron and copper, but who 
in 1793 had neither, must be accepted as proof only that the supply of 
these Indians was not constant, and that the amount owned by them 
must have been small. The unfamiliarity of the Indians with vessels 
and the irregularities of the stock of these metals, especially when taken 
in connection with the silver spoons, would point to some inland source 
of supply. 

The first glance at the Japanese chart brought to Europe by Kaempfer, 
a copy of which is given in the DeLisle and Buache Memoires, showing 
as it does a familiarity with our coast at least as great as that shown in 
the original charts of these cartographers, would suggest that this was 
in itself a strong argument in favor of the annual visits of the Japanese 
vessels to this part of the world. The trouble with the chart, however, 
for this purpose is that it shows too much. The accuracy of the outlines 
of the Gulf of California and of the Gulf of Mexico could not have come 
from Japanese sources. The same authority that contributed these out- 

1 Miscellanies of Daines Barriugton, London, 1775, pp. 488, 48 l J. 

2 Cook's Voyages, Loudou, 17S4, pp. 207, 271, 27<J, 2s2, 311, 327, 330. 
Md., 1781, p. 331. 

4 Greenhow's Oregon, Boston 1844, p. 11G. 

6 Id., 1844, p. 132. 

6 Vancouver, London, 1708, v. II., 243. 


The Journey of Moiicacht-Api. 


lines may Lave furnished, and probably did furnish, the knowledge and 
conjectures on which the line of our Northwest coast was assumed in 
this chart. 

So far as the gnus and the details with reference to the powder are 
concerned, the curious statements of Moncacht-Ape may at some future 
day, when we shall know more about the history of the Japanese and 
Chinese, have a greater value than they possess at present, as factors in 
unravelling this complicated question. All that we can now say is that 
we do not know enough about the weapons or the powder of these 
people, to make any use of the statements in our attempts to get at the 
facts of the story. Moncacht-Ape' not only anticipated the knowledge of 
his own day, but also, as yet, of ours, for we have not learned enough 
about the matter to say whether he told the truth. 

One word as to the route of the Indian, and we shall be prepared to 
draw our conclusions from this protracted discussion, having in our 
review touched upon the various points which we started to examine. 
Moncacht-Ape speciJies that he kept up the North bank of the Missouri 
Now if he continued on the North bank of the river to its source, his 
description of the way to reach the head-waters of the Columbia and of 
the general direction of that river from that point is irreconcilable with 
what we know of its course. On the other hand, if he went up the 
North Platte, which would agree with the general courses he gave, we 
should expect some record in the narrative, of his crossing the main 
river and taking up the tributary, for he spent the winter in the vicinity 
of the 1 mouth of the Platte, and there could be no doubt that the Indians 
knew which was the main stream. Further he is particular in mentioning 
where he crossed the Ohio and the Mississippi rivers, which favors the 
conclusion that his course was, as he intimates, constantly on the North 
bank, 1 even at the expense of making his account a little foggy. We 
have seen that the story of the journey was not only a lu^ssibility, but 
we have occasional records ol* men whose habits of mind and body lead 
them to these solitary expeditions. It does not require that we should 
accept, nor need we reject the alleged motives of the expedition, but we 
may concede the probability that the outline of the tale came from the 
Indian's mouth. Dumont, who tells us that he knew him, had been 
stationed among the Yazoos- as well as at Natchez, and in his contempt 
for Le Page's speculations he would have been glad to denounce the story 
in more direct terms if he had not believed that there was some truth at 
its foundation. 3 

1 It is but just to allude here to the fact that Charlevoix says, a few 
years after the savage's journey, "All these natives of whom I have 
been speaking (The Missouris and Gauzes were included) dwell upon 
the Western bank of the Missouri." Journal of a voyage to North 
America. Translated from the French of P. de Charlevoix, Vol. 11., 
London, 1701, p. 224. 

2 Duiiionl's Meinoires, &c, Paris, 1753, v. II., p. 69. 

3 This argument was anticipated by Mr. Samuel Engel, who says, ." M. 
Dumont who has given another relation of Louisiana, in which he, or at 



L hnerlcan Antiquarian Society. 


The isolation of a life at, Natchez kept Lepage's active brain at work 
upon the facts that he had accumulated concerning the migrations of the 
Indians and their forms of government, lie framed theories and then 
propounded leading interrogatories which were better calculated, per- 
haps, than he thought to bring forth the answers that he wanted. The 
running commentaries by Dumout in his Memoires call attention to this 
weakness on the pari of LePage, and the conclusion is irresistible that 
lie colored the statements of the Indians, or tjie Ludians cheerfully 
adapted their answers to his needs. 

The argument of coincidence between what was stated by Moncacht- 
Ape concerning this unknown region and subsequent discoveries is very 
properly claimed by M. de Quatrefages as of great value. But if its 
application should show that there is no error of statement so long as 
the narrative deals with regions that were thoroughly explored; that it 
introduces statements concerning which we are incredulous or doubtful 
only when it arrives at a region about which nothing was then known; 
and that in some of the more fanciful portions of the tale we think that 
we can trace the reproduction of legends already familiar to us from the 
Relations ; if these are the coincidences that our examination establishes, 
then our conclusion will be that the personality of LePage has materially 
affected the value of the story. To show that this is really so, it hardly 
needs that we should point to the wonderful truthfulness of the story so 
long as it is confined to the East and to the lower Missouri; to the ac- 
curacy with which the course of that river is given where it had been 
explored; to the fact that our first conflict with modern explorations 
comes at the point where the traveller treads on entirely new ground; 
to the strong family resemblance between the bearded men with their 
strange clothing, and Sagard Thcodat's smooth-faced men with their 
leggings and shoes; to the extraordinary differences between the two 
endings, in which many of the additional materials found in the later 
publication correspond closely with new facts brought to the notice of 
European scientists by the Bearing's Expedition. 

As to the curious details concerning the guns and the powder, the 
only place to which we can look for their corroboration is the < )rient. 
Should research fail to discover the use of similar weapons and materials 
there, it would stamp this part of the story as a fiction. 

In examining the question of motive and responsibility we have 
learned enough of the cartographic controversy to see that not alone 
DeLisle and Buaehe on the one side and Green and Jefferys on the 
other, but that men from all parts of Europe drifted into that discussion. 

least his editor, is often of a contrary opinion to M. LePage, far from 
contradicting'this journey of Moncacht-Ape gives an extract from it in 
his work. Now M. Dumout has, they say, lived twenty-two years in 
this country. He would not have lost the opportunity to contradict M. 
LePage, if he had recounted a fable." 

" Memoires et Observations Geographiques, etc. Par M. * * * 
[Samuel Engcl] Lausanne, 1705, p. 108. 

1883.] The Jour net/ of Moncacht-Api. Ml 

We have seen that LePage and Dumont espoused opposite Bides, and 
while we could not discover in the history signs of had temper, we 
have found the menioires bristling with ill will. Thus we have been 
able to show a motive for misrepresentation, and if we hud concluded 
that the Dmnont ending was a forgery, we should have had little doubt 
that the rancor that he showed was a sullicieut explanation of it. The 
presence of the two men in France 1 at the time of the publication of 
the memoires, and Dumoufs bold charge of the authorship of the story 
on LePage has served to lix the responsibility fur the two endings upon 
him. The fact that notwithstanding the ill-will that we have traced to 
Dumont, his version of the story is tbe more credible of the two adds 
emphasis to the conviction. 

Finally, we fancy that we may be able to account, even for the 
change from the smooth-faced men of Sagard Theodat to the bearded 
men of the story by showing that such bearded men were alluded" 
to in the publications of the period. 

Spangberg 2 in 1731) saw on the northern isles of Japan, men of small 
Stature " with pretty long hair all oxer their bodies, and the men of 
middle age had black, while the old men had grey beards." Ellis, 3 in 
1718, says, describing the most recent voyage to Hudson's Bay in 
search of a northwest passage: "The southern Indians constantly 
affirm that a great ocean lies but a small distance from their country 
towards the Sun's setting, in which they have seen ships, and on board 
them men having large beards and wearing caps." 

Buache 4 tells us that he had a letter written March 15, 1710, by M. 
Bobe Lazariste de Versailles, in which the statement is made that " in 
the land of the Sioux, at the head of the Mississippi there are always 
French traders; thai they know that near the source of the river can be 
found in the high lauds a river which leads to the Sea of the West ; 
that the savages say that they have seen bearded men who have caps, 
and who collect gold dust on the edge of the Sea. 5 But it is a very long 
distance from their country, and they must pass through many tribes 
unknown to the French." 

1 Dumout's presence at this time may be inferred from the language 
of his preface. LePage returned in 1734. He published some of his 
articles in the Journal (Econoinique in 1751. At least Midler quotes 
from one of them in the September number of that year. 

-Melferys' Translation, Miiller's Voyages Asia to America, London, 
1764, p. 72. 

3 Fllis's Voyage to Hudson Bay, London, 1748, p. 304. 

4 Buache, Considerations Geographiques, Paris, 1753, p. ^8. 

6 This belief in the bearded men ami also in the gold-bearing sands of 
the beaches of the Pacific iinds occasional expression among these 
Hudson's Bay savages. In the Recueil cl'Arrests, Amsterdam, 1720, 
there is a Relation by M. Jeremie, entitled " Relation de la Baie de 
Hudson," in which occurs this passage. "The savages say that after 
having travelled many months to the West-Southwest, they found the 

348 American Antiquarian Society. [April,. 

We come then practically to the conclusion that there is nothing in 
the story to tax our credulity if we are not called upon to believe in the 
annual visits of the bearded men and the various doubtful incidents 
which their presence involves. We have not been able to trace to the 
historian a knowledge, or a possibility of knowledge of all the details of 
the Indian's story which subsequent discovery has verified, and this 
adds to the probability that the journey was actually accomplished, and 
the story of it related to Le Page clu l'ratz. We are not, however, able 
to relieve him from responsibility for the double endings, and although 
the general tone and character of his work justify the high esteem in 
which Mr. Stuart 1 held it, we are nevertheless forced to the unwilling 
conclusion that the original story of the savage suffered changes at his 

In conclusion we express the hope that the students who may here- 
after have access to Oriental records, will bear in mind, that proof 
ought there to be found, if proof there be, of the habitual presence on 
our shores, at that period, of the bearded men, — a presence which we 
have seen indicated in tradition and story, but for which as yet we have 
found no other authority than the helpless wrecks which have been 
borne upon our coast by the Japanese current. 

sea, on which they saw large canoes [these are ships] with men who 
had beards and caps, who collect gold upon the edge of the sea [that is 
to say at the mouth of the rivers]." — p. 12. On the 26 Ul page of the 
same Relation there is another allusion to bearded men who build stone 
forts, &c. 

1 Transactions of the Quebec Literary and Historical Society of 
Quebec, Quebec, lb2 ( J, vol. I., p. 198. 



1883.] Iron from the Ohio Mounds. 349 




By F. W. Putnam. 

The interesting discovery of masses of meteoric iron, and several 
ornaments made of it, among the objects obtained from two altar 
mounds in the Little JVIiami valley during the past year, caused me to 
review the statements which have been made in relation to thedis-- 
covery of iron in the Ohio mounds. It has been generally accepted as 
facts that an iron or steel sword was found by Dr. Hildreth in a mound 
at Marietta, and that an iron blade and a plate of cast iron were found 
by Mr. Atwater in a mound at Circleville, and these supposed facts have 
been used in four different ways : 

First) as showing that the people who built the mounds had acquired 
the knowledge of manufacturing implements from iron, and hence were 
far in advance of the Indian tribes who afterwards occupied the coun- 
try; or 

Secondly, that the ancient mound-builders had occasional intercourse 
with nations farther advanced in the arts than themselves. 

Thirdly, as proving beyond question the recent origin of the mounds : 
since the iron or steel weapons must have been obtained from the 
whites, and therefore the mounds were erected after contact of the 
Indians with the Europeans; or 

Fourthly, that, while the mounds themselves were very ancient, the 
iron was introduced in recent times in connection with intrusive burials. 

If we examine the original statements from which these deductions 
have been drawn, we shall lind the premises do not warrant any of these 
conclusions, from the fact that the evidence does not show that either 
steel, or wrought or cast iron were found. 

While the belief in the great antiquity of the Ohio mounds is not dis- 
turbed by these former misconceptions, it is not necessary for us to 
assume that they were made by a people differing in blood from some of 
the more recent tribes of the Short-headed American Mongoloids, some 
of whom may still exist in more or less purity among the present 
Indians; nor are we at all brought in conflict with the unquestionable 


350 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

fact that some of the Indian tribes down to very recent times erected 
mounds over their dead. 1 

The reference to iron in the mound at Circleville, by Mr. Atwater,* 
would not be worthy of consideration, were it not for the widespread 
belief that he found a steel sword and a piece of cast iron. He simply 
found a piece of antler, in one end of which a hole had been bored and 
around this part was a band of silver. This he called " the handle of 
either a small sword or a large knife," ami he distinctly states that " no 
iron was found, but an oxyde remained of similar shape and size." 
This is evidently purely a case of imagination and misconception 
Similar pieces cut from antler have since proved to be common and 
are generally believed to be handles J for small drills and knives made 
of stone or copper. "The oxyde of similar shape and size" to the 
blade of a sword or a knife, could be readily accounted for by one 
familiar with the traces of oxidized copper, iron-colored clay, and 
tract's of oxide of iron, which are often met with in mound explora- 

The other reference, on the same page, is as follows : — "A plate of 
iron, which had become an oxyde; but before it was disturbed by the 
•spade, resembled a plate of cast iron." In these days when only the 
most careful and critical work is of any value, something more definite 
than this statement is required before it can be claimed that cast iron 
has been found in the Ohio mounds. 4 

Fortunately, most of the interesting objects found in June, 1819, in 
a mound at Marietta, Ohio, by Dr. S. P. llildreth, were presented to 
the Antiquarian Society by Dr. llildreth, and, through the kindness of 
the officers of the Society, I have had recently the opportunity of 
studying them. As these specimens have become of the lirst import- 
ance in American Archaeology, ami as they were not correctly figured 
in the original account.'' I have thought it of sufficient importance to 
refer to them in detail and to figure them in this connection. 

The account of these interesting specimens was written by Dr. S. P. 
llildreth, and published in a Marietta paper of duly, 1819. This was 

1 See ICth Report of Peabody Museum for an account of the burial 
of Big Elk, an Omaha chief, as one instance. 

- Arclncologia Americana. Vol. J., p. 178. 1820. 

J One has been found with a small stone knife still in the perforated} 
end, and others with small awl-like points of copper inserted. 

4 Mr. Atwater states that the mound in which these objects were 
found was removed several years before his account was wi ilten, and 
we do not know how much of the published statement was given from 

6 The three figures given by Squier in his account of the articles, in 
the appendix to his "Aboriginal Monuments of New York," p. 187 
(18PJ), Smith. Contrib., Vol. 11., are also very inaccurate representa- 
tions of the silver objects. 



Iron from the Ohio Mounds. 


reprinted in Mr. Atwater's ''Description of the Antiquities discovered 

in the State of Ohio and other Western States." ' 

Fig. 1. The mound in which 

these objects were found 
was in one of the "streets 
of Marietta, on the mar- 
gin of the plain, near the 
fort iiicat ion. * * * * 
The}' appear to have been 
uried with the body of 
the person to whose 
memory this mound was 
erected. * * * * The 
body of the person here 
buried, was laid on the 
surface of the earth, 
with his face' upwards. 
* * * * * From the 
appearance of several 
pieces of charcoal, and 
Outer silver-covered surface of Ear-ornament ,)il * of partially burnt 
from the Marietta Mound, fossil coal, and the black 

color of the earth, it would seem that the funeral obsequies had been 

celebrated by tire; 

and while the ashes 

were yet hot and 

smoking, a circle oi' 

thin flat stones had 

been laid around and 

over the body. The 

circular covering is i 

about eight feet in (4 

diameter. * * * * 

This circle of stones' 

seems to have been 

the nucleus on which 

the mound was form- 
ed, as immediately 

over them is heaped ^t, - 

the common earth of 

the adjacent plain, 

composed of a clavey I mier surface of lit?. 1. a, cihre of silver turned ove 

sand and coarse -rav- from outer surface, h, circular plate of copper 
upon winch silver i- laid. c. inner plate ■>! 

el. This mound must i-upju-r. rf. fibre around central uxK 

Arclneologia Americana, Vol. 1., p 108. 1820, 


mevican Antiquarian Society. 


originally have been about ten feet high, and thirty feet in diameter at 
its base. ***** + **{£ has every appearance of being as 
old as any in the neighborhood, and was, at the fust settlement of 
Marietta covered with large trees *****.» 

•' Lying immediately over, or on the forehead of the body, wen; found 
three large circular bosses, or ornaments for a sword belt, or a buckler : 
they are composed of copper, overlaid with a thick plate of silver. [See 
fig. 1.] * * * * * 1 wo of these are^yet entire; the third one is so 
much wasted that it dropped in pieces on removing it from the earth. 
Arouud the rivet of one of them [See tig 2.] is a small quantity of flax 
or hemp, in a tolerable state of preservation." 

One of these silver plated 
" bosses," figs. 1, 2, and also 
portions of another, with- 
out the silver plating, pro- 
bably of the one described 
as -'so much wasted that it 
dropped in pieces," iigs. 3, 
f, are in the Society's cab- 
inet and are here repre- 
sented of full size. They 
are of the same character 
as the copper ornaments 
from a mound in Tennessee, 
and described in the Fif- 
teenth Keport of the Pea- 
body Museum, p. 101). The 
illustrations there given are 
here reproduced for com- 
Inner surface of portion of copper-plate, once p;ll .j soni fl<. s . 5, 6, 7, natural 
part of an Ear-ornament, from the Marietta l „ , 

Mound, size. Similar articles have 

been found in other mounds and have Fit*. 

been described by several authors, 
but their character has heretofore 
not been determined. 

In the chapter on antiquities, p. 
205. of Drake's Picture of Cincinnati, 
published in 1815, there is an account 
of the contents of a mound which 
formerly stood at the intersection 
of Third and Main streets in Cincin- 
nati. A portion of the many inter- 
esting' objects taken from this mound 
were described and ligured in the 
fourth volume of the Transactions 
of the American Philosophical So- - 1 'JulrittiVheil to 
ciety (1700), by Col. Winthrop plate rupresei 

ilbv tijr.a. 


Iron from the Ohio Mound*. 


Fig. 5. Sargent of Cincinnati, under 

date of September8, IT.H. Mr. 
Drake, after referrlii" to these 

objects, states that he after- 
wards found a number of other 
things in the same mound, 
which he describes, and among 
tl?em " Several copper articles, 
each consisting of two sets of 
circular concavo-convex plates ; 
the interior one of each set 
connected with the other by a 
hollow axis, around which had 
been wound a quantity of lint" 
(p. 207). He also states that 
several other articles 1'esem- 

"'iL^;;;:T ] ^^^T :r «** »•<*« *>•»« *•* **- >■» 

Franklin, Tenu. other parts of the town, and 

that " they all appear to consist of pure copper, covered with a green 
carbonate of that metal." So far as I am aware, this is the first account 
of objects of this character, and Dr. Mild ruth's, four years afterwards, 
is the second. 

Of late years the name of 
"spool-shaped objects" has 
been given to these copper 
ornaments, and at the time I 
wrote the description of those 
from Tennessee I retained the 
name for them, while stating 
that if they had come from 
Mexico or Peru I should have 
little hesitation in regarding 
them as ear-ornaments. At 
that time I had never seen any 
representation, in pottery or 
stone, of a human figure from 
the mounds or graves in the 
United States, with stud-like 
ear ornaments, similar to those 
so commonly represented in 
the pottery figures of men from 
Mexico and Peru. In the many human figures from the United States, 
in the Peabody Museum, on the contrary, the ears were represented as 
pierced by small holes as if for the suspension of earrings. 

The important discoveries made during the last year in mounds in 
Ohio by Dr. C. L. Metz and myself have brought to light a large number 
of these interesting copper ornaments, some of which are covered, or 

Inner surface of lower half of 11 Copper Far- 
ornament (tig. 5 represents the other 
half), showing the fibre wound 
around the central portion. 
From .Mound in Franklin, 



American Antiquarian Society. 


A second Copper Ear-ornament, showing fibrt 

and strip of buck-kin wound and tied about 

tin' centra] portion. From Mound in 

Franklin, Turn. 

plated, with thin layers of silver, like those found by Dr. Hildreth, 

"while at least one is overlaid in the same manner with a thin sheet of 
meteoric iron. During these explorations there were found a number of 
terra-cotta tig urines of a character unlike anything heretofore known 

from the mounds, and one 
of these, representing in 
miniature a full length 
figure of a man, leaves 
little doubt that these 
" spool-shaped objects " 
and "bosses" are ear- 
ornaments. In this in- 
stance the ornament is 
distinctly shown as two 
large discs with the lobe 
of the ear between them. 
About thirty of these cop- 
per, and silver and iron- 
plated ear-ornaments were found on one altar in a mound in the Little 
Miami Valley, and in another mound of the same group three pairs were 
discovered with human skeletons, ami in each case one was found on 
the right side and one on the left, near the skull. 

The fact that vegetable fibre and strips 
of buck-skin (preserved by the action of 
the copper) have been found in several of 
these ornaments wound round the central 
axis, or that part of the ornament which 
would come in direct contact with the flesh 
of the ear, is also of importance in the 
conclusion that they are ear-ornaments, 
as the ear was thus protected from the 

Dr. Hildreth mentions that "Two small 
pieces of leather were found lying between 
the places of one of the bosses: they re- 
semble the skin of an old mummy, and 
seem to have been preserved by the sails 
of the copper. v ' Fragments of these bits 
of leather or skin are still with the speci- 
mens, and are represented in fig. 6; they 
are very much changed in structure and impregnated with green car- 
bonate of copper. Without a very thorough histological study, it would 
be impossible to state with certainty that these bits of skin are or are 
not fragments of the car-lobe in which the ornament was inserted, but 
in external appearance and microscopical structure they very closely 
resemble the skin from the ear of a Peruvian mummy. 

In referring to the silver covering on the " bosses" found bv Dr. llil- 



Iron from (lie Oltlo Mounds. 


dreth, Mr. Squier writes "These articles have been critically examined, 
and it is beyond doubt that the copper "bosses" are absolutely plated, 
not simply overlaid, with silver. Between the copper and the silver 
exists a connection such as, it seems to me, could only be produced by 
heat; and if it is admitted that these are genuine remains of the Mound- 
builders, it must at the same time be admitted that they possessed the 
difficult art of plating one metal upon another. There is but one 
alternative, viz: that they had occasional or constant intercourse with a 
people advanced in the arts, from whom these articles were obtained." 

In all this I must differ from the distinguished writer to whom Ameri- 
can archaeologists are more indebted than to any other one person. A 
careful study of the llildreth specimens, and also of the silver and iron- 
covered specimens in the Peabody Museum, lias shown conclusively 
that the plating has been done simply by covering the outer surfaces of 
the objects with thin sheets of the overlaid metal, which were closely 
united to the copper simply by pounding and rubbing, and by turning 
the edges over and under the slightly concave edge of the copper foun- 
dation. This method was followed in all the objects from the mounds 
and stone-graves, where thin layers of native copper, silver, or iron, 
have been connected with one another, or when copper or silver have 
been used to cover beads and discs made of wood. 

These ear ornaments exhibit a degree of skill in working the native 
metals of copper, silver and iron, simply by hammering, which is con- 
clusive evidence of the advance made by early American tribes in orna- 
mental art. The method of their manufacture seems to have been 
somewhat as follows : A circular piece of native copper l was formed 
Fig. 1). 

Fltr. 10. 

Portions of Copper Ear-ornament a from an 
altar in a Mound in the Little Miami 
Valley, Ohio. 
Fig. I), rimer strengthening pieces of Copper. 
Fig. 10. Inner parts .showing the central hollow rivet at a. 

by hammering, probably over a wooden pattern, into the concavo-cou- 
vex form shown in the several figures. Two such circular pieces 

1 Among the important material, already referred to, from an altar in 
a mound in the Little Miami Valley, explored tor the Peabody Museum 
during the past season, were two halves of these ornaments made of 
meteoric, or native, iron, instead of copper as in all other specimens of 
which we have knowledge. 

35G American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

formed the two outer portions of the ornament. To the inner side of 
these, either roughly shaped circular pieces or cross bars, fig. !), were 
closely fitted by hammering, and over these, in some instances, another 
circular piece was lined. Through all these pieces a central hole was 
punched, through this a cylinder of copper was passed, the ends of 
av hi fell were expanded and closely hammered down, firmly uniting the 
two principal concavo-convex pieces together. In some specimens this. 
hollow rivet was clinched so as to unite all the inner pieces together, as 
shown in fig. 10, and through it vvas^passed another and more delicate 
cylinder which held the two outer pieces in place. The outer pieces 
were then most carefully hammered and rubbed until the expanded 
edges of the central rivet were so closely united to them as hardly to be 
traced, or, as is more often the case in the more than thirty specimens 
I have examined, the two outer pieces were carefully overlaid by thin 
sheets of native copper, silver, or iron, forming a plating like the one 
covered with silver, obtained by Dr. Ilildreth, and now in the collection 
of this Society. Around the central axis vegetable fibre, bits of buck- 
skin, or other material, was probably wound to protect the ear from 
contact with the copper. As already stated, such wrappings have been 
preserved on several of the specimens. In the drawing representing 
the silver-covered specimen from the Marietta mound, the several parts 
are indicated by letters. 

To insert one of these ornaments, a slit, equal in length to the diame- 
ter of the ornament, would have to be made in the lobe of the ear, but 
whim we recall the immense size of the slits made in the ears by some 
Indians, those necessary for the insertion of these ornaments become 
very slight in comparison. 

Dr. Ilildreth, in his account of the objects from the Marietta mound, 
writes about the next to receive attention as follows : — " Near the side 
of the body was found a plate of silver, which appears to have been the 
upper part Of a sword scabbard: it is six inches in length and two in 
breadth, and weighs one ounce; it has no ornaments or figures, but has 
three longitudinal ridges, 1 which probably correspond with edges, or 
ridges, of the sword. It seems to have been fastened to the scabbard 
by three or four rivets, the holes of which yet remain in the silver." 

Figures 11, 12, represent, of full size, the two sides of this supposed 
" ornament of a scabbard." As stated by Dr. Ilildreth, it is made of 
pure silver. It was formed by hammering a mass of native silver into 
a thin sheet about live and a quarter inches long by four in width, which 
was then folded over so that the two ragged edges met along the centre 
of the under or llattened side, making a baud which would cover an 
object about half an inch thick ami one ami three-quarters in width. 
Along these ragged edges six small holes have been punched. The 

'It is strange that the discrepancy between this account and the fig- 
ures given in the Arclueologia, and also by Squier, which represent the 
band with tive ridges, has not been noticed. 


Iron front the Ohio Mounds. 


Fig. 11 

Fig. 12. 

Silver Jland or Ornament. Krulii the Marietta Mouiul. Hg. 11, under, lial 

surface; Ug. L2, upper, corrugated portion, 
four near the ends are nearly opposite to each other, while the two near 
the central portion are placed one slightly above the other. These 
holes were -probably intended for the purpose of fastening the edges 
together by strings, or else for securely fixing the baud to some other 


American Antiquarian Society. 



the opposite surface are the three longitudinal elevations, 
with two deep corresponding de- 
pressions between thou, Which 
could have been easily made by 
using a round stick (See flg. 13.) 
The smooth cut made at upper cor- 
ner oil the under side, is evidently 
where a piece of the metal has 
(1 i rum Mound been cut oil' for examination since 
it was found. 

Opposite surfaces of Copper Kami, from Mound in franklin, Tom. 


Iron from the Ohio Mounds. 


In the Fifteenth Report of the Peabody Museum, p. 10G, I have given 
a description of an ornament almost identical with this in shape aud 
size, but which was made of native copper. It was found in the same 
mound in Tennessee with the two ear-ornaments already referred 
to. For the purpose of showing the similarity of the silver and 
copper bands the figures of the Tennessee specimen are here repro- 
duced as figures 14, 15. 

In the account of the specimens obtained from the mound in Cincin- 
nati explored in 1794, to which 1 *! have already referred in connection 
with the ear-ornaments, Col. Sargent describes and figures 1 a similar 
corrugated band made of copper, which is nearly identical in size with 
the one of silver obtained by Dr. Hildreth. 

Col. Sargent's description of this copper baud is as follows : — " Fig. 10. 
A piece of sheet or plate copper, which seems to have been wrought 
into an ornament for the hair; this, however, only conjecture : No. 1 
shows the back aud folding parts with four perforations. No. 2 is 
intended to give an idea of the other side, which is swelled longitu- 
dinally into three pipes or divisions. The remains of some smaller 
pipes enclosed and now almost mouldered away, seem to destroy the 
idea of its being originally meant as a mere hair ornament." 

The "smaller pipes enclosed and almost wasted away" were very 
likely portions of the inner layers of the copper separated by oxidation 
of the metal. The figure given in the Philosophical Transactions 
probably represents the object more as the discoverer supposed it 
appeared when perfect, as the edges and surface are altogether too 
even and smooth for a piece of copper containing other pieees which 
had " almost wasted away." The suggestion that the ornament was 
one for the hair is worthy of consideration, as in one of the terra-cotta 
figurines from the altar of a mound in the Little Miami valley, to which 
I have already referred, the hair is represented as done up in three 
parallel plates crossing the back of the head, just as it would appear 
were the hair passed through such a corrugated band as here described. 
In the specimen from a mound in Tennessee there were the remains of 
pieces of wood from which fact I was led to believe that the copper 
band may have been fastened to wood and attached as an ornament to a 
belt or some other part of the dress of its owner. 

To these three specimens I have now the opportunity of adding a 
fourth. This is made of meteoric iron, and was found in the mass of 
materials from the altar of a mound in the Little Miami Valley to which 
allusion has several times been made. It is represented of full size in 
tig. 16, and was made by hammering a mass of meteoric iron, in the 

•Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. IV., p. 
180, figs. 10 1 , 10*. 1799. 


American Antiquarian Society. 


same way that masses of silver and copper were hammered in making 

the three already mentioned. 1 

It is worthy of note that all 
four of these corrugated bands 
of identical pattern were found 
assoeiated with stud-like ear- 

The next object from the 
Marietta mound is mentioned 
by Dr. llildreth as follows: — 
" Two or three broken pieces 
of a copper tube were also 
found, tilled with iron rust. 
These pieces, from their ap- 
pearance, composed the lower 
end of the scabbard, near the 
point of the sword. No sign 
of the sword itself was dis- 
covered, except,the appearance 
of rust above mentioned." 

These pieces of "a copper 
tube" are represented of full 
size in fig. 17, and consist of 
fragments of a small copper 
cylinder, or bead, such as have 
been very often found in the 
mounds and in graves in vari 
ous parts of the country. In 
my article on copper objects 
in the Peabody Museum,'- sev- 
eral lots of similar cylindrical 
copperheads are described and 

Valley, Ohio. thin piece of hammered native 

copper upon itself, and the one from the Marietta mound is no exception 
to this method of manufacture. In this specimen the copper has 
changed to a red carbonate, and has become very brittle from oxida- 
tion. In places, particularly in the fragment shown on the right of the 
figure, the surface is covered by a green carbonate of copper and here 
and there bits of charcoal aud other extraneous materials have been 

1 A full account of the interesting group of mounds in the Little 
Miami Valley, with descriptions and illustrations of the many objects 

found, will be given in the memoir prepared jointly by Dr. C. L. 
and myself and to be published by the Peabody Museum. 
2 Fifteenth Report, Cambridge, 1882. 




Iron from the Ohio Mounds, 


united to the copper during it*? change to the carbonate. The central 
portion of the cylinder has been crushed together and the portion on 
the left, of the figure has been broken lengthwise into two pieees. 

Fig. 17. 

Broken Bead or Cylinder of Copper. From tin: Marietta Mound. 

Not a particle of iron rust could be found in the folds and eavities of 
the bead, and it can hardly be doubted that the oxide of copper was 
mistaken by Dr. Hildreth for oxide of iron. 

In this instance we see how easily it is to let our imagination run 
away with our facts. Not a shadow of a sword can be traced in this 
connection; the point of the supposed scabbard is a common copper 
bead; the supposed upper part of the scabbard is an ornament of a 
particular pattern, of which three others almost identical in shape are 
known from other mounds; and the "bosses "or supposed ornaments 
of a sword belt are ear-rings. Yet for over sixty years archaeologists 
have had the mythical swords from the Marietta and Circleville mounds 
held over them as proofs that all the mounds were of recent date, and 
that these in particular were erected after contact of the Indians with 
the whites. 

Dr. Ilildreth's account continues " Near the feet was found a piece of 
copper, weighing three ounces. From its shape it appears to have been 
used as a plumb, or for an ornament, as near one of the ends is a 
circular crease, or groove, for tying a thread; it is round, two inches 
and a half in length, one inch in diameter at the centre, and half an inch 
at each end. It is composed of small pieces of native copper, pounded 
together; and in the cracks between the pieces, are stuck several pieces 
of silver; one nearly the size of a fourpenny piece, or half a dime. 
This copper ornament was covered with a'coat of green rust, and is- 
considerably corroded. A piece of red ochre, or paint, and a piece of 
iron ore which has the appearance of having been partially vitrified, or 
melted, were also found. The ore is about the specific gravity of pure 

The copper "plumb" mentioned by Dr. Hildreth and here repre- 
sented as fig. 18, is a very interesting specimen, and is the only instance, 
so far as I know, of copper having been used in making objects of this 
character. Hundreds of similar form, made of different kinds of stone, 
and of hematite, have been found in mounds or on the surface all over 
the western and southern states, occasionally in New England, and 
have been generally classed as sinkers, although I am personally more 
inclined to regard many of them as having been used for other pur- 



American Antiquarian Society, 


poses. It would hardly seem probable that a material of the value of 
copper for ornamental work and for cutting implements, would have 
been used for sinkers for uets or fishing lines when stones would answer 
equally well; and the adaptability of an article for a particular use is 
not always a safe guide in determining its character. Such objects as 
these were as well if not better fitted for use in stretching the threads 
over the frame of a hand loom in weaving, and we now know that the 
builders of the mounds were good weavers. They also could have been 
enclosed in skins and used as v slung-shots, or many of the smaller sizes, 
like this one of copper, could well be classed as personal ornaments. 
FlG. 18. Whatever may have 

been the use of this 
particular specimen it 
is of interest as having 
been made by pound- 
ing together an arbor- 
escent mass (not bits 
as stated by Dr. Hil- 
dreth) of native copper 
containing native sil- 
ver, and such a mass 
was probably derived 
from the copper region 
of Lake Superior, in 
which place the two 
metals occur thus as- 
sociated in arborescent 
or foliated masses. 
The silver therefore 
Copper Ornament or Implement from the Marietta ... oc ,. 1 ., 1 k. 1 kiv ,, ,, s„ 
Mound. The white portions at lower end ivpre- u^ Piuu.iUJj noiin- 
sent the silver as seen from opposite sides. serted in the cracks of 

the copper, as supposed by Dr. liildreth, but is in its natural position 
in the mass, and has simply been pounded and shaped with the copper. 

Red ochre, mentioned in the last quotation, is often found in mounds 
and in graves, not only in America but in other parts of the world as 
well, and is the universal red paint of man in past times. 

The statement that a piece of " iron ore" was found in the mound 
is one of great interest, now that we know from the discoveries of the 
past year that the peculiar and malleable qualities of meteoric iron 
were known to the builders of the group of mounds in the Little Miami 
Valley, and it is unfortunate that, while the other articles mentioned iu 
the account are now in the cabinet of the Society, this iron ore can not 
now be found. Mr. Squier, in quoting Dr. Hildreth's statement, 
considers that the ore was a piece of polished hematite, but he does not 
state that he examined the specimen, lie simply puts the word 
hematite in brackets after the words " iron ore," and the word 

1883.] Iron from the Ohio Mounds, 363 

polished after the quotation of the word "vitrified." As lie states 
distinctly that he examined the silver plated " boss," he may also have 
seen the "iron ore," and as he was familiar with implements and 
ornaments made of hematite he may have examined the specimen and 
correctly designated its character in this way. He however puts a 
question mark after his insertion of the word "polished" which leads 
me to conclude that he had not seen the specimen. In its absence, 
however, it is useless to attempt to discuss its true character, although 
the probability is that it was hematite, which is often found in the 
mounds ; but there is a possibility that it was a small mass of meteoric 

In this paper I have endeavored, in the proper spirit of scientific 
criticism, to call attention to the misconceptions of these early writers 
in relation to the interesting and important discoveries and observa- 
tions which they made; not with the view of finding fault with what 
they wrote, but with a hope that their misconceptions, now that their 
statements are compared with the facts obtained in later years, and 
corrected in the light of recent discoveries, will no longer stand in the 
way of the correct interpretation of the story of the mounds, which we 
are now able to read with clearer eyes than in the days when nearly 
every fact observed was thought worthless unless it could be immedi- 
ately accounted for, and the unknown became intelligible by the applica- 
tion of the power of the imagination. 



364 American Antiquarian Society. [April,. 




An interesting letter from Dr. Emil Schmidt, of Essen, Prussia, to 
our associate, Mr. F. W. Putnam, in the Fifteenth Annual lieport of the 
Peabody Museum, p. 01), describes the present appearance of some 
ancient steatite quarries at Chiavenna, about ten miles north of the head 
of Lake Como, where cooking utensils, closely resembling those for- 
merly made in large quantities by the natives of various parts of our own 
country, have been manufactured from very remote times. The traces 
of ancient workings occur in the sides of a deep cutting made in the 
14th century to isolate the so-called Paradiso, and form an impregnable 
citadel out of a mountain spur over-looking the little town. Chiavenna 
lias always been regarded as .one of " the keys of Italy," since it com- 
mands the outlet of three important Alpine passes, the Spliigcn and the 
Septimer, which were used in the times of the Romans, and the Maloja, 
leading directly into the Engadine. This accounts for the execution at 
this place of works upon such an extensive scale as this cutting. Dr. 
Schmidt says : " Probably there existed a smaller ditch a long time 
before; this would be shown by the engraved Latin name SALVTVS in 
the upper part of the western wall. Also it is known that the Gauls 
had fortified the Paradiso already before the time of the Romans. Pot- 
stones may have been broken there since that time, and their manufac- 
ture may have been continued until the achievement of the ditch. Of 
course the stone-pot manufacture was most nourishing in the district in 
the first centuries of our era, and at Plurs [just east of Chiavenna ] it 
continued until 1618, when this place was totally destroyed and covered 
by the falling down of Mount Conto [ConteJ. Still soap-stone pots are 
now manufactured to a certain extent, at Lazanda [Lauzada], in the 
Malenco valley, near Sondrio.'' 

In a description of a steatite quarry upon the island of Santa Catalina, 
formerly worked by the Indians of southern California, by Mr. Paul 
Schumacher in the Eleventh Annual Report of the Peabody Museum, p. 
259, he also traces the fabrication of cooking utensils out of soap-stone 
back to a very remote ..period, lie says: "The stone of which this 
utensil for culinary purposes, and some other articles of our Indians 
were worked out, has been well known and in use for like purposes 


1883.] Notes upon Ancient Soap-Stone Quarries. 3G5 

since the classic times of Thcophrastus and Pliny. The magnesian stone 
(iuuyi7;Ttt; XlQoq), and the kind quarried at Siphnos and Comuin — the lapis 
ollaris of a later period— of which in ancient times vessels were hol- 
lowed out in the turning-lathe and carved, coincide in nature and com- 
position with the pot-stone of our Indians. The stone is steatite and is 
usually of a greenish grey color." The reference to Pliny will be found 
in his " Natural History," book 30, chapter 44 : "At Siphnos there is a 
kind of stone, which is hollowed ami turned in the lathe for making 
cooking utensils anil vessels for keeping provisions; a thing that to my 
own knowledge is done with the green stone of Comum, in Italy." 

When we call to mind that Pliny, if not a native of Como, certainly 
had a villa upon the shores of the lake, where he spent a great deal 
of time, it seems not an unreasonable inference that these ancient stea- 
tite workings at Chiavenna, where a Roman inscription may still be 
read, are the identical quarries to which he refers. I have never met 
with an instance of the use of the phrase "lapis ollaris " in a classic 
author, and am inclined to think it merely a rctranslation of the French 
expression " pierre ollaire." This, or simply "ollaire" according to 
Larouse, Diet, sub vac, is the name given to a variety of stone from 
which sauce pans ( marmite, olla) are made, from which the name is 
derived. The material is commonly called "stone of Como," as the 
most important sources of its supply are there. 

Prof. Baird, of the Smithsonian Institution, first directed attention to 
the site of a soap-stone quarry worked for similar purposes by the 
Indians of our own country. This is at Chula, Amelia Co., Virginia, 
and it has been thoroughly explored and described by Mr. F. 11. Cash- 
ing in the Smithsonian Report for 1878, p. 45. Mr. Putnam in his 
Eleventh Annual Report of the Peabody Museum, p. 273, gives a very in- 
teresting account of a similar quarry examined by him in the town of 
Johnston, R. I., with a description of the method of manufacture of the 
vessels; and Mr. Elmer R. Reynolds describes with full details another 
locality in the District of Columbia, Twelfth Annual Report of the Pea- 
body Museum, p. 520. Prof. Baird states that " since the discovery of 

the Virginia quarry similar sources of aboriginal supply have 

been discovered in Rhode Island, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Pennsyl- 
vania, Tennessee, Georgia, Alabama and Wyoming," Smithsonian Report 
for 1878, p. 40. It does not appear, however, that they had any knowl- 
edge of the quarries at Francestown, N. II., and at Grafton, Vt., from 
which the material is principally obtained at the present time in this 




Abbott, John S. C, 314. 

Accessions to the library, number 
of, 3, 31, 136, 270. From the 
sale of the library of Joseph J. 
Cooke, 277, 278. 

Achillea s, a chamberlain of Flavia 
Domitillq, 10, 18, 21. 

Ackermann, Rudolph, 58. 

Acoloaques, the, 210, 228. 

Acosta, Joseph cle, 208, 224. 

Adams, Herbert B., 33, 137, 262, 

Adams, Samuel, 2G5, 311. 

Agassiz, Alexander, his travels in 
Mexico, 237, 239. 

Aguilar, Marcos de, 340. 

Alden, Rev. Noah, the writer of 
the third article of the Massa- 
chusetts Bill of Rights, 249. 

Alden Fund, 53, 158,^297. 

Aldrieh, P. Emory, 143. Elected 
a Councillor, 102. Reports, for 
the Council, a new by-law, 103. 

Alger, William It., 316. 

Allen, Charles, 315-317. 

Allen, George, 248, 316, 317. Trib- 
utes to, 265, 299. 

Allen, James, 171. 

Allen, Joseph, of Northborough, 
302, 317. 

Allen, Joseph, of Worcester, 304 n., 
311-313, 317. 

Allen, Samuel, 304 n., 312. 

Allen, Samuel, Jr., 315. 

Amandeville, the family of, 232. 

American Academy of Arts and 
Sciences, 278. 

American Antiquarian Society, ex- 
changes of duplicates in the 
library of, 36, 37. Rules and 
regulations for the use of the 
library, 37. Its collection of 
coins and medals, 37, 38. Mem- 
bers of the Library building 
committee of 1852, 38. List of 

officers elected October 21, 1882, 
102, 103. The cabinet of curi- 
osities in the library, 280. The 
change in the hours of open- 
ing and closing the library, 

.281. "Proceedings," cited, 67. 
"Transactions" cited, 350-352, 
356, 360, 361. 

American Board of Commissioners 
for Foreign Missions, 110. 

American Philosophical Society 
"Transactions," cited, 359. 

Ames, Ellis, 137, 143. 

Animidown, Holmes, 137, 274. 
Tribute to, 268, 269. 

Ampliatus, Aurelius, 23, 24. 

Aneona, Desiderio, 34. 

Ancoua, Eligio, 136. 

Andrew, Gov. John A., 7. 

Andrews, Benjamin, 304 n. 

Andros, Sir Edmund, 166, 171. 

Annual meeting of the Society, 
October 21, 18b2, 101. 

Appleton, John, 185. 

Aristotle, 54, 60, 71, 76. 

Arnold, Thomas, 58. 

Ashton, Thomas, 57. 

Atwater, Caleb, his statements in 
regard to iron found in the Ohio 
mounds, 349-351. 

Auditors, see Davis, Edward L., 
and Chase, Charles A. 

Austin, Samuel, ul3. 

A vila, Gil Gonzalez de, 208. 

Ayme, Louis 11., 237, 242. Elected 
a member, 2. Presents a Paper 
entitled "Notes on Mitla," 82-100. 


Bacon, Francis, 54, 61, 63, 69,74, 
76, 165, 180. His "Case of the 
Post Nati," cited, 163. . 

Bacon, Leonard, 302. 

Baud, Spencer F., 305. His " Cir- 
cular No. 2, addressed to the 
friends of the United States 
National Museum," cited, 132. 


American Antiquarian /Society. 

Baker, George, 233. 

Baldwin, Christopher C, 315. 

Baldwin, John I)., 31. 

Ball, Phinehas, 320. 

Baltimore Committee of Safety, 
1774, the manuscript Journal of, 
in the Library of Congress, 12G. 

Bancroft, Aaron, 301, 302, 304, 307, 
312, 318. His discourse before 
the Second Congregational So- 
ciety, Worcester, April 8,' 1827, 
cited, 302, 308? His discourse 
delivered Jan. 31, 183G, cited, 
308, 300. Inscription on the 
monument of, 319. 

Bancroft, George, 73, 302, 310, 310. 
Elected Vice-President, 102. The 
publication of his " History of 
the Formation of the Constitu- 
tion of the United States of" 
America," 114. His letter oil'er- 
ing to establish a Bancroft schol- 
arship for the city of Worcester, 
317, 318. His " History of the 
United States," cited, G8, 1G5, 

Bancroft, Hubert H., 240. His 
"Native Races of the Pacific," 
cited, 334. 

Bancroft, Lucretia Chandler, 318. 
Inscription on the monument of, 

Bandelier, Ad. F., his " Notes on 
the Bibliography of Yucatan and 
Central America," cited, 84. 

Bangs, Edward, 304 n., 312. 

Bangs, Edward D., 315. 

Barlow, Thomas, G4. 

Barnard, John, 304 n. 

Barrington, Dailies, his " Obser- 
vations on the Statutes," cited, 
1G3, 165 n. His " Miscellanies," 
cited, 344. 

Bartlett, John II., 102. 

Barton, Edmund M., 1, 3, 101, 108, 
137, 247. Presents the Report on 
the Library, 31-39, 13G-145, 270- 
282. His promotion to the Li- 
brarianship, 253. 

Barton, Mrs. Maria Bullard, 27G. 

Barton, William S., 143. 

Baxter, Richard, 60. 

Bayard, Colonel Nicholas. 

Baye, Baron de, 80. 

Baye, France, 80. 
Beale, John, G4. 
Bedingheld, Col, 65-67. 
Behring, Vitus, 342-344, 34G. 

Belcher, Gov. Jonathan, 190. 
Bell, Charles 1L, 31. 
Belsham, William, 310. 
Bentley, Richard, 58, G3, G9, 71. 
Bercndt, Carl Hermann, his ser- 
vices in Mexican linguistics, 

202 «., 20G n. 
Berkeley, George, Jiishop, 04. His 

famous ode, 116. Extracts from 

his Letters, 117. 
Bienville, Jean Baptiste Lemoine, 

Sicur de, 321. 
Bigelow, Andrew, 311. 
Bigelow, Clara, 311. 
Bigelow, David, 304 n., 311. 
Bigelow, George Tyler, 311. 
Bigelow, .John P., 311. 
Bigelow, Timothy, 304 n., 311, 313. 
Bigelow, Timothy, of Medford, 311. 
Bigelow, Tyler, 311. 
Bigmore, Edward C, 129. 
Billings, John S., 141. 
Birch, Thomas, 72. His '-Life of 

Robert Boyle," cited, 5G, 57, 59- 

62, 64, 65, 08, 70, 73, 77. 
Bird, Frederick M.. his collection 

of hymn books, 3G. 
Biuvile, Humphrey de, 58. 
Black>tone, /Sir William, 105. His 

"Commentaries," cited, 103. 
Blaine, Ephraim, the manuscript 

record books of, in the Library 

of Congress, 126. 
Blair, Francis P., 130. 
Blake, Ellis Gray, 304 n. 
Blake, Francis, 315. 
Blake, Harrison Gray Otis, 37, 275. 
Bodega, Don Juan Francisco de la, 

Bodell, AVilliam, 65. 
Body of Liberties, cited, 165, 

Boerhaave, Herman, 69. 
Bond, Henry, his " History of 

Watertown," 312. 
Bookbinding Fund, 51, 156, 295. 
Bosio, Antoine, 10, 12 n., IS ><. 
Boston, the Memorial History of, 

cited, 109, 179 n. 
Boturini Benaducci, Lorenzo, 203 

»., 210. 
Boulton, Richard, 72. 
Bourgmont,. M. de, 333. 
Bourne, Richard, 65. 
Bourne, General, the manuscript 

Journal of, 1776, in the Library 
of Congress, 126. 
Bowne, Jacob T., 142. 




Boyle, Charles, 58. 

Boyle, James, 58. 

Boyle, John, oS. 

Boyole, Ldoviek, 58. 

Boyle, Richard, 58. 

Boyle, Robert, 2,54,55. A Study 
in Biography, by Charles O. 
Thompson, 54-79. His History 
of the Air, 60. Eleeted President 
of the Royal Society, 61. His 
" Sceptical Chemist," cited, 5(5, 
57, 76. His '^Life of Philaretus," 
cited, 58, 59? His " Proemial Es- 
say," cited, 62, 63. 

Boyle, Roger, 58. 

Bradbury, Mary, 184. 

Bradstreet, Capt. Simon, 173. 

Brande. Augustus Everard, 63, 78. 

Brasseur de Bourbourg, Able, 205, 
213, 220. His statement of 
Mexican Chronology, 197 n. 

Brazcr. John, 312, 316. 

Brazer, Samuel, 304 n., 312. 

Brewster, JSir David, his "Memoirs 
of Newton," cited, 57. 

Bridge, Samuel, 304 n., 307. 

Britton, Johannes, his "Treatise 
of the Law," cited, 164. 

Brinton, Daniel G., 272. His col- 
lection of ancient Maya litera- 
ture, 201 n. His collection of 
the manuscripts of the late Dr. 
Berendt, 272. 

Broca, Paul, 80. 

Brock, Robert A., 137. 

Brown, Edwin, 320 

Brown, Henry William, 316. 

Brown, Benjamin, 189, 190. 

Brownlow, W. It., 12 n., 15, 30. 

Brunner, D. B , 140. 

Bryce, James, elected a member, 2. 

Buache, Phillippe, 339, 341, 342, 
346. His "Considerations Geo- 
graphiques," cited, 347. 

Buckle, Henry Thomas, 78. His 
" History of Civilization in Eng- 
land," cited, 63, 71. 

Buel, Harriet, 111. 

Bullivant, Benjamin, his- " Diary," 
cited, 171 n. 

Bullock, A. George, 320. 

Bullock, Mrs. A. George, 314. 

Bullock, Alexander H., 315. His 
death noticed, 7, 8. His paper 
on the Centennial of the Massa- 
chusetts Constitution, 7. 

Burgess, Daniel S., 38. 

Burgoa, Francisco de, 82, 84, 96, 

97. His description of Mitla, 
from his " Geogralica Descrip- 
cion de la Parte Septentrional del 
Polo Artico de la America," 84- 
88. 94, 95, [)V. 

Burlington, Lord, 72. 

Burnap, George W., 316. 

Burnet, Bishop Gilbert, 10, 11, 59, 
60, 63-65, 67, 71. 

Buruside, Samuel M., 315. 

Burrage, Alvah H., 275, 276. 

Burrill, Jolin, 185 

Burroughs, George, 184, 191. 

Buschmann, Johann Carl Eduard, 
203, 204. 

Bustamante, Carlos Maria tie, 224. 
His edition of Gomara'.s " His- 
toria tie las Conquistas de Her- 
nando Cortez," etc., cited, 95. 

Butler, James 1)., 136. 

Butler, Simon, 303 n. 

Butinan, Benjamin, 304 n. 

By-Laws oi* the Society, an ad- 
ditional article adopted, 103 

Byles, Elizabeth, 189. 

Cabeca tie Vaca, Alvar Nunez, 333. 

Caldwell, Augustine, 33, 139. 

Caldwell, John D., 131). 

Calef, Robert, 173. 

Canlield, Mrs. P. S., 140. 

Cantieltl, Miss P. W., 140. 

Carlisle, George, Uh Earl of, his 
"Diary in Turkish and Greek 
Waters," cited, 109. 

"Carl's Tour in Main Street," 302. 

Caroehi, Horacio, 201 n. 

Carpenter, William B., 75. 

Carr, Lucien, 333. 

Carrier, Martha, 184. 

Carter, Nathaniel, Jr., 303 n. 

Castaneda, Don Jose, 95. 

Caswell, Alexis, 5. 

Catacombs, Recent Excavations in 
the Roman, Article on, by Egbert 
C. Smyth, 8-30. Plan of the 
more important, 28. 

Cerro de las Juntas, the ruins of, 

Chadwick, David, 304 n. 

Chalcacatongo, the cave of, 84. 

Chalmers, Alexander, 74. 

Chalmers, George, the Continua- 
tion of his "Political Aunals," 
cited, 162. 

Chandler, Charles, 304 n., 312. 



American Antiquarian Society. 

Chandler, Clark, 304 w., 312. 

Chandler, George, 273, 314, 315. 

Chandler, John, 303 »., 313. 

Chandler, Deacon John, 314. 

Chandler, Lucretia, 312. 

Chandler, Mary, 312. 

Chandler, Peleg W., his " Amer- 
iean Criminal Trials," eited, 170, 
178 n. 

Chandler, Sally, 312. 

Chandler, Samuel, 30-1 «., 312. 

Chandler, William, 312. 

Channing, William Ellery, 310. 

Chandler, Wiuthrop, 304 n., 312. 

Chapin, Eli, 504 n. 

Chapin, Henry, 2G2, 315. 

Charles II., of England, 63, 05, 08, 
70, 73. 

Charlevoix, Pierre Francois Xavier 
de, his "Journal of a voyage to 
North America." cited, 345. 

Charnav, Desire. ( J7. 

Chase, "Charles A., 137, 272, 302. 
Elected a member of the Com- 
mittee of Publication, 3, 103. 
Certilicate as Auditor, 53, 158, 

Chauvet, Dr., 81. 

Check ley. Anthony, 170. 

Cheever, Ezekiel, 191. 

Chester, Joseph L., 233, 234. 

Chevalier, Edouard, elected a mem- 
ber, 108. 

Chiavenna, Main, 304, 305. 

Chichen-ltza, Yucatan. 97, 98, 220. 

Chichimeeas, the, 217, 219, 228. 
The Epoch of tin-, 198, 199. 

Child, David Lee, 311. A silver 
medal awarded to, for the first 
beet sugar made in America, 141. 

Child, Lydia Maria. 311. 

Child, Zachariah, 311. 

Chimalpopoca, Galicia, 197 n. 

Choate, Capt. John, 191, 192. 

Cholula, Mexico, 200, 221. 

Christians, the Roman Catacombs 
proved to have been the work of, 
11, 12. 

Chula, Amelia County, Virginia, 

Clallin, Horace B., 315. 

Clap, Daniel, 304 n. 

Clarendon, Henry, Earl, 05, 00, 08- 

Clarke, James Freeman, his Lec- 
tures before the Lowell Institute 
on the Roman Catacombs, 10. 

Clarke, Robert, 31, 130, 273. 

Clarke, William B., 279. 

Clemens, Titus Flavins, 17, 19, 24. 

Codex Chimalpopoca, 197, 213, 215. 

Codex Mendoza, 222 n. 

Codex Tro, 212. 

Codex Vaticanus, 199 «., 207 n.,212. 

Cogolludo, Diego Lopez de, 22G n. 

Coke, Sir Edward, 103, 105. 

Colburn, John, 303 n. 

Colburn, Nathan, 303 n. 

Colburn, Nathaniel, 303 n. 

Collection and Research Fund, 50, 
155, 295. 

Colhuas, the, 213. 

College of William and Mary, be- 
quest of Robert Boyle to, 08. 

Colton, Reuben, 108, 253, 277. 

Columbus, Christopher, 55, 225. 
His association with the port of 
Palos, 159-101. His "Diary," 
cited, 101 n. 

Coinum, Italy, 305. 

Cook, Capt. James, 344. 

Cooke, Joseph J., his bequest to 
the Society, 252. The sale of 
Part First of the library of, 277. 
Accessions from the sale of the 
library of, 277, 278. 

Copper Implements from Mexico, 
Notes on, by F. W. Putnam, 235- 
240. Cuts of, 230, 238, 239, 241, 

Corey, Francis, 303 n. 

Cork, Richard, Earl of, 57. 

Coronado, Francisco Vasquez de, 

Corporation for the Propagation of 
the Gospel and the Conversion 
of the American Natives in New 
England, 05. 

Cortez, Hernando, 202, 213, 235, 

Cory, Giles, 184. 

Cory, Martha, 184, 180. 

Cotton, John, 305. His "Abstract 
of the Laws of New England," 
cited, 100. 

Cotton, John, of Plymouth, 05. 

Council of the Society, members 
of, elected October 21, 1882, 102. 
Annual report of , 108-135. Semi- 
annual report of, 3-30. 251-209. 
Action and resolutions of the, on 
the death of Isaac Davis, 299, 

Cox, Thomas, Oo. 

Coxe, Daniel, his " Description of 
Carolana," cited, 335. 



Cradock, Gov. Matthew, 180. 

Crane, Caroline, 111. 

Creasy, Sir Edward, his "Memoirs 
of Eminent Etonians," cited, Gl, 

Crocker, Mrs. Hannah Mather, 143. 

Crosse, Robert, 74. 

Cubas, Antonio Garcia, his Map of 
Mexico, 212 h. 

Cudworth, John, G4, G9. 

Curtis, David, 312. 

Curtis, Ephraim, 312. 

Curtis, George, 312. 

Curtis, George William, 312. 

dishing, Frank 11., 365. His visit 
to the library with the Zufii In- 
dians, 4, 5. 

Gushing', Thomas, 191. 

Olivier, Georges Leopold Chretien 
Frederic Dagobe'rt, his " Progres 
des Sciences Naturelles," cited, 
71, 72. 


Dablon, Claude, his "Relation," 
cited, 335. 

Dall, Mrs. Caroline EL, 33. 

Dalton, John, 75. 

Dana, James 1)., 235. 

Danl'orth, Samuel, 188, 191. 

Davenport, Lemuel, 303 n. 

Davis. Andrew McF., 137, 249. 
Elected a member, 2. Presents 
a paper on "The Journey of 
Moncacht-Ap6," 321-348. 

Davis, Edward L., 32, 274. Certifi- 
cate as Auditor, 53, 158, 298. 

Davis, Hasbrouck, 3, G 

Davis, Horace, 3, G, 343. 

Davis, Isaac, 5, 38, 248. Additions 
to his alcove of Spanish-Ameri- 
can books, 3, 31, 32, 274. Elected 
a Councillor, 102. His death an- 
nounced, 2GG. Sketch of the life 
of, 2GG-2G8. Action of the Coun- 
cil on the„ death of, 299, 300. 
Resolutions upon the death of, 

Davis, Gov. John, 315, 31G. 

Davis, John, acting Secretary of 
State, 277. 

Davis, John C. B., 315. 

Davis, Joseph E., 320. 

Davis Book Fund, 49, 52, 157, 29G. 

Dean, John Ward, 3(5. 

Deane, Charles, 1, G7 »., 272. Elect- 
ed Secretary of Domestic Cor- 

respondence, 103. Elected a 
member of the Committee of 
Publication, 103. 

De Hart, J. N., 81. 

Delaware, original documents of 
the State of, 1G80-1794, in the 
Library of Congress, 12G. 

Descartes, Rene, 63, 76. 

Dewey, Francis II. , 137, 272, 320. 

Dexter, Franklin B., 137. 

Dexter, Henry M., 32. 

Dickinson, Stuart. 34. 

Dickson, David, GO. 

Diez del Castillo, Bernal de, 200, 
235. His " Historia de la 'Con- 
qiiista de la Nueva Espafia," 
cited, 200 n. 

Diocletian, the Emperor, 23. 

Dionysius, Bialiop of Home, 12. 

Dodge, Richard C.'hls "Our Wild 
Indians," cited, 333. 

Domitian, (he Emperor, 17. 

Domitilla, plan of the catacomb 
of, 29. 

Donne, John, 12G. 

Donors and Donations, list of, 40- 
48, 14G-153, 283-293. 

Drake, Daniel, his "Picture of 
Cincinnati," cited, 353. 

Dresden Codex, 212, 237. 

Dumont, George Marie Butel, 341, 
345-347. His account of the story 
of Moncacht-Ape, 33G-3;i8. His 
"Memoires sur la Louislane," 
cited, 341. 

Dunbar. Charles F., G. 

Dupaix, Guilliermo, 95, 237, 240, 
242, 245. 

Dupout. E., 80. 

Duron, Diego de, 199 /<., 224. Manu- 
script of his " Historia Antiqua 
de Nueva Fspana," in the Libra- 
ry of Congress, 127. 

Dury, John, G2. 

1) wight, Joseph, 191, 102. 

Dwight, Theodore F., notes in re- 
lation to the manuscripts in the 
library of the Department of 
State," 134, 135. 

Dwight, Timothy, his estimate of 
Ex-President Woolsey, 3, 4. 


Eames, Rebecca, 184, 185. 
Earle, John Milton, 27G. 
Earle, Pliny, 33, 141, 275. 
East India Company, G4, 65, 74. 


American Antiquarian /Society. 

Easty, Mary, 184. 

Edmund's, George F., his tribute 
to George P. Marsh, 112. 

Eels, Rev. Mr., 8 n. 

Eliot, John, 65. His Indian Bible, 
GG, G7, GO. 

Eliot, John, son of the Apostle, G5. 

Ellis, George E.,"l, 12 «., Ill, 137. 
Remarks on errors in the history 
of Witchcraft in Massachusetts, 
104-106. His suggestion as to a 
system o£ library exchange, 248. 

Ellis, Henry, his " Voyage to Hud- 
son's Bay," cited, 347. 

Elwell, Edward H., 130. 

Eniei'son, Ralph Waldo, 113. 

Ennnerton, James A., 34. 

Endieott, Gov. John, G8, G9. 

Engel, Samuel, 332 n., 33G n. His 
" Memoires et Observations Geo- 
graphique," etc., cited, 345 n., 
34 G n. 

English, Philip, 185, 186. 

Epes, Col., 18G, 191. 

Epicurus, GO. 

Eusebius, 17. 

Evans, John, 235. 

Evelyn, John, 64, 73. 

Everett, Edward, 111. 

Ewell, Benjamin S., 68 n. 


Fairfield, William, 188, 100, 191. 

Earns worth, David, 3<)3 n. 

Farr, Samuel, 75. 

Faulkner, Abigail, 182, 184. 

Faulkner, Francis, 182. 

Fen ton, Sir Geoffrey, 57. 

Fernandez, Garcia, 161. 

Fiiield, Maria, 189. 

Finlay, George, 278. 

Fischer, Heinrich, 136. 

Fitch, John, 131. His manuscript 

papers and letters, 1784-94, in 

the Library of Congress, 127. 
Fitcli, Thomas, 18G. 
Fitzherbert, Sir Anthony, his 

" Natura Brevium," cited, 1G4. 
Flagg, Benjamin, 304 )i. 
Flagg, Samuel, 304 n. 
Flavia Domitilla, the wife of 

Clemens, 15, 17-19, 22-24. 
Fletcher, William I., 270. 
Folsom, Albert A., 275. 
Font 6, BarthelemG de, 339, 342. 
Force, Peter, manuscript material 

of. in the Library of Congress, 
. 127. 

Fosdick, David, 31G. 

Foster, Mrs. Abby Kelley, 276. 

Foster, Ann, 184. 

Foster, Alfred Dwight, 315. 

Foster, Dwight, 2, 315. Elected a 
Councillor, 102. 

Foster, Thomas, 191. 

Francestown, New Hampshire, 365. 

Franklin, Benjamin, the acquisition 
by the Department of State of 
the papers of, 128-130, 135. 

Franklin, Sir John, 131. 

Franklin, William Temple, 129. 

Freeman, James, 309. 

French and Indian Avar, manu- 
scripts relating to the, in the 
Library of Congress, 126. 

French Academy of Sciences, 73, 

Frobisher, Sir Martin, 131. 

Frothingham, Richard, 2G2. 

Fuca, Juan de, 340. His Explora- 
tions on the Pacific coast, 335. 

Fullerton, Samuel, 304 n. 

Furness, William II., 3, 6. 


Galileo, 58. 

Gardner, Mr., 191. 

Gates, William, 304 n. 

Gay, Miss Mary C, 275. 

Georgia, State Papers of, 1735- 

1780, in the Library of Congress, 

Germanicus, the Emperor, 23. 
Gibbon, Edward, 17. 
Gibbs, George, 327, 334 n. 
Gigedo, Revilla, 95. 
Gillman, Henry, 80, 81. 
Glanville, John, 56, 74. 
Gleanings from the sources of the 

history of the Second Parish, 

Worcester, Massachusetts. By 

Samuel S. Green, 301-320. 
Goddard, Delano A., his death 

noticed, G, 7. 
Goddard. Jonathan, one of the 

founders of the Royal Society, 

Gomara, Francisco Lopez de, 207 n. 
Gomez, Santos, 82. 
Good, Sarah, 184. 
Goodrich, Charles A., 314. 
Goodwin, Isaac, 315. 
Goodwin, John, 304 n. 
Gookin, Daniel, 6'.). 
Goulding. Daniel, 3o4 »., 311, 312. 
| Goulding, Frank P., 314, 320. 



Goulding, Ignatius, 304 n., 311, 312. 

Goulding, Palmer, 304 n., 311, 312, 

Grafton, Vermont, 365. 

Graham, George, 58. 

Grand, Anthony le, 71. 

Gray, Horace, 202. His "Reports," 
cited, 1('»7. 

Greatrakes, Valentine, 61. 

Green, Benjamin, 304 n. 

Green, John, 312, 313, 315, 31G. 

Green, John Richard, 73. 

Green, Samuel A., 32, 102, 137, 271. 
Eleeted a, Councillor, 102. Pre- 
sents a copy of the rules and 
regulations of an inoculating 
hospital maintained in Worces- 
ter County during the Revolution, 

Green, Samuel S., 137, 248, 279, 
315, 320. Presents a paper on 
" Gleanings from the sources of 
the history of the Second Parish, 
Worcester, Massachusetts," 301- 

Green, Thomas, 346. His "Remarks 
in support of the New Chart of 
North and South America," cited, 
339, 340. 

Green, Thomas, 3, 4. 

Green, William E., 316. 

Green, William N., 316. 

Greene, J. Evarts, 140. 

Greene, Gen. Nathaniel, the manu- 
script letter books of, 1781-82, 
in the Library of Congress, 126. 

Greenhow, Robert, 344. His "His- 
tory of Oregon," cited, 332. 

Greenwill, Canon, librarian of the 
Cathedral Library, Durham, Eng- 
land, 231. 

Gregory the Great, Pope, 20. 

Griffin, Cyrus, 119. 

Grotius, Hugo, 65. 

Guericke, Otto, the inventor of the 
air-pump, 77. 

Gunning, Peter, 71. 

Gwosdew, the Navigator, 343. 


Haak, Theodore, one of the found- 
ers of the Royal Society, 74. 

Hale, Edward E., 4, 103, 104, 248, 
272, 317. Elected a Councillor, 
102. Elected a member of the 
Committee of Publication, 103. 
His service in acquiring the 

Franklin papers for the Depart- 
ment of State, 130. His paper 
entitled " A Visit to Palos and 
Rabida," 159-161. 

Hale, John, 187 n. 

Hale, Sir Matthew, his "History 
of the Pleas of the Crown," 
cited, 163, 164. 

Hall, Charles Francis, 131. 

Hall, Edward P., 315, 317. 

Hall, Edward IL, 32, 302, 315-317. 
Elected a Councillor, 102. Elect- 
ed a member of the Committee 
of Publication, 103. 

Halley, Edmund, 59. 63, 64. 

Hamilton, Alexander, his manu- 
scripts in the Department of 
State, 135. 

Hamlin Cyrus, elected a member, 

Hardcastle, Samuel, 303 n. 

Harris, Clarendon, 137, 315. 

Harvard College, bequest of Robert 
Boyle to, 68. Gift of Bishop 
Berkeley to, 117. 

Haven, Jason, 315 n. 

Haven, Samuel, 315 u. 

Haven, Samuel F., 36, 38, 270, 281, 
315. An alcove selected for the 
library of, 34. The desk of, 34. 
The payment of the legacy of, to 
the Society, 49. His work for 
the Society. 258, 259. Books 
from his library placed in the 
alcove of, 275. 

Haven, Samuel P., Jr., 140. 

Haven, Mrs. Samuel F., 139, 274. 
Her gift to the Society of a car- 
pet for the ollice, 3, 34, 39. 

Haven Fund, 49, 53, 155, 158, 298. 

Hay nes, Henry W., 2, 102, 250. His 
theory of the true site of "the 
seven cities of Cibola," 5. "Notes 
upon the perforated Indian Hu- 
merus found at Concord, Mass.," 
80, 81. "Notes upon ancient 
Soap-stone quarries worked for 
the manufacture of Cooking 
Utensils," 364, 365. 

Hazard, Ebenezer, his " Historical 
Collections," cited, 66 n. 

Healy, Jedediah, 304 n. 

Heard, Sir Isaac, 233. 

Heard, Nathan, 304 n. 

Hedge, Frederick H., 316. 

Hennepin, Louis, his " Description 
of Louisiana." cited, 333. 

Herbert, Edward, 126. 


American Antiquarian Society. 

Hersey, Charles, 302. 
Hertburn, William do,. 232, 233. 
Herzog, Johann Jakob, 12 n. 
Heywo.od, John II., 31G, 317. 
Heywood, Phineas, 304 n. 
Higginson, Francis, 141. The por- 
trait of, 102. 
Higginson, John, 188 n. 
Higginson, Thos. Wentworth, 102, 

137, 111. 
Higginson, Waldo, 141. 
Highmore, Nathaniel, 71. 
Hildeburn, Charles R., 275. 
Hildreth, Samuel P., his statements 

in regard to iron found in the 
Ohio mounds, 349, 350, 354, 350, 

Hill, Alonzo, 272, 301, 302, 31G. 
His Discourse preached August 
22, 1830, cited, 300. 

Hill, Hamilton Andrews, 2G2, 270. 

Hitchcock, Edward, 137. 

Hitchcock, Henry, elected a mem- 
ber, 2. 

Hoadley, Loainmi I., 314. 

Hoar, Dorcas, 184, 185. 

Hoar, George F., 32, 101, 100, 137, 

138, 143, 271. Elected Vice- 
President, 102. Reads the Re- 
port of the Council, 108-145. 
Notice of Bancroft's "History 
of the Formation of the Consti- 
tution of the United States of 
America," 114, 115. An account 
of the materials for historical 
study accessible at Washington, 

Hoar. Leonard, 08, 00. 

Hobbs, Abigail, 184. 

Hocfer, Ferdinand, 75. 

Holbrook, Abia, 101, 192. 

Holmes, Abiel, 317. 

Hoist, Hermann von, elected a 

member, 103. 
Hooke, Robert, 59, 01, G4, 09, 77. 
Hooper, William R., 0. 
Hosmer, Titus. 119. 
Houghton, Lord, 100. 
How, Elizabeth, 184. 
How, Joel, 304 n. 
Huastecas, the, 205, 200, 220. 
Hubbard, Thomas, 191, 192. 
Hubbard Brothers, Messrs., 34. 
Huclva, Spuin, 159-101. 
Huematzin, the man toith the great 

hand, 212, 213. 
Hughes, John, 09. 
Humboldt, Alexander von, 72. 

Hume, David, his "History of 
England," cited, 55, 73, 74. 

Humerus. Note upon the perfor- 
ated Indian Humerus found at 
Concord, Mass. By Henry W. 
Haynes, 80, 81. 

Hun ne well, James F., 141, 273. 

Huntington, William R., 137, 138, 
273. Elected a Councillor, 102. 

Ilutchins, William, 173. 

Hutchinson, Gov. Thomas, 163, 
his "State Papers," cited, 68. 
His " History of Massachusetts," 
cited, 102. 

Huxotzincas, the, 219. 

Hyde, Thomas, 04, 65 n. 


Icazbalceta, Joaquin Garcia, 199 n. 

"Independent," the, cited, 4. 

Index of the " Proceedings," the 
preparation of, by Stephen Salis- 
bury, Jr., 108. 

Indian Bureau, records in the, 123. 

Iirgersoll, Samuel B., 3, 7. 

Interior, records in the Department 
of the, 123. 

Iron from the Ohio Mounds, an 
article on, by F. W. Putnam, 

Irving, Washington, 101 n. 

Itza, cuts of a supposed figure of, 
from Dr. Le Plongeon's collec- 
tion of Yucatecan Sculpture, 227, 

Itzamal,' Yucatan, 220. 

Itzcohuatl, the king, 217. 

Ixtlilxochitl, Fernando de Alva, 
198, PJ0.M., 207 n., 209-214, 222. 
His " Relaciones Historicas," 
cited, 210, 211. 


Jackson, Andrew, his manuscripts 
in the Library of Congress, 130. 

Jackson, James, 101. Elected a 
member, 103. 

Jacob, George, 184. 

James, Elea/.er, 315. 

James II. of England, 03, 70. 

Jefferson, Thomas, his manuscripts 
in the Department of State, 135. 

Jefferys, Thomas, 340. 

Jeffries, John, 190, 

Jenks, William, 256. 

Jennison, Samuel, 315. 




Jenuison, William, 304 »., 312. 

Jeremie, M., his ''Relation du De- 
troit ct de la Baie de Hudson," 
cited, 347 n., 348 n. 

Jewett, Nehemiah, 185. 

Johnson, Esther, 117. 

Johnson, Micah, 304 n. 

Johnson, Capt. Timothy, 189, 190. 

Johnson, William, 304 ft. 

Johnson, William W., 139. 

Johnson's Cyclopaedia, GO. 

Johnston, Rhode Island, 3G5. 

•Jones, Charles C, Jr., 137. 

Jones, John Paul, his manuscripts, 
177G-1778, Ui the Library of Con- 
gress, 12G. Letters of, in the 
Department of State, 129. 

Justice, records in the Department 
of, 123. 


Kabah, Yucatan. 97. 

Kaempfer, Engelbert, 345. 

Kendall, Amos, 130. 

Kendall, Jonas, 303 u. 

Kendall. Timothy, 303 n. 

Kettell, John P., 317. 

King, Horatio C, 27G. 

King-, Jonas, an account of his 

case against the Government of 

Greece", 109-111. 
Kingsborough Collection, 199 ft., 

224; ib. cited, 240 
Kinney, Benjamin H., 274. 
Kinnicutt, Thomas, 315. 
Knight's Cyclopaedia, 74. 
Knowlton, John S. C, 31G. 


Lacy. Mary, 184, 185. 

Laiitau, Joseph Francois, 334. 

La llontan, Baron de, 340. 

Lam son. Alvan. 315 n. 

Landa alphabet, 195 

Las Casas, Bartolome de, 199 ft., 
207 n., 22G n. Manuscripts of 
his " Uistoria de Indios," and 
" Historia Apologetiea de. los In- 
dios Occidentales," in the Library 
of Congress, 127. 

Lavoisier, Antoine Laurent, 71, 72, 

Lawrence, Abbott, 2G2. 

Lawrence, Mrs. Abbott, 311. 

Lawrence, Major, 192. 

Lawton, Capt., 191. 

Legatt, Robert, 303 n. 

Legatt, Thomas, 303 n. 

Leggatt, Mayaban, 303 n. 

Leguay, , 80. 

Lebinitz, Gottfried Wilhelm, 57. 

Leisler, Jacob, 170, 171. 

Leominster, Mass., the order of the 
General Court establishing the 
Parish of the Rev. John Rogers, 

303 n. 

Le Plongeon, Augustus, . cuts of 
figures from his collection of 
Photographs of Yucatecan Sculp- 
ture, 227, 229. 

Leucippus, the Philosopher, 60. 

Leverett, Gov. John, G9. 

Librarian, the appointment of Mr. 
Barton as, 253. 

Librarian's and General Fund, 50, 
155, 294. 

Library of Congress, the, its col- 
lection of English county histo- 
ries and genealogies, 124, of 
County Visitations, 124, 125, of 
copies of English manuscripts, 
125, its manuscript treasures of 
the Colonial and Revolutionary 
period, 12G, 127, its tiles of news- 
papers, 127. its general collection 
of genealogies and local his- 
tories, 128, of publications of 
learned Societies, 128. 

Library of the Society, report of 
the "Librarian, April 2G, 1882, 
31-39. October 21, 1882, 13G-145. 
April 25, 1883, 270-282. Number 
of volumes in the, 251. Its facili- 
ties for study, 253. Its present 
and future requirements, 254- 

Libres, M., his " Histoire Phil, du 
l'rogres de la Physique," cited, 

Lieou-Tchou, China, 343. 

Lincoln, Abraham. President, 111. 

Lincoln, Abraham, of Worcester, 

304 ft., 312. 
Lincoln, Calvin, 31G. 
Lincoln, 1). Waldo, 315. 
Lincoln, Enoch, 31G. 
Lincoln, John W., 315. 

Lincoln, Levi, the elder, 304 n., 305, 

310, 311, 313. 
Lincoln, Gov. Levi, 38. 302, 314. 
Lincoln, Hon. Solomon, his death 

noticed, 5. 
Lincoln, Col. Solomon, elected a 

member, 2. 


American Antiquarian Society. 

Lincoln, Mrs. Waldo, 314. 
Lincoln, William, 302, 315. His 

Council Report of 183!), cited, 

111, 145. His "History of Wor- 
cester," cited, 302, 311. 
Lincoln, William S., 34. 
Lincoln Fund, 52, 154, 157, 297. 
Linus, one of (he Roman bishops, 16. 
Lisle, Joseph Nicholas de, 339, 341, 

Literary and Historical Society of 

Quebec, 348. 
Locke, John, 54-56, GO, 63. 
Lockyer, Joseph N., 78. 
Lodge, Henry Cabot, 32, 137, 138. 
Loring, Rev. Israel, his Election 

Sermon, 1737, cited 187. 
Lovering, Joseph F., 34. 
Louisiane, the Relation de la, cited, 

Lowell, James Russell, his "New 

England two Centuries . ago," 

cited, 179, 180. 
Lower, Richard, 77. 
Lucina, 25. The crypt of, 15. 
Lundy, Dr., his "Monumental 

Christianity," cited, 11. 
Luut, William P., 317. 



Macaulay, Thomas B., his " 
tory of England," cited, 133. 

Maccarty, Nathaniel, 315. 

Maccarty, Thaddeus, 304 n., 312. 

Madison, James, his manuscripts 
in the Department of State, 134. 

Maldonado, Laurent Ferrer, 339, 

Malte Brun, Victor Adolphe, 205 n. 

Mann, Elias, 304 n. 

Marchena, Prior, 161. 

Marcy, Randolph 13., his "Prairie 
Traveller," cited, 333. 

Mariotte, Edmund, 77. 

Marquette, Jacques, his " Relation 
des Voyages," cited, 335. 

Marsh, Charles, 109. 

Marsh, George P., notice Of the 
death of, 109, tribute to, in the 
Report of the Council, 108-113. 
His services in the case of Rev. 
Dr. King against the Government 
of Greece, 109-11 1. A list of his 
principal published works, 112. 
113. ' 

Marsh, Sidney II., his death no- 
ticed, 8 u. 

Marsh, Susan Perkins, 109. 

Martin, Thomas Henri, 80. 

Martyr, Peter, his " Ocean. Deca- 
dae," cited, 225. 

Mascrier, J. B. le, 339. 

Massachusetts, Colony of, 66-69. 
Records of, cited, 170. Archives 
of, cited, 172, 173, 174-178, 183, 

Massachusetts Bill of Rights, the 
third article of the, drawn up by 
the Rev. Noah Alden, 249. 

Mather, Cotton, 179, 180, 189. His 
"Declaration enumerating Sun- 
dry Evils to be confessed on a 
Publick Day of Humiliation," 
174, 175. His "Theopolis Amer- 
icana," cited, 184. 

Mather,- Increase, 167, 171, 180, 

Mather, Samuel, of Boston, 189. 

May, Joseph P., 303 n. 

May, Samuel, 276. 

May, Samuel J., 316. 

Mayas, the, 226. The language of 
the, 201. 

Mayer, Brantz, 221. 

Mayhew, Experience, 65. 

McMaster, John B., 276. 

Mejuciro, Don Francisco, Governor 
of Oaxaca, 94. 

Members, election of, 1, 2, 103, 248. 
List of those present at annual 
meeting, 101 ; at semi-annual 
meeting, 247. 

Mendieta, Geronimo de, 199 n. 

Mendo/a, Don Diego, 224. 

Meredith, John, 70^ 

Merrick, Francis T., 315. 

Merrick, Pliny, 315. 

Merritield, Alpheus, 317. 

Metcalf, Caleb B., 34, 275. 

Metcalf, Theron, his "Reports," 
cited, 167. 

Metz, Charles L., 249, 353, 360. 

Mexico, the chronology of, 197, 

Michoaques, the, 219. 

Milboine, Jacob, 171 n. 

Milborne, William, 170, 171, 

Mill, Nicholas, 96. His "History 
of Mexico from the Spanish Con- 
quest to the Present .Era," cited, 

Minnesota Historical Society, 36. 

Mitla. Notes on, by Louis H. Ayme, 
82-100. Measurements and plans 
of the buildings at, 88-99. 



Mixcohnas, the. 213. 

Mommsen, Theodor, 18 n., 29, 30. 
His article in the Contemporary 
Review, 1871, on the Roman 
Catacombs, cited, 19, 20. His 
plan of the Catacomb of Domi- 
tilla, 29. 

Moncacht-Ap6, a paper on the 
journey of, by Andrew McF. 
Davis, 321-348. 

Monk, George, 71, 72. 

Monroe, James, his manuscripts in 
the Department of State, 135. 

Montpensier, Duke of, 161. 

Moody, Joshua, 171. 

Moore. George II. , 104, 106, 143, 
272. Presents a paper, "Notes 
on the History of Witchcraft in 
Massachusetts," 162-192. 

Morgan, Lewis H., his death no- 
ticed, 6. 

Morse, Jedediah, 310. 

Moulin, Peter du, 71. 

Mound-builders, the, 80. 

Mounds, Iron, from the Ohio, an 
article on, by F. W. Putnam, 349- 

Mower, Ephraim, 304 n. 

Miihlenpfordt, Eduard, 99. 

Miiller, Gerhard Friedrich, 342. 

Munsell, Joel, 142. 

Museo Nacional de M6xico, 98. 


Nahoa, Indians, 203, 204, 206-208, 

216, 218-220, 223, 227, 228. The 

language of the, 229. 
Nahuatl language, 201, 204, 208, 

National Museum, Washington, the 

collections of the, 131-133. Its 

scope and plan, 132. 
Navy, records in the Department 

of the, 123. 
Neal, Daniel, 190. His "History 

of New England," 65, 66. 
Neander, Johann August Wilhelm, 

Needham, Walter, 71. 
Nelson, John, 316. 
Nelson, Thomas L., 137, 315. 
Nereus, a chamberlain of Flavia 

Domitilla, 16, 18, 21. 
Nero, the Emperor, 19, 21, 23. 
Newell. William, 317. 
New England Historic, Genealogi- 
cal Society, 255, 

"New England Home Journal," 

New Hampshire, colonial docu- 
ments of, in the Library of Con- 
gress, 126. 

New Hampshire, State of, 278. 

New Jersey Historical Society, 278. 

Newman, Thomas, 191, 192. 

New Plymouth, the laws of the 
Colony of, cited, 166. 

Newspapers, the Society's collec- 
tion of, 143. The Peter Force 
collection of, ib. 

Newton, Isaac, 54-57, 59, 63, 70- 

Newton, Rejoice, 315. 

Newton, Thomas, 170, 171. 

Noel, Father, 77. 

North, S. N. D., 35. 

Northcote, J. Spencer, 12 n., 15, 21, 

Norton, John, 188. 

Notes on Copper Implements from 
Mexico, by F. W. Putnam, 235- 

Notes upon the perforated Indian 
Humerus found at Concord, 
Mass., by Henry W. Haynes, 80, 

Noyes, George R.. 316. 

Noyes, Thomas, 185. 

Nurse, Rebeccah, 184. 


Oaxaca, 82, 84. The Institute of, 

83, 99. 
Ober, Frederick A., his travels in 

Mexico. 237, 241, 242. 
Officers of the Society,, 102, 103. 
Oldenberg, Henry, 56, 67, 73. 
Oldmixon, John, his "British Em- 
pire in America," cited, 190. 
Oliver, Nathaniel, 192. 
Olmecas, the history of the, 201- 

Olemecas and Tultecas. Article 

on the, by Philipp J. J. Valentini, 

Oloman, an ancient chieftain of the 

Quiche tribe, 204. 
Olmos, Andre de, 201 n. 
Ornaments, wood-cuts of silver and 

copper, from the Ohio mounds, 

Orozco y Berra, Manuel, 222 n. His 

services in Mexican linguistics, 

202 n. 


American Antiquarian Society. 

Osgood, Major, 191. 

Ostia, the cemetery of, 15. 

Otis, John, 191. 

Otis, John C, 320. 

Otomies, 220, 221, 228. The lan- 
guage of the, 20G. 

Oviedo y Valdes, Gonzalo Fernan- 
dez de, 199 »., 208. 


Faca, William, 119. 

Paige, Lueius R., 248, 274. 

Paine, Anthony, 804 n., 311. 

Paine, Frederick W., 815. 

Paine, Gardiner, 310. 

Paine, George S., 31 (J. 

Paine, -John, 304 «., 311. 

Paine, Nathaniel, Son of Timothy 
Paine, 304 'w., 311. 

Paine, Nathaniel, 1, 3, 32, 38, 39, 
137, 247, 273, 310. Submits his 
Reports as Treasurer., 49-53, 
154-158, 294-298. Vote passed 
by the Society in reference to his 
illness, 101. Elected Treasurer, 
103. Elected a member of the 
Committee of Publication, 103. 
His examination of the library in 
April, 1873, 251. 

Paine, Timothy, 304 /i., 311, 313, 315. 

Paine, William, 312, 313, 315. 

Palenque, Yucatan, 95, 97. 

Palfrey, John G, his " History of 
New England," cited, 170, 179 n. 

Palmer, Edward, his explorations 
in Mexico for the Peabody Mu- 
seum, 230. 

Palos and Rabida, a visit to, by 
Edward. E. Hale, 159-1(51. 

Park, John, 315. 

Parker, Henry J., 139. 

Parker, Joel, 202. His decision in 
the Dedham case, cited, 305. 

Parker, John Henry, 18 »., 19. 

Parker, Mary, 184. 

Parsons. Mrs. Sarah M.. 141. 

Pascal, Blaise, 77. 78. 

Pasteur, Louis, 75, 7G. 

Patent OhMce, the records in the, 

Paul, the Apostle, 15, 10, 23. 

Peabody, Andrew P., 102 

Peabody, Nathaniel, 303 n. 

Peabody, Susanna, 303 n, 

Peabody Museum. Cambridge, 350, 
355, 359, 3G0, 364. An account 
of copper implements, from the 
Fifteenth Report of the, 23G-243. 

Peet, Stephen D., 136. Elected a 
member, 2. 

Peirce, John, 304 it. 

Peirce, Josiah, 301 n. 

Peirce, Oliver, 304 u. 

Penas, Friar, 344. 

Penn, William, G8. 

People's Club of Worcester, the 
records of, 34. 

Percival, John, first Earl of-JSgmont, 

Perez, SeTior Andres Aznar, 32, 

Perez, Juan, 344. 

Perry, William Stevens, 136. Elect- 
ed a member, 2 

Peter, the Apostle, 16. 

Petro, Titus Flavius, 19. 

Petronilla, daughter of St. Peter, 
18, 20. 

Phalaris, the Epistles of, 58. 

Phillipps, Moses 1)., 310. 

Phillipps, Sir Thomas, his collec- 
tion of privately printed papers 
in the Library of Congress, 124. 

Phillips, Barnet, his "Letters on 
the work of the National Mu- 
seum," cited, 133. 

Phips, Spencer, 191. 

Phips, Sir \Villiam, 107, 171 n. 

Pierce, Daniel, 191. 

Pierson, Abraham, 05. 

Pingry, William S , 139. 

Pinzon, Martin, 159. 

Pliny, 805. 

Plitl, , 12 n. 

Pocoek, Edward, 05. 

Poly carp, St., 24. 

Pond, Enoch, his "Life of Increase 
Mather," cited, 180. 

Poole, William P., 187. His "Witch- 
craft Delusion," etc., cited, 178 n. 
His " Index to Periodical Litera- 
ture," 270. 

Poponet, Simon, 65. 

Populueas, the, 203. 

Porter, Edward G., 107. His arti- 
cle on " An Ancient Document 
of the House of Washington," 

Post, Mary, 184, 185. 

Post-ollice Department, records in 
the, 123. 

Povey, John, 170. 

Powell, John W., 332 n. 

Pratt, Henry S., 3l'0. 

Pratz, M. le Pane du, 333, 334, 336, 
338, 3-10, 342, 345, 310. His story 





of the journey of the Indian, 
Moncacht-Ape, 321-332. His 
" Histoire de laLouisiane," cited, 
340, 343 n. 

Praetextatus, 25. 

Preble, George H., 32, 137, 272. 

Priestly, Joseph, 310. 

Priscilla, the catacomb of, 15, 17. 

Procter, Elizabeth, 182, 

Procter, John, 182, 184. 

Pruner-Bey, Dr., 80. 

Publishing Fund, 51, 164, 156, 279. 
29 G. 

Pudsey, Bishop, Hugh de, 233. 

Purchas, Samuel, 126. His " Pil- 
grimes," cited, 335. 

Putnam, Alfred P., 317. 

• Putnam, Frederick W., 107, 273, 
364. Elected a member, 2. Pre- 
sents a paper, "Notes on Cop- 
per Implements from Mexico," 
235-246. Remarks on the use of 
metals by the mound builders, 
249. Presents a paper on "Iron 
from the Ohio Mounds ; a Review 
of the statements and miscon- 
ceptions of two writers of over 
sixty years ago," 349-363. 


Quatrefages de Breau, Jean Louis 
Arrnand de. His estimate of the 
truth of the story of Moncacht- 
Ape, 321, 332, 343, 346. 

Quetzalcohuatl, 205. 

Quero, Don Felix, 83, 95, 99. 

Quiname, the giants, 199, 200. 

Quiches, the, 224. 

Quincy, John, 191. 


Rabida, the convent of Santa-Maria 
de, 160. 

"Rambler," cited, 72. 

Randolph. Edward, 170, 171 n. 

Ranelagh, Lady, 60. 

Ran, Charles, 33, 137. 

Rawlinson, George, 16 n. 

Read, John, 189. 

Rebellion, soldiers' letters as illus- 
trating the history of the, 140. 

Recent Excavations in Ancient 
Christian Cemeteries. Artiele 
on, by Egbert C. Smyth, 8-30. 

Redi, Francesco, 70, 72. 

Registry of Deeds of Washington, 
records in the, 123. 

Remington, Jonathan, 186. 
Revolution, List of Prize Appeal 

cases during the Avar of the, 120- 

Reynolds, Elmer R., 365. 
Rice, Franklin P., 141. 
Rice, Henry C, 320. 
Rice, Samuel, 304 n. 
Rich, Martha, 186. 
Rich, Thomas, 186, 187. 
Rickets, Don Constantino, 82. 
Robbins, Chandler, tribute to, in the 

Report of the Council, 113, 114. 

List of his principal publications, 

Roe, Alfred S., 36, 139. 
Rogers, Charles O., 315. 
Rogers, Henry, 315. 
Rogers, Horatio, elected a member, 

Rogers, Mrs, James S., 34. 
Rogers, John, of Leominster, 302, 

303 n., 305. 
Rogers, Nathaniel, 303 n, 
Roller, Theophile, 10, 12 n., 30. 

His plan of the more important 

Catacombs, 28. 
Rossi, Giovanni Battista de, 9, 15, 

16, 18 a., 19, 22, 24, 30. Elected 

a member, 2. 
Rossi, Michel de, 14, 15. 
Royal Commission on Historical 

Manuscripts, the work of the, 

Royal Society, 64. Robert Boyle 

elected President, 61. The origin 

of, 73, 74. 
Ruggles, Timothy, 314. 
Rupert, Prince, 64. 


Sabinus, Titus Flavius, 19, 22. 
Sabin, Joseph, his " Dictionary of 

Books relating to America," 87. 
Sagard-Theodat, F., 346. His " Le 

grand voyage du pay des llurons," 

cited, 335. 
Sahagun, Bernardino de, 198, 204- 

206, 215, 222-224, 226, 230. His 

"Hist. Univ. de las cosas de la 

N. Espana," cited, 217-219 
St. Callistus, the cataeomb of, 10, 

14, 19, 25, 26. 
St. Paul, the catacomb of, 15. 
St. Vincent of Lerins, 105. 
Salem, Mass., 104-106. 
Salisbury, Edward E., 33. Presents 


American Antiquarian Society. 

a bronze medal of Ex-President 
Woolsey, 3. 

Salisbury, James H., 33, 130. 

Salisbury, Stephen, the elder, 312, 

Salisbury. Stephen, 33, 137, 138, 
272, 315. 318. President, 1, 101, 
247. Elected President, 102. 

Salisbury, Stephen, Jr., 2, 33, 39, 
82, 106, 115, 137, 138, 237, 239, 
240, 242, 243. 280, 315, 320. His 
Judex to the " Proceedings." 37, 
108. Elected a Councillor, 102. 
Translates from the German an 
article by Philipp J. J. Valentin! 
on the " Olmeeas and the Tulte- 
cas : a study in early Mexican 
Ethnology and History," 193-230. 
The publication of his "Partial 
Index to the Proceedings of the 
American Antiquarian Society," 

Salisbury Building Fund, 39, 51, 
15(5. 290. 

SalstOnstall. Kicharcl, 189. 

Sanderson, Hobert, 04. 

Sandys, George, 120. 

Sam a Catalina, the island of, 3G4. 

Sargent, Joseph, 102, 315. Elected 
a Councillor, 102. 

Sargent, Joseph, Jr.. 320. 

Sargent, Winthrop, 353, 359. 

Sciablese, Duchess clello, 18. 

Schmidt, Emil. extract from a letter 
describing the ancient steatite 
quarries at Chiavenna, Italy, 364. 

Schulzr, Victor, 10. His " Zeits- 
clirift fur Kirch. Wisscnsch." 

. etc., cited, 9. 

Schumacher, Paul, extract from his 
description of a steatite quarry 
at Santa Catalina, California, 
364, 365. 

Scull, Gideon 1)., 276, 277. 

Semi-Annual Meeting of the Soci- 
ety, April 26, 1882, proceedings 
at the, 1, 2; April 25, 1883, 247- 

Sever, William, 312. 

Sewall, Mitchell, 188 n. 

Sewall, Major Samuel, 188 n. 

Sewall, Samuel, Judge, 175 n. His 
connection with the Salem Witch- 
craft delusion, 104. His •« Diary," 
cited, 173, 177. His confession 
of fault for his part in the Witch- 
craft delusion, 176. 

Sewall, Stephen, 188 n. 

Sharpies, Stephen P., 240. 

Shaw, Lemuel, 167. 

Shaw, Peter, his Ed. of Boyle's 
Philosophical Works, cited, 70, 

Shays's Rebellion, 80G. 

Shippen, Hush P., 317. 

Sibley, John L., his " Harvard 
Graduates," cited, 179 n. 

Simonds, James, 303 u. 

Siphnos, Italy, 365. 

Smalley, Elam, 302. 

Smith, Charles C, 137. 

Smith, John, 304 n. 

Smith, Samuel, 73. 

Smith, William A., 137, 280. 

Smith, William W., 275. 

Smithsonian Institution, the col-, 
lections of, 131-133. 

Smucker, Isaac, 136. 

Smyth, Egbert C, 1, 273. Beads 
the Report of the Council, 3-30. 
Becent Excavations in Ancient 
Christian Cemeteries. 8-30. 
Elected a Councillor, 102. 

Snow, Ezra II., 35. 

Snow, Jacob, 304 n. 

Soap-stone quarries, notes upon, 
by Henry W. Haynes, 364, 365. 

Southampton, Earl of, 126. 

Southwick, Mrs. Anne II., 141, 276. 

Spalding, E. II., 35. 

Spangberg, , 347. 

" Spectator," cited, 70. 

Sprague, William B„ 301. His 
" Annals of the American Pulpit," 
cited, 310. 

Sproat, , his " Scenes and 

Studies of Savage Life," cited, 

Squier, E. George, 209, 237, 362. 
His ''Aboriginal Monuments of 
New York," cited, 355. 

Stahl, George Ernst, 78. 

Stanten, John, 304 n., 312. 

Staples, Hamilton B., 33, 138. 

State, records in the Department 
of, 123. The Letters of Wash- 
ington, in the, 128. The acquisi- 
tion of the papers of Franklin, 
128, 129. 

Stebbins, Horatio, 316. 

Stephens, John Lloyd, 206 n. 

Stevens. Henry, 136. 

Stevens, Simon, 243. 

Stilliuglleet, Edward, 64. 

Story, Joseph, 7. 

Stoughton, William, his connection 



with the Salem Witchcraft delu- 
sion, 104. 

Stowell, Abel, 304 »., 311. 

Stowell, Cornelius, 304 /i . , 311. 

Stowell, Ebemzer. 312. 

Stowell, Peter, 304 w.. 312. 

Stowell, Thomas, 304 »., 312. 

Stowers, John, 304 n 

Stryker, William S., 139. 

Stuart, Andrew, 348. His trans- 
lation of the story of Moncacht- 
Ape, 332. 

Sumner, John, 189. 

Supreme Court of the United States, 
the records of the, 118-123. List 
of Prize Appeal cases during the 
war of the Revolution, 120-122. 

Swift, Jonathan, Gl, 117. 

Sydenham, 'Thomas, G4, 71. 

Symonds, Samuel, G9. 

Symonds, Stephen, 303 n., 304. 


Tacitus, Caius Cornelius, 15. 

Tay. Isaiah, 186.' 

Taylor. Edward B., 222 n. 

Taylor, Zachary, 109. 

Tecpanecas, the, 217. 

Tent, Thomas A., the architect of 
the Library, 38. 

Teniente, , 127. 

Tenimes. the, 203, 20G. 

Tcntitlan del Valle. Yucatan, 94. 

Tenncy Fund, 49. 53, 154, 157, 297. 

Teotihuacan. Mexico, 221. 

Teozapotlan, the kings of, 85. 
Description of the house or Pan- 
theon of, 84, 88. The human 
sacrifices of, 8G. 

Thayer, Ebenezer, 263. 

Thayer, John Eliot, 2G3. 

Thayer, Bev. Nathaniel, D.D., 2G3. 

Thayer, Nathaniel, his death an- 
nounced, 2G3. Tribute to, 263- 

Thomas, Benjamin P.-, 255, 315. 
Additions to the alcove of Local 
History, 274 

Thomas, Mrs. Benjamin F., 315. 

Thomas, Elias, 191, 192. 

Thomas, Isaiah, 143,280, 281,304?*., 
311. His " Account of the Amer- 
ican Antiquarian Society," cited, 
25G, 257, 261. 

Thomas Local History Fund, 52, 
157, 297. 

Thomson, Thomas, 71, 78. 

Thompson, Charles 0., 2, 33, 137, 

138, 273. Presents a paper on 

" Robert Boyle, — A Study in 

Biography," 54-79. 
Thompson, Robert, G4. 
Thoivau, Henry 1)., 37. 
Tiffany, Francis, 31 G. 
Tillinghast, C. B., 302,304. 
Tlaloc, the Hod of Rain, 203. 
Tlascalteeas, the. 203-205, 219. 
Tlaxcallans, the, 200 n. 
Tobar, Juan de, 224. 
Tohil, the god. 21G. 
Tonti, Henri de, 336. 
Torquemada, Juan de, 198, 200, 

202, 204, 207 n.. 208, 224. 
Torricelli, Kvangelista, 77. 
Torry, Joseph, 304 n. 
Totonacas, the, 205-207. 
Tower, Horatio N., 38. 
Tracy, Joseph, his " History of 

American Missions," cited, G5 n. 
Trajan, the Emperor, 14. 29. 
Treadwell, William, 304 n. 
Treasurer, see Paine, Nathaniel. 
True, Lieut., 173 
Trumbull, J. Hammond, GO n., 67. 

His " Brinley Catalogue," cited, 

36 Elected Secretary of Foreign 

Correspondence, 102. 
Tufts, Andrew, 304 n. 
Tultecas, the history of the, 209- 

Tultecas and Olmeeas, article on 

the, by Philipp J. J. Valentini. 

Turel. -— , 171. 
Tzendales, the, 223. 


United States Bureau of Ethnologv, 

Upham, Charles W., his "Records 

of Salem Witchcraft," cited, 178 

Upham, William P., 188 n. 
Usher, John, Gij, 67. 
Uxmal, Yucatan, 83, 97. 


Valentini, Philipp J. J., IOC, 237, 
241, 242, 245. Presents a paper 
on " The Olmeeas ami the Tul- 
tecas : a study in early Mexican 
Ethnology and History,'" 193-230. 
His article on " Mexican Copper 
Tools," 235. 


American Antiquarian Society. 

Vancouver, George. 344. 

Valerian, Emperor, 12. 

Van Hehnont, Francis, 78. 

Van Omry, Esther, her bequest to 
Bishop Berkeley, 117. 

Van Voorhis, Ellis, 275. 

Vatican, the crypts of the, 15. 

Vespasian, Emperor, 17-11). 

Veytia y Echevcrria, Mariano Fer- 
nandez tie, 199 >i., 207 u., 210. 
Manuscript of his "Historiadel 
Crimen (16 los Gentes Ameri- 
canos," in the Library of Con- 
gress, 127. 

Virginia Company of London, 
manuscript records of, 1G11>— 24, 
in the Library of Congress, 126. 

Vitzes, the, 227. 


Waldo, Daniel, 312. 

Waldo, Daniel, Jr., 314. 

Walker, John, 304 n. 

Wall, Caleb A., 302. His "Remin- 
iscences of Worcester," cited, 

Wallis, John, 04, 71. 

War Department, records in the, 

Warded, Samuel. 182, 184. 
■ Wardel, Sarah, 182, 184. 

Warden, Samuel, 304 u. 

Ware. John F. W., 310. 

Ware. William, 31G 

Warner, William, 303 n. 

Washburn, Emory, 7, 315. His 
" Sketches of the Judicial History 
of Massachusetts," cited, 170. 

Washburn, Israel, Jr., elected a 
member, 1. 

Washburn, John ])., 2, 107, 137, 
139, 247, 272. Presents the 
Council's recommendations of 
candidates for membership, 103. 
Elected Recording Secretary, ih. 
Presents the Report of the Coun- 
cil, 251-269. 

Washburn and Moen Manufactur- 
ing Company, the, 35. 

Washington, George, President, 134, 
233. Unpublished letters of, in 
the office of the Kegistry of 
Deeds at Washington, 123. His 
manuscript orderly book for the 
year 1778, in the Library of Con- 
gress, 126. His manuscript or- 
derly book during Rraddock's 

expedition, in the Library of 
Congress, 126. 

Washington, John, 233. 

Washington, an Ancient Document 
of the House of. Article on, by 
Edward G. Porter, 231-234. 

Waterston, Robert C, 137. 

Watt, Robert, 74. 

Way, , 171. 

Webster, Daniel, 109, 110, 272. 

Weiss, John, 316. 

Weld, Charles Richard, 74. 

Wencel, Friar, 56. 

Wentworth, John, 35, 275. 

Wesby, Messrs. J. S. & Son, 35. 

Wheatland, Henry, 137, 139. 

Wheeloek, Abel, 303 n. 

Wheeloek, Abner, 303 n. 

Wheeloek, Eleazar, 8 n. 

Wheeloek, Elijah, 303 n. 

Wheeloek, Joseph, 303 n. 

Whewell. William, 71, 78. His 
" History of the Inductive 
Sciences," cited, 54. 

Whipple, Edwards, 317. 

White, David, 303 n. 

White, .lames, 35. 

White, Jonathan, 303 n. 

White, , 171. 

Whitney, Peter, 302. His "His- 
tory of Worcester County," 311. 

Whittlesey, Charles, 136. 

Wild, Sarah, 184. 

Wilder, Abel. 303 n. 

Wilder, David, his "History of 
Leominster," 303, 304. 

Wilder, Thomas, 303 )i., 304. 

Wilkins, John, one of the founders 
of the Royal Society, 73, 74. 

Wilkinson, Ezra, 113. 

Willard, John, 184. 

Willard, Nahum, 304 n. 

Willard, Samuel, 171. 

William III. of England, 63, 70. 

Williams, J. Fletcher, 136. Eleeted 
a member, 2. 

Winsor, Justin, 339 n. 

Winthrop, liov. John, 60. His 
"History of New England," eited, 

Winthrop, Robert C, 272. 

Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, 
"Transactions," cited, 81. 

Witchcraft, mis-representations at- 
tached to the history of, 104- 
106. The number of victims of, 
in Scotland, France, Germany, 
and Massachusetts, 106. Notes 



on the History of, in Massachu- 
setts, by George H. Moore, 1G2- 

Wolburn, Jonathan, 803 n. 

Wolcott, Samuel, 85. 

Woodward, Rufus, 80. 

Woolsey, Theodore I)., the presen- 
tation of a gold medal to, in 
commemoration of the fiftieth 
anniversary of his connection 
with Yale College, 3, 4. 

Worcester, publication of the Rec- 
ords of, 141. "Gleanings from 
the sources of the history of the 
Second Parish, Worcester, Massa- 
chusetts," by Samuel S. Green, 

Worcester County Mechanics As- 
sociation, 35. 

Worcester Eyening Gazette, its ac- 
count of the visit of the Zuhi 
Indians to Worcester, 5. 

Worcester Free Public Library, 35. 

Worcester Lyceum and Natural 
History Association, 280. 

Wotton, Sir Henry, 58. 
Wythe, George, 119. 


Ximenes de la Espada, Don Marco, 
elected a member, 103. 

Yale College, gift of Bishop Berke- 
ley to, 117. 
Yaqui, Indians, 216, 228. 
Young, Edward J., 317. 
Young, , 171. 

Zachila, Yucatan, 95. 

Zaragoza, Don Justo, elected a 

member, 103. 
Zenteno, Carlos de Tapia, 205, 220. 
Zotzils, the, 223. 
Zuili, Indians, 214, 215. Visit of 

a party of the, to the library, 4,